2 In this essay you’llPractice the basic essay structure you learned in Essay One;Learn how to write examples that are not from personal experience;Develop examples using narration and description;Write an essay from a detailed outline.
3 Discussion of TopicThis class is called Composition and Rhetoric—what is this “rhetoric” stuff anyway?More importantly, why do I need to study it?
4 Composition and Rhetoric You’re in a college essay writing class, being trained to write papers correctly so that you can get through other college classes with good grades.As far as that goes, you’re right.
5 But people use language everyday to manipulate and control you. It’s called rhetoric and when people are very good at it, you don’t even know you’re being manipulated and controlled.In fact, often people aren’t aware that they’re using language to manipulate and control—they just think they’re expressing the truth as they see it.
6 Consider the following articles on the Jena Six White Supremacy and the Jena Six: Southern Discomfort:Is Jena Getting a Bad Rap? (click to listen)Lessons from Jena, LAThe Complete Jena Six StoryThe Jena Six
7 They’re all telling the same story, but it doesn’t sound the same.
8 Aristotle believed that All writing is persuasive—we’re always trying to get a point across;And that the techniques we use to get our points across fall into three different categories:EthosPathosLogos
9 Aristotle’s Persuasive Appeals Ethos:We’re persuaded because we trust the persuader (click here for Tiger Woods ad illustrating ethos);Pathos:We’re persuaded because we’ve been emotionally moved (click here for a Save the Children commercial, effective by appealing to your emotions);Logos:We’re persuaded because we’ve been rationally moved (Click here for a Dodge Ram commercial —lots of “facts”).See “Ethos, Logos, Pathos: Three Ways to Persuade” for a fuller explanation:
10 There are more ways to persuade than just those. . . And in Essay Two, you’ll get to explore some of them for yourself.
11 Here’s what you’ll write about: Everyone knows that advertising’s purpose is persuasion, but sometimes we don’t realize how analytically and scientifically advertisers work to figure out how to persuade. We don’t realize to what extent we’re studied like lab rats to determine how best to persuade us.In this essay, I want you to analyze some advertising, either a single ad (print or video) or a group of related ads to determine how the ads persuade us, how they manipulate us into wanting (and buying) things that we probably don’t really need.
12 Step One: Finding and Analyzing the Ads You need to find some ads to use in the essay;At the end of this first section, there’s a list of web sites to visit to view adsYou’ll need to “read” the ad in order to use it in the analysis of your essay, so use the “ad-reading” information on the following screens to make notes while you view the ads:The material on the following screens comes from “’Reading’ Advertisements,” on the Newsweek Education Program (http://www.newsweekeducation.com/extras/ad.php)
13 How to Read an Ad (for the purposes of this assignment, at least) First, figure out what the ad promises—its thesis;Second, determine what kinds of techniques are used to support the promise;Finally, identify the ad’s target audience.
14 In the next series of slides, I’ll talk you through the three steps of reading an ad: Determining the promiseIdentifying the persuasive techniquesDescribing the target audience
15 The Promise: Definition The promise is what is implied or suggested that the product will do for the consumer;Successful ads promise several outcomes;You’ll have to read between the lines often to uncover all the promises.
16 Persuasive Techniques: Definition Persuasive techniques are the methods ads use to persuade consumers to buy a product.Most techniques appeal to our need for a sense of belonging or acceptance.Good ads use a number of techniques, usually more than one in each ad;In general, you can analyze any ad by using Aristotle’s three techniquesBut the next five slides offer a partial list of additional techniques along with their definitions (when needed)
17 Persuasive Techniques: Examples Visual images—look at color and layout in print ads and character casting in video adsPsychological manipulation—be sensitive to ways that the ad tries to get to you feel or actPersuasive words—be sensitive to words chosen for their emotional effectMusic—determine what kind of emotion or reaction the music is attempting to evoke;
18 More Persuasive Technique Examples Humor or cleverness—how are you being manipulated as your laughter distracts you?The Skittles commercialsJust plain folks—appeal to the common, ordinary peopleThe Ocean Spray cranberry juice commercialsVisual imagery—use of people, settings or situations that appeal to consumers.Almost any beer commercialRewards—toys, gimmicks, rebatesThink of kids’ breakfast cereals or computer companies.
19 More Persuasive Techniques Examples Testimonial—use of an expert or famous person to persuadeThe George Foreman grill, Michael Jordan for Hanes underwear;Repetition—idea is repeated over and overThink of radio ads or that bail bond jingle during the 10:00 news:“ , You ring; we spring”;Free or BargainSomething for nothing;Glittering Generality—the slogan is so attractive that the audience doesn’t question what it means—”ultra,” “The American Way.”
20 Still More Persuasive Technique Examples Name calling—two products compared, usually through visuals with one suggested to be superior to the otherAt Burger King® Restaurants, you can always get your flame broiled WHOPPER® Sandwich made your way. We're proud to say that we serve individuals, not billions.Faulty cause and effect, i.e., use this product (shampoo), get this effect (hair like Catherine Zeta Jones)Common sense—appeal to everyday sense of good or bad/right or wrong;Reasoning—appeal through rational logic
21 And Finally, the Last Slide of Persuasive Techniques Examples Transfer techniques: positive feelings about the people in the ad are transferred to the consumer—you’ll be like “them”Bandwagon—everyone is doing it!Sex appeal—this product will make you sexyLove or popularity—this product will make you lovable or popularPower—this product will give you power over othersFame—this product will give you fameWealth—this product will make you seem wealthy
22 The Last Thing to do in Reading an Ad is to Identify the Ad’s Target Audience The target audience can be defined by one or more of the following:GenderSocio-economic statusAgeEthnicityGeographical regionPolitical or ideological stanceEducational level
23 Let’s take notes on an ad Remember the three questions to ask:What’s the promise?What techniques are being used?Who’s the target audience?Click on the picture to go to the video
24 What’s the promise?If you use Craftsman Tools (the tools of Nascar), these tools will transform any project into an exciting and high speed event, like Nascar!Any ordinary Joe (look closely at the mechanic—he’s real ordinary) can be part of this high speed worldThese tools are so special that they’ll elevate the average guy into something special (even without his help).
25 Where will you find the “promise” part of the ad? It comes from you—your own understanding;Try to come up with several to pick from—usually, a good ad makes multiple promises.Once you have the “promise,” then look for how the ad attempts to “prove the promise”: Look for the persuasive techniques used
26 What Techniques Did I Find in this Ad? Humor and surprise, of course;Transfer (fame)—we admire the Nascar drivers and want to share—even a little bit—in their world;The bowling alley is a place that the viewer can probably relate toWatching sports on TVGoing bowling himselfFaulty cause and effectUse these tools and you will create high speed excitement in whatever you’re trying to fixThis exciting world of NASCAR is open to anyone, just plain folks—like that repairman—if you have the right toolsGlittering generality—”The Nascar Tools,” like that’s enough for anyone to know
27 Who’s the target audience? Guys (or women who enjoy participating in manly activities, like watching sports, doing mechanical repairs and owning quality tools)Specifically, guys who watch sports on TV; andGuys who are NASCAR fans;
28 You can do the same sort of analysis with a print ad Just ask yourself, What makes the ad appealing or persuasive?And work through the three questions:What’s the promise?What are the techniques?Who’s the target audience?
29 What’s the Promise?Dasani water will make you a person like this guy, one who lives life fully and needs extreme refreshment.
30 What are the persuasive techniques? Transfer—this guy has just climbed a mountain and wewant to be like him,rugged andoutdoorsyPay attention to thecolors in the ad—mostly blue, whichis a color weassociate with water.The slogan has two meanings.No one can live without water,but the other meaning of justgotta have it--“can’t live without it,”works as well.Look at where thead is set—in thewilderness, whichis pure and natural,like Dasani water.Look at the placementof images onthe page. At theCenter, where the eyenaturally goes, is therefreshing splash ofwater in the guy’sface.Faulty cause & effect—Drink this water andyou’ll have the energy,strength and stamina tobe like this guy.
31 Who’s the target audience? Probably young, active people with enough disposable income to buy their water in pretty plastic bottles rather than drinking it out of the tap;These people are probably health-conscious as well, wanting to carry water with them all the time in order to stay hydrated.
32 Assignment 2.1Keeping in mind your essay’s purpose—to explain how advertising works—I want you to gather five to seven ads, which will ultimately serve as the examples in your essay;It will simplify you work considerably if the ads you select have something in common—all ads for a certain type of product or all ads aimed at a certain group of people or all ads using a certain type of manipulationYou can browse on the Internet for video commercials or search on the Internet for reproductions of ads from magazines or newspapers;You can use print ads, but you’ll have to work out a way that I can see the ads you’re working with, like scanning them or finding them on the Internet;You’ll need to take notes on the ads, asking and answering those three questions.
33 Here are some sites to browse—feel free to use others you find on your own False Advertising: A Gallery of ParodyAll of Your Insecurities Wrapped Up in a Thirty Second Spot The article talks about the negative effects of advertising on women.Women’s Bodies in Sports AdsVery Funny Ads—some of them are a little racyEmerald Nuts--go to videoKontraband—these are pretty tastelessAd Forum—you can only see a couple of ads without subscribing, but they’re good onesClassic TV ads—these are old tv adsAds of the WorldClassic TV Commercial JinglesFunny CommercialsViral VideosSuperbowl AdsAd Access—print ads from magazines and newspapers between This would be a good resource if you are interested in history and want to write on how one can determine a particular culture’s values and world views by looking at the ads produced during that timeMedia and Advertising—Web English Teacher: this is a resource of web sites for teachers who want to do a media unit. Lots of interesting ads and articles, mostly print.Yesterday’s Ads—old magazine adsThe Clio Awards—the academy award of advertisingTV Party-- there are several free pages of old TV ads including video of Most Outrageous Commercials, 60s commercials and Famous Car commercials.Library of Congress—50 years of Coke advertising
35 Once you’ve taken notes on the ads, You should have an idea of the various things advertisers do to persuade;You’ll need to generate a thesis sentence, much like the thesis sentence you wrote for Essay One;Hopefully, you’ve narrowed your scope (so that you don’t have ads from all over the place).
36 Now write the tentative thesis State your subject,Express your opinion about your subject;Preview the points you’ll make in your essay.
37 Examples of Thesis Sentences Cigarette manufacturers convince people to buy their deadly products by suggesting that smoking is refreshing and stress-relieving, by implying that it’s a sexy and mysterious thing to do, and by suggesting that smoking is fun and will make a person popular.Skittles makes its commercials stand out (and its candy memorable) through the use of bizarre situations, shocking premises, and absurdly funny scenarios.Women’s hair care products try to differentiate themselves from one another by using gimmicky attractions, associating the use of their product with sexual success, and appealing to women’s insecurities.Car ads seem to emphasize logos and ethos, but when it comes right down to it, they persuade the buyer by appealing to emotion.Remember that each color in the thesis is a different paragraph in the essay.
38 Once you have a thesis, I want you to write an outline To write the outline,Start with your thesis sentence
42 Once you have a thesis, I want you to write an outline To write the outline,Start with your thesis sentenceThen write your first topic sentenceFollowing the topic sentence, you’ll briefly draft the sentences you plan to use to explain the topic sentence;Ask yourself, “How or why is the topic sentence true?” and then answer that question.
43 I actually ask the question because it helps me focus Notice that I’m answering “how” rather than “why.” It’syour choice.I want you to ask it as well in your outline.
44 Once you have a thesis, I want you to write an outline To write the outline,Start with your thesis sentenceThen write your first topic sentenceFollowing the topic sentence, you’ll briefly draft the sentences you plan to use to explain the topic sentence;Ask yourself, “How or why is the topic sentence true?” and then answer that question.The next item on the outline is the example.The examples are the ads you’ve analyzed.
45 Again, I ask the question to keep myself focused. When you write theessay, you’ll describethe relevant parts ofthe ads as your examples
46 Once you have a thesis, I want you to write an outline To write the outline,Start with your thesis sentenceThen write your first topic sentenceFollowing the topic sentence, you’ll briefly draft the sentences you plan to use to explain the topic sentence;Ask yourself, “How or why is the topic sentence true?” and then answer that question.The next item on the outline is the example.The examples are the ads you’ve analyzed.The final item in the outline is the warrant—What’s your point?
48 Once you have a thesis, I want you to write an outline To write the outline,Start with your thesis sentenceThen write your first topic sentenceFollowing the topic sentence, you’ll briefly draft the sentences you plan to use to explain the topic sentence;Ask yourself, “How or why is the topic sentence true?” and then answer that question.The next item on the outline is the example.The examples are the ads you’ve analyzed.The final item in the outline is the warrant—What’s your point?Then you repeat the same pattern for the next two paragraphs in the outline.
49 You can click on Outline Template to get an RTFversion of this slide.
50 Assignment 2.2Submit an outline of Essay Two no later than midnight, Sunday, September 30th;Once I’ve approved the outline, then you’ll be free to compose your essay next week.
51 You’re going to have questions on this one: Start early andStay in touch!