Presentation on theme: "Review Have out a list of the patterns of organization for persuasive speeches of policy."— Presentation transcript:
Review Have out a list of the patterns of organization for persuasive speeches of policy.
1. What pattern of organization is being used in the following? I.Alcohol-related traffic accidents kill more college age people than any other single problem. II. Drinking and driving is a social problem that is caused by peer pressure, inconsistent laws, and irresponsible actions. III. You can help combat this problem by taking three simple steps.
2. What pattern of organization is being used in the following? I. This nation faces a serious crisis of voter apathy. II. You must register, study and vote to contribute positively to the process. III. You must act because in a nation where everyone votes responsibly we would achieve the vision of intelligent discussion of issues and candidates who are held accountable. [visualization!]
3. What pattern of organization is being used in the following? I. Lax security in the ISU dorms threatens the safety of undergraduates. II. Keeping residence hall entrances locked 24-hours a day will make ISU students safer.
4. What pattern of organization is being used in the following? I. We could escape the state budget deficit by cutting funding for state services and for state universities. II. We could escape the state budget deficit by reducing pay to all state employees through furloughs. III. The best way to escape the state budget deficit is through raising the state’s income taxes.
Moving from analysis to proof Methods of Persuasion
Aristotle: Greek teacher/scientist (384-322 B.C.) Student of Plato Teacher of Alexander the Great Author of over 170 works; 30 of which survive His work, the Rhetoric, is widely regarded as the most important work on persuasion ever published.
Aristotle asked: how do we come to believe something or to believe we should act in a certain way in the absence of knowing “the truth”? Ethos--”ethical,” credibility appeal Pathos--”pathetic,” emotional appeal Logos--”logical,” rational appeal
Three Types of Support Material Examples Statistics Testimony Pathos Logos Ethos
Best when ethos, logos and pathos all work together. Easiest way to accomplish this? Include testimony and statistics and examples as you build your case.
Logos, Ethos and Pathos in the Bone Marrow Speech The statistics and other evidence in the problem section help ground the logos/rational appeal of the speech. The fact that she is part of the registry, her experience in the process of donating and her evident research build the ethos/credibility appeal. The stories of need, the simplicity of the process, the examples of lives saved, and the “you can make a difference” appeal establish the pathos/emotional energy of the speech.
Logos, Ethos and Pathos in the Driving Age Speech Structure and evidence give a strong logos/rational appeal. Personal connection to tragedy, confidence in delivery, adapting to audience give a strong ethos/credibility appeal. Personal story, translated numbers, intense conclusion give a clear pathos/emotional appeal.
The Building Blocks Strong Analysis: Problem, Plan, Practicality Evidence / Supporting Material using Ethos, Logos and Pathos Statistics, Examples, Testimony Reasoning Principle Specific Instances [generalization] Analogy Causal Audience Connection— With Content: Mental Dialogue With Structure With Delivery
Analyzing “Bursting the Antibacterial Bubble” Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that the federal government and consumers must act to deal with the problems created by the use of antibacterial household problems. Central Idea The use of antibacterial household products is creating health and environmental problems that require action by government and consumer alike.
Sample Speech on Antibacterials Attention— Compares plotline of movie Boy in the Plastic Bubble with the overuse of antibacterial produces. Credibility Studied antibacterial products in public health class Read research on the topic Topic revealed..yes Relating to the audience Before I learned more I used these products and my survey shows that 70% of you do too. Language use of “you” “we” “ourselves” Preview These products create more problems than they solve. We’ll look at some solutions.
Building the Persuasive Speech I. Use of antibacterial products causes many serious problems. A. Their use is widespread. B. They are not effective. C. They increase the chance of getting sick. D. They harm the environment. II. The problems of antibacterial products can be solved through actions by the federal government and consumers. A. Government must regulate antibacterial products. B. Consumers, you, should stop using antibacterial products.
Problem Issue: Evidence Use of Antibacterials is widespread. Statistic Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics says 75% of liquid soaps and 33% of bar soap are AB. Brief examples (shows products) Boston Globe reports other large items like mattresses. Testimony from New York Times “the biggest marketing coup since bottled water.”
Problem Issue: Evidence Antibacterials are not effective Study by Elaine Larson, assoc. dean of the Columbia School of Nursing shows statistical evidence Study by Eric Kupferberg, assoc. director of the Harvard School for Public Health offers testimony. Dr. Larson testimony Cold and flu are from viruses not bacteria, so these products can’t prevent those diseases
Problem Issue: Evidence Antibacterials can increase illness. Testimony from Stuart Levy, prof. of microbiology and medicine at Tufts. Testimony from Dr. James Chin, research scientist from South Wales. Low dose exposure to bacteria and viruses keeps us healthy. Testimony from Dr. Myron Genel, Chair of the AMA council on scientific affairs. Antibiotic resistant bacteria are untreatable
Problem Issue: Evidence Antibacterials “appear to harm the environment” Testimony, Rolf Halden of Johns Hopkins reports on antibacterials in the water supply. Testimony U.S. Geological Survey reports antibacterial chemicals in remote water. “These chemicals are known to pollute the water supply, disrupt fish reproduction and growth.” [???]
Plan & Practicality Issue Federal legislation should regulate the use of antibacterial products. FDA regulates antibiotics by requiring prescription from a doctor so they can regulate this. You should stop buying these products. Centers for Disease Control testimony says you can keep germs away by using regular soap. Study at U North Carolina found hand washing to be more effective. Sickbert-Bennet, public epidemiologist, testimony that it is more practical since you wash away germs rather than rubbing them into your skin.
Appeals in Antibacterial Speech Ethos Lots of testimony with clearly identified and credible sources Obvious personal concern Pathos Personal concern; esp. antibiotic resistance and environmental issue “throwing our money away” Logos Central appeal of this speech Antibacterials can’t kill the viruses that cause disease; don’t work; cause harms
Read the following passage out loud. FINISHED FILES ARE THE RE- SULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIF- IC STUDY COMBINED WITH THE EXPERIENCE OF YEARS.
Reasoning: deduction & induction Deduction: arguments that run from general to specific; they are characterized by necessity. Induction: arguments that run from specific to general; they are characterized by an inductive leap.
Classic form of Deduction: the syllogism The U.S. Constitution guarantees citizens the right to vote. Women are citizens. The U.S. Constitution guarantees women the right to vote.
Induction & Deduction Argument in yesterday’s Daily that the Supreme Court should rule that lethal injection is inhumane. Sodium pentothal wears off before death causing extreme pain. Trapped prisoner cannot speak. Texas has banned the use of these drugs to put dogs and cats to sleep. The example of Angel Diaz..took 37 min. and two injections and he was conscious for 24 minutes. And so lethal injection is not humane. INDUCTION
Deduction or Argument from Principle There is no form of execution that can be made humane. Lethal injection is a form of execution. Lethal injection can not be made humane.
The Enthymeme: Assumes that the audience will supply a part that is missing. She’s a girl; she can’t throw the ball. Girl’s can’t throw balls. He’s a man; he won’t stop to ask directions. Men won’t stop to ask directions. The people of Iraq are intelligent people, they support Democracy. Intelligent people support Democracy.
Enthymemes 16 year olds have undeveloped brains so they can’t judge risks. People with undeveloped brains can’t judge risks. By writing a letter to your representative, you can help pass this law. Writing letters leads to passing new laws.
Beware the false principle The police say he committed the crime, so he committed the crime. stereotypes starting from principles that only those who already agree with you would maintain.
Inductive reasoning: specific instances Otherwise known as generalization arguments. Surveys and studies are often grounded in reasoning from specific instances. Neilson ratings and representative samples “composed of a cross-section of nearly 10,000 representative homes throughout the United States”
Specific Instances: Antibacterial Soaps Antibacterials are not effective Study Columbia School of Nursing shows people who use are just as likely to get sick as those who don’t. Testimony by Eric Kupferberg: products don’t lower the # of germs you encounter. Dr. Larson testimony Cold and flu are from viruses not bacteria, so these products can’t prevent those diseases
Specific Instances: Teen Driving Speech There are too many car accidents, death and injuries involving teen drivers. National Hwy Safety Administration Info 7 % of drivers, but are 14% of fatalities 3,657 teen drivers killed last year 2,384 teen passengers killed 2, 625 21 and older killed in accidents with teen drivers Insurance Institute for Highway Safety Teens have highest % of crashes caused by speeding, and driver error and the most single car crashes USA Today says 16 yr olds are 3 times more likely to be in a fatal crash than older drivers.
Beware the Hasty Generalization my friends and I watched violent cartoons and never committed a crime, so.... the two people I sat next to in lecture got Bs on their speeches, so everybody but me got a B on the speech. “but Mom, everybody else is going to the party! which moves us toward the bandwagon fallacy
Arguments from Analogy Figurative He won’t make a good company president because you can’t teach an old dog new tricks Literal Socialized medicine works in Canada, so socialized medicine will work in the U.S. both are grounded in the concept of similarity
Figurative Analogies Useful for framing an argument Not useful as proof/evidence It doesn’t really pass the test of similarity It is typically heard as pathos not logos
Figurative Analogy Malcolm X on integrating the Civil Rights Movement "It’s just like when you’ve got some coffee that’s too black, which means it’s too strong. What do you do? You integrate it with cream, you make it weak. But if you pour too much cream in it, you won’t even know you ever had coffee. It used to be hot, it becomes cool. It used to be strong, it becomes weak. It used to wake you up, now it puts you to sleep." "Message to the Grass Roots," speech, Nov. 1963, Detroit (published in Malcolm X Speaks, ch. 1, 1965).
Analogies can help prove claims When it comes to putting down cats and dogs, Texas bans the use of the lethal injection drugs used to execute death row inmates. If such drugs are too inhumane to use on animals, they are too inhumane to use on people. The cases compared are literally similar.
Analogies can help prove practicality We can solve the problems of antibacterial products by government regulation. The government already regulate antibiotics since you need a prescription to get them. So the government can regulate antibiotics in consumer products.
Analogies can help prove practicality We eliminated the half penny in 1857 without harmful effect, so we can eliminate the penny today.
Weak Analogies? A ban on all alcohol use in the dorms will work at ISU because such a ban worked at Luther College. The university shouldn’t be able to tell me what classes I have to take; after all, the store manager doesn’t tell me what groceries to buy. We praise the lives of soldiers who sacrificed their lives for the sake of others, why can’t we celebrate embryos sacrificed in order to save the lives of others?
Causal Arguments The most challenging of the types of reasoning. We can’t see causal relationships, we can only infer them. Examples cigarettes cause lung cancer “Billing problems at bookstore cause overdraft fees”
Causal Argument Challenges “post hoc ergo propter hoc” “after this therefore because of this” confusing a relationship in time with cause and effect seen in superstitions seen in “just look what happened after we.... “ arguments.
Causal Argument Challenges multiple causation rainforest destruction is the cause of global warming T.V. is responsible for school violence. my printer problem caused me to be unable to do my speech correlation vs. causation
Causal Reasoning Antibacterial Products Dr. Larson testimony Cold and flu are caused by viruses not bacteria, so these products can’t prevent those diseases Chewing Tobacco causal chain: Chewing tobacco contains grit and sand, which wear away at teeth; it also contains sugar which wears away at teeth, leading to cavities and then tooth loss. Loss of teeth in turn can encourage gum disease, which can lead to additional tooth loss.
Tips for success in causal reasoning. use causal chains to help the audience see the causal relationship. use testimony of experts to support conclusions combine them with specific instances arguments
Fallacies of Reasoning False principle Hasty generalization Weak (invalid) analogy Post Hoc or false cause
Additional Fallacies Bandwagon Red herring Slippery slope Ad hominem Either-or
What kind of reasoning and how strong is it? 1. According to a study by the American Medical Association, men with bald spots have three times the risk of heart attack as men with a full head of hair. Strange as it may seem, it looks as if baldness is a cause of heart attacks. 2. The U.S. Constitution guarantees all citizens the right to bear arms. Gun control legislation infringes on the right of citizens to bear arms. Therefore, gun control legislation is contrary to the Constitution.
More practice 3. If we encourage elementary school students to use computers in class, they will spend less time reading books. As a result, they will fall behind in developing reading, writing and thinking skills. Pretty soon we’ll have a generation of illiterates on our hands. 4. Raising a child is like having a pet--you need to feed it, play with it, and everything will be fine.
More practice 4. I don’t see any reason to wear a helmet when I ride a bike. Everyone bikes without a helmet. 5. There can be no doubt that the Great Depression was caused by Herbert Hoover. He became President in March 1929, and the stock market crashed just seven months later.
More practice 6. It’s ridiculous to worry about protecting America’s national parks against pollution and overuse when innocent people are being killed by domestic terrorists. 7. I can’t support Representative Frey’s proposal for campaign finance reform. After all, he was kicked out of law school for cheating on an exam.
Patrick Henry: “Give me liberty or give me death!” Problem It is a question of freedom or slavery Our petition has been received with an “insidious smile.” They are preparing for war. Plan [almost comparative advantages case] We’ve tried argument. We’ve tried humble supplication We have petitioned. We must fight!
Practicality We may be weak, but we are stronger now than we would be later. They are not prepared for resistance. We have millions of people engaged in a holy cause. There is a just God who will support us. There are friends who will help us. There is, in fact, no choice.