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Memory and Subjectivity in a Major Disaster: The Shoah An ongoing task of building An ongoing task of building to live in dignity Dr. León Cohen Bello.

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Presentation on theme: "Memory and Subjectivity in a Major Disaster: The Shoah An ongoing task of building An ongoing task of building to live in dignity Dr. León Cohen Bello."— Presentation transcript:

1 Memory and Subjectivity in a Major Disaster: The Shoah An ongoing task of building An ongoing task of building to live in dignity Dr. León Cohen Bello Iberoamerican Eco-Bioethics Network for Education, Iberoamerican Eco-Bioethics Network for Education, Science and Technology, UNESCO Chair in Bioethics. XV World Psychiatric Congress Buenos Aires, Argentina September

2 I live in Argentina This is my country. It was built by immigrants from around the world. Like my parents. Our recent history is very complex with regard to Human Rights and Bioethics. Our society is still a young democracy. He has endured many years of military dictatorship. Those were years of blood and tears, in which more than thirty thousand ( 30,000) people disappeared Without attempting to make comparisons, the methods and ideology of the Argentine military dictatorship, were not different from those created and developed by the Nazis during the Shoah. In fact, its members were admirers of the Nazis. This is my country. It was built by immigrants from around the world. Like my parents. Our recent history is very complex with regard to Human Rights and Bioethics. Our society is still a young democracy. He has endured many years of military dictatorship. Those were years of blood and tears, in which more than thirty thousand ( 30,000) people disappeared Without attempting to make comparisons, the methods and ideology of the Argentine military dictatorship, were not different from those created and developed by the Nazis during the Shoah. In fact, its members were admirers of the Nazis. Dr. León Cohen Bello Dr. León Cohen Bello Iberoamerican Bioetics Network Iberoamerican Bioetics Network

3 Never again That was the slogan with which we began to work for the restoration of our collective memory in Argentina. That was the slogan with which we began to work for the restoration of our collective memory in Argentina. To this purpose, we took inspiration and learned from the survivors of the Shoah, how to cultivate and preserve the values ​​ that dignify human existence. Dr. León Cohen Bello To this purpose, we took inspiration and learned from the survivors of the Shoah, how to cultivate and preserve the values ​​ that dignify human existence. Dr. León Cohen Bello Iberoamerican Ecobioetics Network Iberoamerican Ecobioetics Network

4 Forgeting, Learning, Remembering I would like to show a short film by the young mexican Ariel Zylbersztejn about the dignity and subjectivity of the Shoah survivors, I would like to show a short film by the young mexican Ariel Zylbersztejn about the dignity and subjectivity of the Shoah survivors, In order to attempt to understand those values. In order to attempt to understand those values. To incorporate them into our memory, but also to forget some things, as they did, and get on with their lives and their projects. To incorporate them into our memory, but also to forget some things, as they did, and get on with their lives and their projects. While maintaining their subjectivity. While maintaining their subjectivity. After seeing the movie, I shall briefly a develop what we understand to be the basis for the transmission of those values. After seeing the movie, I shall briefly a develop what we understand to be the basis for the transmission of those values. Dr. León Cohen Bello Dr. León Cohen Bello Iberoamerican Ecobioetics Nettwork Iberoamerican Ecobioetics Nettwork

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6 "The tragic greatness of human destiny lies in the paradoxical situation that man has no way out than to fight against injustice, "The tragic greatness of human destiny lies in the paradoxical situation that man has no way out than to fight against injustice, not for the purpose of ending it, but so that injustice does not end with him.” not for the purpose of ending it, but so that injustice does not end with him.” Mario Vargas Llosa Latin American Writer Mario Vargas Llosa Latin American Writer Nobel Prize for Literature Dr. León Cohen Bello Dr. León Cohen Bello Iberoamerican Eco-Bioethics Network.

7 October two thousand and five005) : October two thousand and five (2005) : The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights at the General Conference of UNESCO is passed. The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights at the General Conference of UNESCO is passed. For the first time, member states commit to respect and apply the fundamental principles of bioethics, as described in one universal text. For the first time, member states commit to respect and apply the fundamental principles of bioethics, as described in one universal text. Dr. León Cohen Bello Dr. León Cohen Bello Iberoamerican Eco-Bioethics Network

8 How to teach bioethics? Successful experiences have been carried out worldwide for transmitting the core values of coexistence. Successful experiences have been carried out worldwide for transmitting the core values of coexistence. One must learn about the organization and methods used for dissemination and apply them to the teaching of bioethics. One must learn about the organization and methods used for dissemination and apply them to the teaching of bioethics. Dr. León Cohen Bello Dr. León Cohen Bello Iberoamerican Eco-Bioethics Network

9 Shoah An extreme experience for humanity from which we must learn lessons so as not to repeat dangerous situations that would lead us, fatally, to succumb. An extreme experience for humanity from which we must learn lessons so as not to repeat dangerous situations that would lead us, fatally, to succumb. Is not a historical novel about the suffering of the Jewish people. Is not a historical novel about the suffering of the Jewish people. Has nothing to do with victims and perpetrators. Has nothing to do with victims and perpetrators. Has to do with all mankind, both those involved and those who allowed it to occur through their indifference. Has to do with all mankind, both those involved and those who allowed it to occur through their indifference. Dr. León Cohen Bello Dr. León Cohen Bello Iberoamerican Eco-Bioethics Network

10 "Auschwitz was built for the denial of faith in God and in humanity." "Auschwitz was built for the denial of faith in God and in humanity." Pope John Paul II Pope John Paul II "Mankind is helpless only where there is no memory" "Mankind is helpless only where there is no memory" Elias Canetti Elias Canetti Nobel Prize for Literature Dr. León Cohen Bello Dr. León Cohen Bello Iberoamerican Eco-Bioethics Network

11 What was the Shoah? The most tragic event of human history: the cold and calculated determination to wipe from the face of the earth infants, children, young and old for the mere fact of belonging to the Jewish people. The most tragic event of human history: the cold and calculated determination to wipe from the face of the earth infants, children, young and old for the mere fact of belonging to the Jewish people. Dr. León Cohen Bello Dr. León Cohen Bello Iberoamerican Eco-Bioethics Network

12 Alan Finkielkraut: "a world without neighbors, that was the project of Nazism. Alan Finkielkraut: "a world without neighbors, that was the project of Nazism. What we remember of its power is that the humanity in man is not an element of nature, but a fragile quality, always at risk of being extinguished. “ What we remember of its power is that the humanity in man is not an element of nature, but a fragile quality, always at risk of being extinguished. “ “Upon the ruins of consciousness, the Nazis wanted to create a new man, devoid of the feelings of unity with the human species, who repudiated the idea of humanity in the name of race, and had no obligations to his fellow man." “Upon the ruins of consciousness, the Nazis wanted to create a new man, devoid of the feelings of unity with the human species, who repudiated the idea of humanity in the name of race, and had no obligations to his fellow man." Dr. León Cohen Bello Dr. León Cohen Bello Iberoamerican Eco-Bioethics Network

13 Elie Wiesel, Nobel Peace Prize: "How can we tell our children, that the humanity was able to lose its mind and begin to murder its own soul? " Elie Wiesel, Nobel Peace Prize: "How can we tell our children, that the humanity was able to lose its mind and begin to murder its own soul? " “It is duty of all democratic governments, the Church, journalism, and schools, to teach, allowing us to create a shield against discrimination, fanaticism and intolerance.“ “It is duty of all democratic governments, the Church, journalism, and schools, to teach, allowing us to create a shield against discrimination, fanaticism and intolerance.“ Dr. León Cohen Bello Dr. León Cohen Bello Iberoamerican Eco-Bioethics Network

14 "Love your neighbor as yourself." From the Holocaust we must learn that technical knowledge separated from values and moral principles, only serves to transform human existence into a nightmare. From the Holocaust we must learn that technical knowledge separated from values and moral principles, only serves to transform human existence into a nightmare. The human condition is not given to us. It is an ideal to be achieved every day of our lifes and only after considering the neighbor as a brother. The human condition is not given to us. It is an ideal to be achieved every day of our lifes and only after considering the neighbor as a brother. Dr. León Cohen Bello Dr. León Cohen Bello Iberoamerican Eco-Bioethics Network

15 Why and how to teach bioethics?. Hanna Arendt: "To teach is to place new generationsin the world." Hanna Arendt: "To teach is to place new generationsin the world." Create a scenario. Compose a communication strategy. Create a scenario. Compose a communication strategy. Choose education in moral values. Moving from words to deeds, through examples. Choose education in moral values. Moving from words to deeds, through examples. Start with the children. Older children may be able to face "the facts." Start with the children. Older children may be able to face "the facts." Younger children lack to maturity to understand historical processes in their complexity. Younger children lack to maturity to understand historical processes in their complexity. Dr. León Cohen Bello Dr. León Cohen Bello Iberoamerican Eco-Bioethics Network

16 A growing initiative generating hope: the International Task Force. Stockholm Declaration Two thousand (2000) Stockholm Declaration Two thousand (2000) "The Holocaust challenged the foundations of civilization. "The Holocaust challenged the foundations of civilization. The unprecedented character of the Holocaust will always hold universal meaning. The unprecedented character of the Holocaust will always hold universal meaning. Across Europe, the Nazis have left indelible scars. The magnitude of the Holocaust must always remain in our collective memory. Across Europe, the Nazis have left indelible scars. The magnitude of the Holocaust must always remain in our collective memory. We must hold up the terrible truth of the Holocaust against those who deny it. We must hold up the terrible truth of the Holocaust against those who deny it. Dr. León Cohen Bello Dr. León Cohen Bello Iberoamerican Eco-Bioethics Network

17 Returning to origins An ethical pact, the origin of the monotheistic religions was written over three thousand five hundred ( 3500) years ago An ethical pact, the origin of the monotheistic religions was written over three thousand five hundred ( 3500) years ago in the desert, on two stones. in the desert, on two stones. In the one hundred sixty seven (167) words that compose this pact, lies the foundation of all Western civilization,. In the one hundred sixty seven (167) words that compose this pact, lies the foundation of all Western civilization,. This rules for coexistence and the betterment of the world (Tikum Olam) are task for the man in the ethical and material realms. This rules for coexistence and the betterment of the world (Tikum Olam) are task for the man in the ethical and material realms. Dr. León Cohen Bello Dr. León Cohen Bello Iberoamerican Eco-Bioethics Network

18 Our expectation We believe that our contribution to this conference is to identify points of contact between the work of the Task Force and the UNESCO Chair in Bioethics for research and teaching of bioethics. We believe that our contribution to this conference is to identify points of contact between the work of the Task Force and the UNESCO Chair in Bioethics for research and teaching of bioethics. If we have managed to help human and material resources flow in the same direction, If we have managed to help human and material resources flow in the same direction, we may be closer to achieving a better world we may be closer to achieving a better world Dr. León Cohen Bello Dr. León Cohen Bello Iberoamerican Eco-Bioethics Network

19 Thank you very much for your attention, for your attention, León León

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