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1 Cast Stone Codes By Richard Carey “Let’s Begin”.

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1 1 Cast Stone Codes By Richard Carey “Let’s Begin”

2 2 Cast Stone Codes Contents Section 1: What is Cast Stone…………………………… Section 2: Code History…………………………………. Section 3: Purpose of Codes…………………………….. Section 4: Common Codes………………………………. Section 5: Complying with Codes……………………….. Section 6: Liability Issues……………………………….. Section 7: Multiple Choice Test...……………………….. Table of Contents Page

3 Cast Stone Codes 3 Safety is learning from our past mistakes. Codes help us to not repeat the same mistakes we have made in the past. In this presentation we explain the need for codes to govern certain common sense, or common short comings. Codes also make the craftsman hold up to his responsibility, after all this is the final detail that makes a difference.

4 4 Hand Forged Stone Simply put Cast Stone is a composite that properly matches native stones. A practice started by the Romans now has 2500 years of making shapes of reconstituted stone glued together, not all that different than the way nature makes stone. (sands and aggregates were once mountains of stone, theses are mined from deposits left by ancient watersheds.) There are basically two processes, one a plastic cast and the other zero slump. Both have there applications where they offer advantages. Plastic cast has inherent problems in that additional processes are required to achieve a refined surface resulting in longer lead times or higher expense in make ready. The best of the best stone fabricators "Hand Forged Stone" formally known as “zero slump” these stones are sand castles before they become stone hard. This is a mix of fine aggregates, water and cement that is hammered into form, finished and cured to create a man-made limestone. It is cost effective and an aesthetic building material that also lends itself to relatively quick set up or tooling required. (What is Cast Stone) WET

5 5 History of Building Codes Much has been published over time about the history of building codes and specifications. We included some interesting facts that give you a respect for why codes help make it better for us all. History of Building Codes: In early America, George Washington and Thomas Jefferson encouraged the development of building regulations to provide for minimum standards related to public health and safety. During the early 1900's, model building codes were written by code enforcement officials of various communities with assistance from all segments of the building industry. This is where Building Codes originated and are still the standard for most codes these days. Historic Codes: The Code of Hammurabi (circa 3000 B.C.) One of the oldest known writings of early civilization is the Code of Hammurabi. Hammurabi was the founder of the Babylonian Empire over 5,000 years ago. The portion of the Code of Hammurabi which related to buildings read: 228: If a builder build a house for a man and complete it, that man shall pay him two shekels of silver per sar (approx. 12 sq. ft.) of house as his wage. Continued on next page... (Code History)

6 6 History of Building Codes 229: If a builder has built a house for a man and his work is not strong, and if the house he has built falls in and kills the householder, that builder shall be slain. 230: If the child of the householder be killed, the child of that builder shall be slain. 231: If the slave of the householder be killed, he shall give slave for slave to the householder. 232: If goods have been destroyed, he shall replace all that has been destroyed; and because the house was not made strong, and it has fallen in, he shall restore the fallen house of his own material. 233: If a builder has built a house for a man, and his work is not done properly and a wall shifts, then that builder shall make that wall good with his own silver. The Code of Hammurabi though quite harsh by today's standards, shows that civilization has tried to bring about some control over building safety. (Code History)

7 7 Safety First Codes provide safety both during the installation and for the service life of the building. Discussions on safe practices for handling, what the various kinds of buildings use in the way of securing stone to the structure, dimensional standards, among other observations. It seems litigious environments use the rules to prosecute wrong doing or accidents, but the contrary is true, it is there to prevent such accidents. Our education over time is rooted in our mistakes teach us. From these we learn lessons we should not have to learn again because the price is too high. Codes and regulations are adopted to insure we all meet a certain standard and do not have to pay the price to learn the lessons over and over again. Our insurance companies give a better rate if our roof is non combustible. Codes have the same net effect they insure we do not endanger others and limit financial risks in a variety of ways. Codes are there for all of us. As history has proven, we learn from our mistakes and adapt to overcome. (Code History)

8 8 Minimize Danger and Injury Building codes have always had one basic purpose, to minimize the possibility of danger and injury to people who own or otherwise use buildings. Stone is very heavy, if it is not installed properly it could fall and hurt or kill someone. (A single 4” x 4” x 3ft flat piece of cast stone is 42 lbs..) Improperly installed stairs could lead to tripping and dangerous falls. Badly installed stone could require costly repairs or significantly reduce property values Specifications insure we meet code compliance's everywhere Cast Stone, in certain places, is considered a safety material for fire and water damage. (Purpose of Codes)

9 9 Most local governments enact their own set of codes, but will follow a standard Model Building Code, such as the the 1997 Uniform Building Code or the 2000 International Building Code. These Model Codes are the result of efforts to standardize building codes that first began in the early 1900’s. Unique municipal building codes could increase costs, and complexity of installation. This means that while most building codes will be very similar, there will also be differences unique to each jurisdiction. (Check with your local city hall to see who has jurisdiction over your project.) Uniform Building Code (Purpose of Codes)

10 10 Uniform Commercial Code (Purpose of Codes) Uniform Commercial Code (Purpose of Codes) UCC is the most commonly espoused code compliance. Formally known as the Uniform Commercial Code, UCC these standards are widely adopted by municipalities. Some special conditions such as, climatic effects, cold, wet or even seismically active typography may set additional requirements. Codes have proven to add to the public interests in both safety and governing financial liability issues in our legal system. There are many other benefits allowing products or services to be delivered with some level of certainty in safety and quality. At a more root level, performance is a factor, as are certain elements which interface with other products. These are the specifications by which we measure performance. Documentation both establishes and measures the justification of specifications. Specifications and details that match needs of users or product suppliers are intertwined with the codes compliance. Think about what a nightmare it would be if building blocks came in all sizes? It complicates things doesn't it? We need standards to build by just as we need building codes to live by.

11 "Wheel Chair Compliance" How big should a wheel chair be? The intent was clear but the governing requirements must be established. While this is not the masons responsibility to plan, it is his to execute in the field. Even an inch in a door way can delay a building approval and funding all because a handicap code requirement is not met over such a small detail. Stone designs must be planned in detail to make sure every compliance issue is met. Codes allow all the suppliers, designers, installers, and end users each with a unique perspective and equally self serving interest to communicate effectively and be coordinated into a project. With codes we can build on one another's efforts. Like the roads I drove in on this morning, I have always had an appreciation for those that came and paved the road before me. I was not even driving when they were built, I've entered into their labor and reaped the benefit of their jobs well done. How speedy they made my time today. Codes are a lot like this highway, they allow us to go where people have gone before us and take advantage of the road they paved. Codes, Standards, and specifications are an evolving standard and by nature should be adaptable. It is both a foundation proven by the past and an instrument of change. They help us work together and get better. Uniform Commercial Code (Purpose of Codes)

12 12 Construction Details and Specifications Building codes will specify many construction details, such as... Methods and type of hardware used to attach stone to a structure Stair dimensions and compliance issues, handicap ramps The distance between balusters to keep children safe (Ball Codes) Treads rise and run maximums and minimums (Common Codes)

13 13 Ball Codes Here is an example of a common code balconies and stairs that are over 48 inches above ground (this may vary according to district) must comply with the “Ball Code”. The ball code refers to the maximum diameter of a hypothetical ball that measures the maximum allowable gap between balusters. The ball mimics a small child’s head. The idea goes that if a child’s head can pass between balusters, a chance exists that the child’s body can also pass through. Check local building codes for Ball Code requirements pertaining to your specific installation. (Common Codes)

14 14 Alternatives to Codes Note that in historically correct architecture balustrade spacing may not meet ball code and a variance to be esthetically correct will not be granted. One solution is the insertion of small bronze spindles between balusters. This can be done during installation. Holes drilled between balusters allows the metal spindles to be inserted during the assembly allowing greater spacing between balusters and still meet the required ball code. The spindles are hardly noticeable from a distance and add an interesting detail to the overall effect. In the end we have an esthetically appealing alternative to help maintain a classical spacing and still meet the legal requirements. (Common Codes)

15 15 Alternatives to Codes Graspable handrails are most often called out in interior applications. One such design is illustrated in the photo to the left, note the profile of the handrail. Some building codes require a graspable handrail for certain applications. A standard handrail can be used with a cast stone handrail or the Binelli handrail can be used if you want to avoid the additional rail (Common Codes)

16 16 Accident Prone The UCC (Uniform Commercial Code) is very careful to keep the steps and risers according to code. Stairs are one of the most accident prone areas in a building. For this reason the codes are strictly enforced. Most important is the consistency of each step. It seems the human body learns in just a step or two, the distance from tread to tread. Changing the height from one riser to another is forbidden because of the hazard it creates. Risers must divide evenly from floor to floor. (Common Codes)

17 17 The codes dictate the maximum height of a riser and the minimum depth of a tread. The rule of thumb will be the sum of two risers and one tread will equal 25 inches. This is considered optimum use of energy. Example; 8 inches is the maximum allowed riser height x 2 each, and you have a total of 16 inches; meaning the depth of the tread should be 9 inches. Although considered a very steep step it will none-the-less be very efficient. Likewise a shallow step, like one might find on a memorial or entrance into a university, will be 4 inches x 2 inches each; for a total of 8, meaning the tread depth would be 17 inches. Apply this formula to any stair. Note: For more exhaustive information on stairs and stair construction see the book; “A Treatise on Stair Building and Handrails “ by W A Mowat with Linden Publishing Max Heights for Stairs Generally speaking there will be limits on just how long the stairs can be. So the situation presented will lean toward steep or shallow stairs but the one thing that will get you in trouble with the inspectors is that the RISERS MUST BE THE SAME from the first one to the last one. They must be equally divided and be below 8 inches to meet code. (Common Codes)

18 18 Suggested Installation Methods This section is intended to help you see a variety of installation methods that you can employ, always with an eye toward safety first and the cost effective use of labor. The following detail drawings will offer you a peek at some common sense methods. Keep in mind these are suggested installation details only; the type of structure – it’s fasteners, structural loading calculations, attachments, geological conditions like weather and the elements or seismic activity all of which are factors in engineering a safe and effective system that is labor friendly to the mason. (Complying with Codes) All attachments, steel sizes, gauge thickness, and anchor sizes should be calculated by a structural engineer licensed in your region. We are not liable for installation, you must get the proper advice in your region. Another thing to consider is making the mortar softer than the stone to prevent damage caused by slight movements. Avoid Installation Mistakes

19 19 UCC “Uniform Commercial Codes”, City Ordinance, Development By-Laws, are just some of the compliance requirements and at times can be quite onus (meaning difficult to comply with). Would it surprise you to know that even run off water management is regulated? Even the amount of stone on the exterior can be a compliance issue. At times you might find yourself in a situation to recommend solutions. One option that increases stone coverage and offers a unique solution to inherent water damage (stone is impervious to water damage) is stone entablatures with hidden gutters. As long as it is cost effective and simple to install, it is a viable proposition, and helps to have a picture in the minds eye. This Beverly Hills residence is mission style in architecture with a tile roof and a hidden gutter system that requires a rather unique structural solution for the stone installer. The photo on the right below shows the gutter installed and the first course of the entablature. The “Z” clips on the studs support the bottom, fitted to a grove in the stone. Later when the stucco in applied, both the clip and the grove will be behind the stucco wall. Compliance Issues (Complying with Codes)

20 20 Supporting Compliance Issues For the designer, the combination of durability, speed of installation, lack of structural modifications, as well as an esthetic addition to the entablature offers a low maintenance alternative. It supports compliance issues concerning water management, stone coverage, and a structural solution without the added expense of altering the structure to support the self supporting stone. Note: Flashing details extend the flashing above the highest most stone allowing any overflow to spill over the crown before water backs up past the roof flashing. The upper piece called the crown is nestled over the frieze. The crown has a groove cut in top to receive flashing. The stacking provides a manageable installation. With this system of two piece molding makes for a grand look. The finials are placed 30” apart for an added touch, giving the architect a feature to set off the Mediterranean touch. (Complying with Codes)

21 21 In this detailed drawing the straps that tie the bottom piece of crown molding back to the building are twisted and nailed to the top plate after adjusting the stone to the final position. Compression Loading Stone is best in compression loading. When attaching ties, we need to use the strengths of the stone to our advantage. Gravity plays a vital role in choosing attachment points. It is important to understand how the weight of the stone works in each application. Often there is a pivot point where the stone is naturally tipping one direction or another. If in doubt, set up a test piece to locate the center of gravity or the tipping point as illustrated. (Complying with Codes)

22 22 Wood Structures Finished structure page In effect wood structures are considered shorter life structures. That is why masonry structures are preferred, even at a price penalty, initially. In the end, they are not only superior buildings but cost less in maintenance to own. Any place wood is used, with the right design, stone can do the job better. While we may deploy the same solution it, does not always have to look the same. The technique adopted should contribute to the style of the over all building. Some codes require class “A” structures. This means that for 100 year old buildings, the only material specified for such structure is masonry. (Complying with Codes)

23 23 Corrugated Masonry Ties Optional Copper Wire Illustrated are Corrugated Masonry ties, which are easy to bend and install for light stone load conditions. Effective in residential applications where often the engineering is done by the mason who is responsible for the structural integrity of the install. Most commercial applications have an architect approve the installation methods. We have a need in the masonry trades to have published practices. This will be slow in coming to pass as the liability is real, and few will be willing to accept it. Liability issues will be discussed as part of code compliance later in this presentation. Corrugated ties are effective and inexpensive alternative for securing stone similar to wire applications. Secured with masonry screws and a proper fastener to the structure they will be effective. The size of the stone must be relatively small to use such methods. Much could be said about complying with codes, but none more relevant than the adopted methods engineered into building safe and cost effective installations. More goes into the code than what is written. As a mason, you have the last look, the responsibility of any good craftsman is to apply common sense. (Complying with Codes) Corrugated Masonry ties

24 24 Tie Wire I first saw this attachment used in Chicago on a church several stories high. During the remodel a portion of the entablature was opened up. The stones were massive with at least two feet of projection. Outside of the copper wire being a half inch thick square hammered the principle was the same as illustrated. The building was near a 100 years old, it was clear the test of time had proven this system. On the same building there were some steel structural supports. These were covered by lead and looked like they were installed recently. By locating the tie wire across the mass of the stone it should maximize strength of the attachment. The natural tendency of the stone pulling to keep the attachment wire tight. This method uses the superior structural qualities of both the wire and the stone. Wire has a tensile strength of thousands of pounds with the compression strength of the stone maximize the amount of stone mass behind the force line. (Complying with Codes)

25 25 Protecting Flashing Flashing is protected from the elements by the stone wall cap. It is critical that certain penetrations of the flashing are sealed. Pins mounted to the structure protruding into the stone with corresponding holes are drilled into the stone. Mortar is used to set the stone and nestle it against the flashing. In this application the pins should have anchor points or textured surface. After point up, the mortar joints, it is prudent to use flexible caulk over the joints for added endurance at the joints. It is impossible for all the trades to guard against the next trade like, in this case, compromising the flashing details. It is important the mason has a good understanding of the structure to make safe the stone installation. The mason must have a good method of sealing around the flashing penetrations. Remember, when it comes to our products, no one can know better than us how they should be installed to stay compliant in both the official codes published and the unwritten code of conduct between trades. Know what you’re doing and coordinate this with the respective trades. How to Attach a wall cap and Panel (Complying with Codes)

26 26 Common sense is a must The origin of codes, most always, post dates a disaster, only a man made one in the case of liability. The legal system has a way of policing our building techniques by legislating specific improvements in codes. This is an evolutionary process and at times is slow but effective. Some codes are based on hard learned lessons even some with penalties of life or property; while others border on trivial. All have penalties relative to their risk. Common sense will go a long way toward not treating all codes the same. Often personal attention is needed when it is just too big of a risk to delegate to anyone. Knowing what it takes to meet code compliance is the same as seeing problems and addressing them before they occur. Be familiar with all the details concerning compliance about your individual specialty. This knowledge is a powerful decision making tool. The more you know the more your instincts contribute to the safety and performance of our industry. (Liability Issues)

27 27 Here are just a few horror stories. I selected one from each of the professions and trades so as to point out the importance of the details at all levels. It should be said that success requires that we all do our part to meet the standards set. None of us can afford to ignore our role in what code compliance and our public safety really means. Architect An award winning building with a high profile, great advertising and a boost to his career until word gets out. The high-rise's anchor tenant is a bank. Word was the armored car could not do the cash pick up because the ceiling was too low to allow them access through the secured transfer point. Word of mouth is the best advertising you can get, good or bad. General Contractor A failed grand opening because the certificate of occupancy was delayed when only hours before it was discovered that the rear steps were to be a handicap ramp. Covered by the news, the party started as the inspector left. The GC improvised and made a wooden ramp to be in compliance. Even the celebrities and media waited until the building was safe to occupy. That night the poor building inspector was a celebrity of sorts, what else could he do with all that publicity? He had to do his job, everybody knew the code was law. Prior planning prevents poor performance, and codes provide the safe and effective rules by which we plan by. How to Not Use Common Sense (Liability Issues)

28 Typically codes and standards are hopelessly intertwined. Codes imply legal requirements and are to be interpreted for each structure or public application. Handicap parking for example, is a code requirement with certain minimum specifications published. Codes offer the legal ease by which municipalities govern and shape their communities. Standards likewise provide a means by which entire industries can create a license or compliance formulas that can be adopted, thereby protecting the interests of the industry as a whole. These come in the form of specifications published and adopted by the members. Manufacturers publish specifications on their products for the purpose of evaluating compliance concerns. Note that when a coalition exists between the published specifications of the manufacturer's products and compliance with certain codes or industry standards are established, the three often appear to be but one. This of course did not happen overnight, but is the net result of a proper evolution of codes and standards setting the bar for the manufacturer's specifications. Remember, specifications are published codes and standards are policed. It is in this demeanor we encourage an adoption of cast stone standards for the masonry community. I think we can all agree it is the manufacturer and the masons partnership that will be most effective result. 28 Closing View our presentation on Cast Stone Standards at

29 Please send any additions or revisions to: Attention: Richard Carey Stone Legends 301 Pleasant Drive Dallas, Tx or me at

30 30 Multiple-choice Test 1. What are the two basic methods of making Cast Stone? (pg. 4) A. Hand Forged and Zero Slump B. Plastic Casting and Zero Slump C. Fiberglass Casting and Plastic Casting D. Bucket Casting and Plastic Casting 2. What is the purpose of building codes? (pg. 8) A. to give the builder headaches. B. to make Masons follow codes that do not matter. C. to minimize the possibility of danger and injury to people. D. to keep the building from falling over. 3. If Cast Stone is not installed properly it could fall and hurt or kill someone. (pg. 8) A. True B. False 4. What refers to the maximum diameter of a hypothetical ball that measures the maximum allowable gap between balusters? (pg. 13) A. Ball Code B. Space Codes C. Fall Codes D. Gap Codes 5. On stair treads and risers what should the depth of the tread be? (pg. 17) A. 7 inches B. 8 inches C. 9 inches D.10 inches Closing


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