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Antiwar Protests of the 1960’s and 1970’s. The Vietnam War 1954-1973 War of containment North Vietnam (Communist) vs. South Vietnam (Pro- West)  Allies.

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Presentation on theme: "Antiwar Protests of the 1960’s and 1970’s. The Vietnam War 1954-1973 War of containment North Vietnam (Communist) vs. South Vietnam (Pro- West)  Allies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Antiwar Protests of the 1960’s and 1970’s

2 The Vietnam War War of containment North Vietnam (Communist) vs. South Vietnam (Pro- West)  Allies of North: U.S.S.R., People’s Republic of China  Allies of South: U.S., South Korea North wanted to reunify with the South after the country was split in two at the 1954 Geneva Conference “Viet Cong” (North) invaded Southern Vietnam and the war began

3 The Viet Cong & the Ho Chi Minh Trail

4 The Vietnam War Gulf of Tonkin- North Vietnam accused of attacking U.S. destroyers  Led to a large increase in U.S. involvement  Gulf of Tonkin Resolution- the President has the right to “prevent further aggression” from the North Vietnamese The number of troops sent to Vietnam skyrocketed (500,000)The number of troops sent to Vietnam skyrocketed (500,000) U.S. made very few gains  American troops fought a conventional war, while the Vietnamese were fighting an ideological war U.S. tried to achieve their goals with as few American deaths as possibleU.S. tried to achieve their goals with as few American deaths as possible Vietnamese didn’t care how many people had to die for their causeVietnamese didn’t care how many people had to die for their cause

5 Gulf of Tonkin Incident (August 4, 1964) Did North Vietnam really attack the U.S.?

6 The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave unprecedented power to President Johnson to use combat troops in Vietnam   House vote:   2 Senators opposed

7 The Vietnam War  Tet Offensive- North Vietnam attacked U.S. and pushed them back (U.S. eventually regained the territory) Portrayed as a huge loss by American mediaPortrayed as a huge loss by American media

8 Tet Offensive, )Ultimate U.S. victory 2)Devastating PR nightmare as TV brought home reality of war (it was not almost over)

9 The Vietnam War 1968  My Lai Massacre- A Vietnamese town suspected of harboring enemies was brutally murdered by U.S. soldiers

10 The Vietnam War 1968  Nixon took office- promised to get America out of the war Vietnamization- Bring U.S. troops home and leave the majority of the fighting to the VietnameseVietnamization- Bring U.S. troops home and leave the majority of the fighting to the Vietnamese

11 Pentagon Papers Pentagon Papers leaked to the press and revealed in a New York Times article 70% - To avoid a humiliating U.S. defeat. 20% - To keep South Vietnam (and the adjacent) territory from Chinese hands. 10% - To permit the people of South Vietnam to enjoy a better, freer way of life. The Pentagon Papers showed LBJ had systematically covered up the truth about Vietnam Polling of America: Why should we stay in Vietnam (1968)

12 Vietnam Conflict Timeline o 1954—Geneva Convention creates North Vietnam (communist) and South Vietnam (democratic) o 1954—U.S. commits aid to support South Vietnamese government o 1960—North Vietnam “invades” South Vietnam to unify nation o 1963—U.S. commits military advisers to assist South Vietnam o 1964—Gulf of Tonkin Resolution allowed conventional forces to defend South Vietnam (Americans to fight in combat) o —Zenith of “Americanization” with over 500,000 soldiers in combat o 1969—Nixon elected, promises “Vietnamization” o 1969—Nixon begins secret bombing of Cambodia o 1971—Pentagon Papers released, exposing secret escalation of war o 1973—War Powers Resolution passed by Congress o 1973—last American troops leave Vietnam o 1975—Congress de-funds war and North Vietnam invades and conquers South Vietnam

13 Results 3 million Vietnamese died 58,000 Americans died $150 million spent on the war  Underfunding for Great Society programs

14 The New Left Radical political movement of the 1960’s and 70’s  Mostly comprised of college students (SDS) Social activists Beliefs  Anti- Draft  Pro- Civil Rights  Anti- Traditional values (family, complacency) Rebelled with sex, drugs, and rock’n’rollRebelled with sex, drugs, and rock’n’roll  Anti- Establishment  Rejected society by supporting democratic communism and fascination with Native Americans and Eastern religions

15 The New Left’s Leaders Tom Hayden Freedom RiderFreedom Rider Founded SDSFounded SDS Wrote Port Huron StatementWrote Port Huron Statement CA politicianCA politician Animal rights advocateAnimal rights advocate Bill Ayers Civil Rights “sit-ins”Civil Rights “sit-ins” Member of SDSMember of SDS Founded Weather UndergroundFounded Weather Underground Bombed numerous blds and monumentsBombed numerous blds and monuments Professor at U of Chicago (Education)Professor at U of Chicago (Education) Abbie Hoffman Founded “Yippies”Founded “Yippies” Berkeley gradBerkeley grad OrganizerOrganizer Woodstock incidentWoodstock incident Chicago EightChicago Eight “the state of mind of my brothers and sisters”“the state of mind of my brothers and sisters” Preached against the CIAPreached against the CIA Stokely Carmichael Freedom RiderFreedom Rider Howard gradHoward grad SNCCSNCC “Prime Minister” of Black Panthers (left because of white BP)“Prime Minister” of Black Panthers (left because of white BP) Self-imposed exileSelf-imposed exile Jerry Rubin Anti-Vietnam Organizer (March on Pentagon)Anti-Vietnam Organizer (March on Pentagon) Dropped out of BerkeleyDropped out of Berkeley Chicago EightChicago Eight Early investor in AppleEarly investor in Apple Angela Davis Leader of Communist party USALeader of Communist party USA Close ties to Black PanthersClose ties to Black Panthers Moved to feminismMoved to feminism Professor at UC- Santa CruzProfessor at UC- Santa Cruz

16 The Protests

17 The First D.C. Rally April 17, 1965  One month after the U.S. sent its first troops to Vietnam  Staged by the Leftist group, Students for a Democratic Society  16,000 people picketed outside the White House “No More War”“No More War” “We Want Peace Now”“We Want Peace Now”  Only 4 arrests made

18 March on the Pentagon October 21, 1967  Culmination of 5 days of protests organized by the National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam  Famous speakers came to address the crowd (Robert Lowell, Benjamin Spock)  The protest escalated when the leaders of the Youth International Party announced they were going to “exorcise” the Pentagon People surrounded the building and chanted spells to try and drive out the “evil war spirits”People surrounded the building and chanted spells to try and drive out the “evil war spirits” Tear gas was released into the crowdTear gas was released into the crowd 2,500 troops guarded the Pentagon2,500 troops guarded the Pentagon 681 arrested681 arrested

19 March on the Pentagon (cont.)

20 The Moratorium Rally (D.C.) November 15, 1969  America’s biggest anti- war demonstration ever 250, ,000 protestors present250, ,000 protestors present  A little less wild LBJ was out of office and Nixon had initiated his “Vietnamization” planLBJ was out of office and Nixon had initiated his “Vietnamization” plan Police had learned how to handle protestsPolice had learned how to handle protests  3,000 Police  9,000 Army troops  200 Lawyers  75 Clergymen  Protest was peaceful for the most part 135 arrests made135 arrests made

21 The Moratorium Rally (cont.) The Moratorium Rally was the largest anti-war protest in U.S. history

22 Kent State In response to Nixon’s invasion of Cambodia  Didn’t want to be drafted  New Left thought the war was waning (i.e. Nixon lied to them) May 1, Day One  Huge demonstration on the College’s commons  Around midnight rowdy bikers began throwing bottles and vandalizing cars in the street  Approximately 100 students joined in  Police eventually got the situation under control

23 Kent State (cont.) May 2, Day Two  State of Emergency declared in Kent Ohio Governor, James A. Rhodes, called in the National GuardOhio Governor, James A. Rhodes, called in the National Guard  Demonstrations continued on campus Reserve Officer Training Corps building was set on fireReserve Officer Training Corps building was set on fire  Fire men and police were pelted with rocks by the surrounding crowd  10:00 p.m.- National Guard set up camp on Kent State’s campus Used tear gas and arrested the protestorsUsed tear gas and arrested the protestors At least one person was bayonetedAt least one person was bayoneted May 3, Day Three  More protests  Curfew imposed on students

24 Kent State (cont.) The National Guard was sent in to maintain order on Kent State’s campus

25 Kent State (cont.) May 4, Day Four  Pre-planned rally commenced Approx. 2,000 people presentApprox. 2,000 people present  National Guard told them to disperse People refusedPeople refused Troops sprayed the crowd with tear gasTroops sprayed the crowd with tear gas  Crowd began throwing rocks and chased the National Guard off campus “Pigs off Campus!”“Pigs off Campus!”  After being chased up a hill by the angry protestors, the National Guard opened fire on the crowd Firing lasted 13 secondsFiring lasted 13 seconds 4 dead4 dead 9 wounded9 wounded

26 Kent State (cont.) The National Guard was chased up a hill by angry students

27 A shocked student grieves over a dead body, shot down by the National Guard

28 Fourth D.C. Rally In response to Nixon’s invasion of Cambodia and the Kent State shootings Goal: Close down Washington D.C. on May 3, 1971  Shut off all access routes to the city The protestors would come in waves so if one wave got arrested the next would be there to take its placeThe protestors would come in waves so if one wave got arrested the next would be there to take its place  March on the Pentagon, the Capitol, and the Justice Department Two weeks before May Day, 1971  Over 200,000 people attended peaceful rallies in D.C.  As May 3 approached many left, leaving only the die- hard radicals (organized by the People’s Coalition for Peace and Justice)

29 The Fourth D.C. Rally (cont.)

30 As May 3 approached, the Police prepared to arrest huge numbers of people  Fill- in- the- blank arrest forms (to arrest people faster)  Polaroid cameras would be used to take pictures of perpetrators so the Policeman could remember him later in court  New “flexi- cuffs” with officer’s badge number already on them  “Arrest teams” created to streamline the arresting process Arresting officerArresting officer Handcuffing officerHandcuffing officer Transporting officerTransporting officer

31 The Fourth D.C. Rally (cont.) May 2, 1971  Police announced over a loudspeaker that the 30,000 protestors camping out in West Potomac Park must vacate Reason: “violation of their permit” (use of drugs)Reason: “violation of their permit” (use of drugs)  Only 12,000 people remained after the announcement May 3, 1971  Police used tear gas to keep streets open 7,000 people arrested- the record to date7,000 people arrested- the record to date 155 injuries155 injuries  Protestors plan was thwarted and D.C. stayed open

32 Were these protests effective in swaying public opinion?

33 Vietnam : 1)Divided the nation (generational gap) --Silent Majority vs. Radical Left 2)Created the New Left --merged militant Civil Rights with anti- war/establishment protesters

34 In view of developments since we entered the fighting in Vietnam do you think the U.S. made a mistake sending troops to fight in Vietnam?" (Gallup) DATEPERCENT Percent that said NO August 1965: 61 March 1966: 59 May 1966: 49 September 1966: 48 November 1966: 51 February 1967: 52 May 1967: 50 July 1967: 48 October 1967: 44 December 1967: 46 February 1968: 42 March 1968: 41 April 1968: 40 August 1968: 35 October 1968: 37 February 1969: 39 October 1969: 32 January 1970: 33 April 1970: 34 May 1970: 36 January 1971: 31 May 1971: 28

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