Presentation on theme: "Antiwar Protests of the 1960’s and 1970’s"— Presentation transcript:
1 Antiwar Protests of the 1960’s and 1970’s Over the course of this power point we’ll learn about the main protests of the Vietnam War era and how they effected public opinion.
2 The Vietnam War 1954-1973 War of containment North Vietnam (Communist) vs. South Vietnam (Pro- West)Allies of North: U.S.S.R., People’s Republic of ChinaAllies of South: U.S., South KoreaNorth wanted to reunify with the South after the country was split in two at the 1954 Geneva Conference1960- “Viet Cong” (North) invaded Southern Vietnam and the war beganThe Vietnam War was entered to try and curb the spread of communism. The First Indochina war got the French out of the country, but the Second Indochina war was a conflict between North and South Vietnam.
4 The Vietnam War1964- Gulf of Tonkin- North Vietnam accused of attacking U.S. destroyersLed to a large increase in U.S. involvementGulf of Tonkin Resolution- the President has the right to “prevent further aggression” from the North VietnameseThe number of troops sent to Vietnam skyrocketed (500,000)U.S. made very few gainsAmerican troops fought a conventional war, while the Vietnamese were fighting an ideological warU.S. tried to achieve their goals with as few American deaths as possibleVietnamese didn’t care how many people had to die for their causeBrutal warfare with many casualties on both sides
5 Gulf of Tonkin Incident (August 4, 1964)Did North Vietnam really attack the U.S.?
6 The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave unprecedented power to President Johnson to use combat troops in VietnamHouse vote: 416-02 Senators opposed
7 The Vietnam War1968-Tet Offensive- North Vietnam attacked U.S. and pushed them back (U.S. eventually regained the territory)Portrayed as a huge loss by American media
8 Tet Offensive, 1968 Ultimate U.S. victory Devastating PR nightmare as TV brought home reality of war (it was not almost over)
9 The Vietnam War1968My Lai Massacre- A Vietnamese town suspected of harboring enemies was brutally murdered by U.S. soldiers
10 The Vietnam War1968Nixon took office- promised to get America out of the warVietnamization- Bring U.S. troops home and leave the majority of the fighting to the Vietnamese
11 Polling of America: Why should we stay in Vietnam (1968) Pentagon Papers1971- Pentagon Papers leaked to the press and revealed in a New York Times articleThe Pentagon Papers showed LBJ had systematically covered up the truth about VietnamPolling of America: Why should we stay in Vietnam (1968)Public outraged when Pentagon Papers came out, only added fuel to the protestor’s fireCeasefire was not the end of the war between North and South Vietnam, eventually North won70% - To avoid a humiliating U.S. defeat.20% - To keep South Vietnam (and the adjacent) territory from Chinese hands.10% - To permit the people of South Vietnam to enjoy a better, freer way of life.
12 Vietnam Conflict Timeline 1954—Geneva Convention creates North Vietnam (communist) and South Vietnam (democratic)1954—U.S. commits aid to support South Vietnamese government1960—North Vietnam “invades” South Vietnam to unify nation1963—U.S. commits military advisers to assist South Vietnam1964—Gulf of Tonkin Resolution allowed conventional forces to defend South Vietnam (Americans to fight in combat)—Zenith of “Americanization” with over 500,000 soldiers in combat1969—Nixon elected, promises “Vietnamization”1969—Nixon begins secret bombing of Cambodia1971—Pentagon Papers released, exposing secret escalation of war1973—War Powers Resolution passed by Congress1973—last American troops leave Vietnam1975—Congress de-funds war and North Vietnam invades and conquers South Vietnam
13 Results 3 million Vietnamese died 58,000 Americans died $150 million spent on the warUnderfunding for Great Society programs
14 The New Left Radical political movement of the 1960’s and 70’s Mostly comprised of college students (SDS)Social activistsBeliefsAnti- DraftPro- Civil RightsAnti- Traditional values (family, complacency)Rebelled with sex, drugs, and rock’n’rollAnti- EstablishmentRejected society by supporting democratic communism and fascination with Native Americans and Eastern religionsThe New Left was the group that would eventually challenge the government about its actions in Vietnam through protests
15 The New Left’s Leaders Bill Ayers Stokely Carmichael Civil Rights “sit-ins”Member of SDSFounded Weather UndergroundBombed numerous blds and monumentsProfessor at U of Chicago (Education)Stokely CarmichaelFreedom RiderHoward gradSNCC“Prime Minister” of Black Panthers (left because of white BP)Self-imposed exileTom HaydenFreedom RiderFounded SDSWrote Port Huron StatementCA politicianAnimal rights advocateAbbie HoffmanFounded “Yippies”Berkeley gradOrganizerWoodstock incidentChicago Eight“the state of mind of my brothers and sisters”Preached against the CIAJerry RubinAnti-Vietnam Organizer (March on Pentagon)Dropped out of BerkeleyChicago EightEarly investor in AppleAngela DavisLeader of Communist party USAClose ties to Black PanthersMoved to feminismProfessor at UC-Santa Cruz
17 The First D.C. Rally April 17, 1965 One month after the U.S. sent its first troops to VietnamStaged by the Leftist group, Students for a Democratic Society16,000 people picketed outside the White House“No More War”“We Want Peace Now”Only 4 arrests madeThe first inkling that the American public would not sit idly by while the government drained resources into Vietnam
18 March on the Pentagon October 21, 1967 Culmination of 5 days of protests organized by the National Mobilization Committee to End the War in VietnamFamous speakers came to address the crowd (Robert Lowell, Benjamin Spock)The protest escalated when the leaders of the Youth International Party announced they were going to “exorcise” the PentagonPeople surrounded the building and chanted spells to try and drive out the “evil war spirits”Tear gas was released into the crowd2,500 troops guarded the Pentagon681 arrestedChaotic protest became even more frenzied when troops began releasing tear gas into the crowd
19 March on the Pentagon (cont.) Some pictures from the protestProtestors facing down Army troops (on right)
20 The Moratorium Rally (D.C.) November 15, 1969America’s biggest anti- war demonstration ever250, ,000 protestors presentA little less wildLBJ was out of office and Nixon had initiated his “Vietnamization” planPolice had learned how to handle protests3,000 Police9,000 Army troops200 Lawyers75 ClergymenProtest was peaceful for the most part135 arrests made
21 The Moratorium Rally (cont.) The Moratorium Rally was the largest anti-war protest in U.S. history
22 Kent State In response to Nixon’s invasion of Cambodia Didn’t want to be draftedNew Left thought the war was waning(i.e. Nixon lied to them)May 1, Day OneHuge demonstration on the College’s commonsAround midnight rowdy bikers began throwing bottles and vandalizing cars in the streetApproximately 100 students joined inPolice eventually got the situation under control
23 Kent State (cont.) May 2, 1970- Day Two May 3, 1970- Day Three State of Emergency declared in KentOhio Governor, James A. Rhodes, called in the National GuardDemonstrations continued on campusReserve Officer Training Corps building was set on fireFire men and police were pelted with rocks by the surrounding crowd10:00 p.m.- National Guard set up camp on Kent State’s campusUsed tear gas and arrested the protestorsAt least one person was bayonetedMay 3, Day ThreeMore protestsCurfew imposed on students
24 Kent State (cont.)The National Guard was sent in to maintain order on Kent State’s campus
25 Kent State (cont.) May 4, 1970- Day Four Pre-planned rally commenced Approx. 2,000 people presentNational Guard told them to dispersePeople refusedTroops sprayed the crowd with tear gasCrowd began throwing rocks and chased the National Guard off campus“Pigs off Campus!”After being chased up a hill by the angry protestors, the National Guard opened fire on the crowdFiring lasted 13 seconds4 dead9 woundedHuge public outcry against the government---allowed children to be slaughtered
26 The National Guard was chased up a hill by angry students Kent State (cont.)The National Guard was chased up a hill by angry students
27 A shocked student grieves over a dead body, shot down by the National Guard
28 Fourth D.C. RallyIn response to Nixon’s invasion of Cambodia and the Kent State shootingsGoal: Close down Washington D.C. on May 3, 1971Shut off all access routes to the cityThe protestors would come in waves so if one wave got arrested the next would be there to take its placeMarch on the Pentagon, the Capitol, and the Justice DepartmentTwo weeks before May Day, 1971Over 200,000 people attended peaceful rallies in D.C.As May 3 approached many left, leaving only the die- hard radicals (organized by the People’s Coalition for Peace and Justice)
29 The Fourth D.C. Rally (cont.) Once again, angry crowds not afraid to face down armed troops
30 The Fourth D.C. Rally (cont.) As May 3 approached, the Police prepared to arrest huge numbers of peopleFill- in- the- blank arrest forms (to arrest people faster)Polaroid cameras would be used to take pictures of perpetrators so the Policeman could remember him later in courtNew “flexi- cuffs” with officer’s badge number already on them“Arrest teams” created to streamline the arresting processArresting officerHandcuffing officerTransporting officer
31 The Fourth D.C. Rally (cont.) May 2, 1971Police announced over a loudspeaker that the 30,000 protestors camping out in West Potomac Park must vacateReason: “violation of their permit” (use of drugs)Only 12,000 people remained after the announcementMay 3, 1971Police used tear gas to keep streets open7,000 people arrested- the record to date155 injuriesProtestors plan was thwarted and D.C. stayed open
32 Were these protests effective in swaying public opinion? Did they make people think differently about the Vietnam War?
33 Vietnam: Divided the nation (generational gap) --Silent Majority vs. Radical LeftCreated the New Left--merged militant Civil Rights with anti-war/establishment protestersIn this picture the “Silent Majority For Peace” banner is particularly significant. At the beginning of Nixon’s term the majority of America (the Silent Majority) were for war in Vietnam. However, as you can see in this picture, their opinions changed. Those who take the pro-side of this argument would say it was because of the protests that this change of opinion occurred.
34 February 1968: 42 March 1968: 41 April 1968: 40 August 1968: 35 In view of developments since we entered the fighting in Vietnam do you think the U.S. made a mistake sending troops to fight in Vietnam?" (Gallup) DATEPERCENTPercent that said NOFebruary 1968: 42March 1968: 41April 1968: 40August 1968: 35October 1968: 37February 1969: 39October 1969: 32January 1970: 33April 1970: 34May 1970: 36January 1971: 31May 1971: 28August 1965: 61March 1966: 59May 1966: 49September 1966: 48November 1966: 51February 1967: 52May 1967: 50July 1967: 48October 1967: 44December 1967: 46As the years went on and protests became more and more frequent, fewer and fewer people supported the war in Vietnam, as shown in these numbers.