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English drama from its beginnings to Shakespeare 15 th century: War of the Roses – House of York (White Rose) vs. Lancaster (Red Rose)  Shakespeare's.

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Presentation on theme: "English drama from its beginnings to Shakespeare 15 th century: War of the Roses – House of York (White Rose) vs. Lancaster (Red Rose)  Shakespeare's."— Presentation transcript:

1 English drama from its beginnings to Shakespeare 15 th century: War of the Roses – House of York (White Rose) vs. Lancaster (Red Rose)  Shakespeare's Lancaster and York Tetralogies 16 th century: Henry VIII separates Church of England from Roman Catholic Church 16 th century: Humanism/Renaissance – Thomas Morus, Erasmus of Rotterdam, Nicolaus Kopernikus a.o.

2 Medieval beginnings of English theatre – 1 Sources:Sources: –liturgy of Catholic Church –folklore customs – Christian/pagan origin: e.g., carnivalesque Feast of Fools Easter trope Quem queritis – belongs to the oldest liturgical tropes (parts of church service):Easter trope Quem queritis – belongs to the oldest liturgical tropes (parts of church service): –"Quem queritis in sepulchro, o Christicolae?" (Whom are you looking for, Christians?) –"Jesum Nazarenum crucifixum, o coelicolae." (The crucified Jesus from Nazareth, angels.) –"Non est hic." (He is not here.) –"Surrexit sicut praedixerat; ite, nuntiate quia surrexit." (He has risen as he predicted; therefore, go and announce that he has risen.) –"Halleluja"

3 Medieval beginnings of English theatre – 2 Mime play:Mime play: –Roman legacy –farce-like, simple pantomime –exaggerating representation of certain character types Mummer's play:Mummer's play: –developed from wide-spread sword dance –formed on old fertility rites celebrating death of winter and rebirth of nature –stock characters: fool clad in animals' hides, man wearing women's clothes ('Bessie'/'Molly')

4 Medieval beginnings of English theatre – 3 Other popular/folkloric roots of drama:Other popular/folkloric roots of drama: –Fertility rites in general, ritual country walks, processions etc: interesting dramatic potential –Morris dance since early 15 th century: includes characters such as Maid Marian, Friar Tuck etc. –Carnivalesque processions/practices: e.g., that of the Boy Bishop (choir boys elect a Boy Bishop from their rows for a certain time) or the Feast of Fools (lower clergy satirises rituals and customs of the church)

5 A typical Mummers Play King Alfred's Speech Wantage Mummers (QU 4) The Characters King Alfred a noble knight and monarch Beau Slasher a bold French officer Molly an old maid The Noble Dr Good essentially, a shaman Jacky Vinny with 'Jack in the Green' overtones Happy Jack... with wife and children at his back Old Beelzebub Father Christmas type character; bringer of news and observer of the World King Alfred Beau Slasher   Dr. Good Old Beelzebub  Molly Illustrations: Icknield Way Morris Men – The Wantage Mummers 2002

6 The Miracle & Mystery Play – 1 First important dramatic subgenre developed from liturgical tropes; authors presumably clerics. "Miracle play": esp. plays dealing with saints' miraculous lives "Mystery play": from Latin ministere (holding divine service) – dramatising biblical episodes, esp. Adam and Eve, the Fall, Kain and Abel, Noah's Flood, Abraham and Isaac, King Herod, Crucifixion, Ascension, Last Judgement. Man on a Pageant Waggon

7 The Miracle & Mystery Play – 2 Arranged in cycles (e.g., Chester cycle: 25 plays from creation of mankind to Judgement Day)  since 1311 staged together on Corpus Christi Day or Whitsunday. Plays move out of church: –no longer part of divine service; still: religious instruction –adopt popular vernacular of English –staged by workers' guilds on two-storey 'pageants' (i.e. wagons, but also the plays themselves )

8 Pageant cycles – 1 QU 5 II. Contents Of The Cycles The following names of pageants comprising the Chester, York, and Towneley cycles are listed below for the purpose of showing the full range and content of the three cycles from which most of the pageants in this volume have been taken. The pageants included in this volume are marked with an asterisk. Chester Banns. 1. Fall of Lucifer (Tanners). 2. Creation and Fall; Death of Abel (Drapers). 3. *Noah's Flood (Water-leaders and Drawers in Dee). 4. Lot; Abraham and Isaac (Barbers and Wax-chandlers). 5. Balaam and his Ass (Cappers and Linen-drapers). 6. Salutation and Nativity (Wrights and Slaters). 7. Shepherds (Painters and Glaziers). 8. Coming of the Three Kings (Vintners).

9 Pageant cycles – 2 9. Offering; Return of the Kings (Mercers). 10. Slaughter of the Innocents (Goldsmiths). 11. Purification (Blacksmiths). 12. Temptation; Woman Taken in Adultery (Butchers). 13. Lazarus (Glovers). 14. Christ's Entry into Jerusalem (Corvisors). 15. Betrayal of Christ (Bakers). 16. Passion (Fletchers, Bowyers, Coopers, Stringers). 17. Crucifixion (Ironmongers). 18. *Harrowing of Hell (Cooks and Innkeepers). 19. Resurrection (Skinners). 20. Pilgrims to Emmaus (Saddlers). 21. Ascension (Tailors). 22. Descent of the Holy Spirit (Fishmongers). 23. Ezechiel (Cloth-workers). 24. Antichrist (Dyers). 25. Judgment (Websters).

10 Pageant cycles – 3 York 1.*Creation; Fall of Lucifer (Barkers). 2.Creation, to the Fifth Day (Plasterers). 3.*Creation of Adam and Eve (Cardmakers). 4.Adam and Eve in Eden (Fullers). 5.*Fall of Man (Coopers). 6.Expulsion from Eden (Armourers). 7. Sacrifice of Cain and Abel (Glovers). 8. Building of the Ark (Shipwrights). 9. Noah and his Wife; Flood (Fishers and Mariners). 10. Abraham and Isaac (Parchmenters and Bookbinders). 11. Departure of the Israelites from Egypt; Ten Plagues; Crossing of the Red Sea (Hosiers). 12. Annunciation and Visitation (Spicers). 13. Joseph's Trouble about Mary (Pewterers and Founders). 14. Journey to Bethlehem; Birth of Jesus (Tile-thatchers). 15. Shepherds (Chandlers).

11 Pageant cycles – Coming of the Three Kings to Herod (Masons). 17. Coming of the Kings; Adoration (Goldsmiths). 18. Flight into Egypt (Marshals). 19. Slaughter of the Innocents (Girdlers and Nailers). 20. Christ with the Doctors (Spurriers and Lorimers). 21. Baptism of Jesus (Barbers). 22. Temptation (Smiths). 23. Transfiguration (Curriers). 24. Woman Taken in Adultery; Lazarus (Capmakers). 25. Christ's Entry into Jerusalem (Skinners). 26. Conspiracy (Cutlers). 27. Last Supper (Bakers). 28. Agony and Betrayal (Cordwainers). 29. Peter's Denial; Jesus before Caiaphas (Bowyers and Fletchers). 30. Dream of Pilate's Wife; Jesus before Pilate (Tapiters and Couchers). 31. Trial before Herod (Listers). 32. Second Accusation before Pilate; Remorse of Judas; Purchase of the Field of Blood (Cooks and Water-leaders).

12 Pageant cycles – Second Trial before Pilate (Tilemakers). 34. Christ Led to Cavalry (Shearmen). 35. *Crucifixion (Pinners and Painters). 36. Mortification of Christ; Burial (Butchers). 37. Harrowing of Hell (Saddlers). 38. *Resurrection (Carpenters). 39. Christ's Appearance to Mary Magdalene (Winedrawers). 40. Travellers to Emmaus (Sledmen). 41. Purification of Mary; Simeon and Anna (Hatmakers, Masons, Labourers). 42. Incredulity of Thomas (Scriveners). 43. Ascension (Tailors). 44. Descent of the Holy Spirit (Potters). 45. Death of Mary (Drapers). 46. Appearance of Mary to Thomas (Weavers). 47. Assumption and Coronation of the Virgin (Hostlers). 48.*Judgment (Mercers).

13 Pageant cycles – 6 Towneley 1. Creation (Barkers of Wakefield). 2. Murder of Abel (Glovers). 3. Noah and his Sons (Wakefield). 4. Abraham and Isaac. 5. Isaac. 6. Jacob. 7. Prophets. 8. Pharaoh (Listers). 9. Caesar Augustus. 10. Annunciation. 11. Salutation of Elizabeth. 12. First Shepherds' Pageant. 13. *Second Shepherds' Pageant. 14. Offering of the Magi. 15. Flight of Joseph and Mary into Egypt.

14 Pageant cycles – *Herod the Great. 17. Purification of Mary. 18. Pageant of the Doctors. 19. John the Baptist. 20. Conspiracy. 21. Buffeting. 22. Scourging. 23. Crucifixion. (source: A.C. Cawley [ed.]. 24. Talents. Everyman and Medieval Miracle Plays. 25. Harrowing of Hell. J.M. Dent & Sons. London 1979) 26. Resurrection. 27. Pilgrims to Emmaus (Fishers). 28. Thomas of India. 29. Ascension. 30. Judgment. 31. Lazarus. 32. Hanging of Judas.

15 Noah's Flood – 1 QU 6 And first in some high place, or in the clouds if it may be, God speaketh unto Noah standing without the Ark with all his family. God.I, God, that all the world have wrought, Heaven and earth, and all of nought from nothing I see my people, in deed and thought, Are set foully in sin. My ghost shall not leng in man, That through fleshly liking is my fone, But till six score years be gone, To look if they will blin. Man that I made I will destroy, Beast, worm, and fowl to fly; For on earth they do me noy, harm The folk that are thereon. It harms me so heartfully, […]

16 Noah's Flood – 2 QU 7 Noah.Wife, come in! Why stands thou there? Thou art ever froward, that dare I swear. Come in, on God's half! Time it were, For fear lest that we drown. N's Wife. Yea, sir, set up your sail, And row forth with evil hail, For, without any fail, I will not out of this town. But I have my gossips every one, unless; friends One foot further I will not gone; go They shall not drown, by St John, And I may save their life. if They loved me full well, by Christ; But thou wilt let them in thy chest, Else row forth, Noah, whither thou list, And get thee a new wife.

17 Noah's Flood – 3 Noah.Shem, son, lo! thy mother is wrow: angry Forsooth, such another I do not know. Shem.Father, I shall fetch her in, I trow, think Without any fail.[He goes to his mother. Mother, my father after thee sent, And bids thee into yonder ship wend. go Look up and see the wind, For we be ready to sail. N's Wife. Son, go again to him, and say I will not come therein to-day. Noah.Come in, wife, in twenty devils way, Or else stand there without. Ham.Shall we all fetch her in? Noah.Yea, sons, in Christ's blessing and mine; with I would you hied you betime, For of this flood I am in doubt. afraid

18 Noah's Flood – 4 Gossip. [To Wife] The flood comes fleeting in full and fast, flowing On every side it spreads full far; For fear of drowning I am aghast; Good gossip, let us draw near. And let us drink ere we depart, For oft-times we have done so; For at a draught thou drink'st a quart, And so will I do ere I go. N's Wife. Here is a pottle of Malmsey, good and strong; It will rejoice both heart and tongue; Though Noah thinks us never so long, Yet we will drink alike. Japh.Mother, we pray you altogether–– For we are here your own childer–– Come into the ship for fear of the weather, For his love that you bought!

19 Noah's Flood – 5 N's Wife. That will I not, for all your call, bidding But I have my gossips all. Shem.In faith, mother, yet you shall, Whether you will or nought. Then she shall go. Noah.Welcome, wife, into this boat. N's Wife. And have thou that for thy note! [She boxes him on the ear.] (QU 6 & 7: A.C. Cawley [ed.]. Everyman and Medieval Miracle Plays, pp. 37, 43 f.)

20 The Second Shepherds' Pageant (Wakefield cycle) – 1 QU 8 [Scene VIII. The stable in Bethlehem] 1 Shep.Hail, comely and clean; hail, young child! pure Hail, maker, as I mean, of a maiden so mild! born of Thou hast waried, I ween, the warlock so wild: cursed The false guiler of teen, now goes he beguiled. Lo, he merries, is merry Lo, he laughs, my sweeting! A well fare meeting! very fortunate I have holden my heting: Have a bob of cherries. bunch 2 Shep.Hail, sovereign saviour, for thou hast us sought! Hail, freely food and flower, that all thing hast wrought! noble child Hail, full of favour, that made all of nought! Hail! I kneel and I cower. A bird have I brought

21 The Second Shepherds' Pageant (Wakefield cycle) – 2 To my bairn. Hail, little tiny mop! moppet Of our creed thou art crop; I would drink on thy cop, Little day-starn. 3 Shep.Hail, darling dear, full of Godhead! I pray thee be near when that I have need. Hail, sweet is thy cheer! My heart would bleed To see thee sit here in so poor weed, clothing With no pennies. Hail! Put forth thy dall! hand I bring thee but a ball: Have and play thee withal, And go to the tennis. (A.C. Cawley [ed.]. Everyman and Medieval Miracle Plays, pp. 102 ff.)

22 Morality Play – 1 Mystery/miracle play: ceased in second half of 16 th century after English Reformation; new kind of play had announced itself already before: Morality play. Focus on the fate of individual human soul. Vices and Virtues allegorically fighting for the possession/ salvation of the Soul, typically: Everyman/Mankind/Humanum Genus etc. Woodcut illustration from the title page of the 1530 Everyman edition

23 Morality Play – 2 Tempted by Vice, Virtues intervene  regret, conversion, penitence, mercy, salvation. Staged by professional and paid actors in theatres-in- the-round (see next page) or pubs; no longer dependent on church holidays Only in the last two decades of 16 th century: social status of actors increased  part of aristocratic households, wearing their colours [Chamberlains Men, King's Men etc.]).

24 The Castle of Perseverance – 1 Fig. 1. The plan of the theatre for The Castle of Perseverance, about 1425, from the manuscript. In this plan the South is at the top. Reproduced by courtesy of the Council of the Early English Text Society. (Richard Southern. The Medieval Theatre in the Round: A Study of the Staging of 'The Castle of Perseverance' and related matters. Faber & Faber. London 1975, pp. 54 f.) QU 9

25 The Castle of Perseverance – 2 Transcript of 1425 manuscript courtesy of Michael Best, Shakespeare's Life and Times. Internet Shakespeare Editions, University of Victoria: Victoria, BC,

26 The Castle of Perseverance – 3 There are various legends, as follows: Written round between the two circles: þis is þe watyr a- bowte þe place if any dyche may be mad þer it schal be pleyed; or ellys þat it be strongely barryd al a-bowt; & lete noth ouer many stytelerys be with-Inne þe plase. Above the tower: þis is þe Castle of Perseueraunse þat stondyth In þe myddys of þe place; but lete no men sytte þer, for lettynge of syt; for þer schal be þe best of all. Either side of the tower: (left) Coveytyse cepbord / be þe beddys feet. (right) schal be at þe ende / of þe Castel. Below tower: Mankynde is bed schal be vnder þe Castel & þer schal þe sowle lye vnder þe bed tyl he schal ryse & pleye.

27 The Castle of Perseverance – 4 Outside the circles: (above) Sowth Caro skafold. (right) Wes[t] Mund[us] skaffo[ld]. (below) Northe Belyal skaffold. (below left) Northe-est Coveytyse Skaffold. (left) Est Deus [s]kafold. Below right: he þat schal pleye Belyal loke þat he haue gunne-powder brennyn[ge] In pypys in his handis & in his eris & in his ars whanne he gothe to bat[tel]. Below: þe iiij dowteris schul be clad in mentelys; Merci in wyth, Rythwysnesse in red al togedyr; Trewthe in sad grene & Pes al in blake; & þei schal playe in þe place alto gedyr tyl þey brynge up þe sowle.

28 The Castle of Perseverance – 5 Fig. 6. Showing the Hill outside the ditch and the audience inside. The audience cannot now sit on the hill. Fig. 7. Showing both Hill and audience inside the ditch. This is the arrangement which conforms with the evidence. Fig. 8. Bird's-eye view of Place with the Hill outside the ditch according to the arrangement in [Fig. 6]. An inconsistent arrangement. Fig. 9. Bird's-eye view of theatre the same size as Fig. 8 but with the Hill inside the ditch, corresponding with Fig. 7. A consistent arrangement. (Richard Southern. The Medieval Theatre in the Round: A Study of the Staging of 'The Castle of Perseverance' and related matters. Faber & Faber. London 1975, pp. 54 f.) w

29 Morality Play – 3 Underneath the castle tower: bed of Mankind, resting place of his soul; adjacent to the theatre round: playing scaffoldings ("sedes", i.e. seats): "Caro" (Flesh) in the south, "Mund[us]" (World) in the west, "Belyal" (Devil) in the north, "Coveytyse" (Covetousness) in the north-east, "Deus" (God) in the east. Medieval theatre-in-the-round (calculated for The Castle of Perseverance): Outer circle diameter of c. 130 ft/43 m, playing area 94 ft/31 m; 600/700–4 000 people; later morality plays and interludes: esp. played at inns. 'Interlude': from Latin interludium [play in-between, esp. between two courses of a banquet]; played esp. by students of Latin in banquet halls of aristocratic houses, universities…

30 Morality Play – 4 'Closed' plot structure: form/content of morality plays 'pre-scribed' by Christian dogmas – characters, plot, space, time, language follow authority-related theocratic world image, e.g.: Everyman (late 15 th century, best-known medieval morality play): Everyman accounts for his life before God, accompanied only by Good Deeds, strengthened by Confession, Regret, Penitence, Charity  he is forgiven his sins through God's grace. 16 th century: 'closed' form/content slowly opened up  reality, sensory experience, individuality, e.g.: The Interlude of the Nature of the Four Elements (John Rastell)

31 John Rastell, The Interlude of the Nature of the Four Elements – 1 Natura Naturata, Studious Desire, Experience instruct Humanity (spherical shape of Earth, elements and bodily fluids, Americas etc.); Sensual Appetite, Ignorance tempt him: Natura Naturata accepts that Humanity could not survive completely without Sensual Appetite, but this must not become his sole purpose in life. Inner conflict: empirical/inductive/scientific world image coexisting with and complementing the dogmatic/ deductive/theocratic scientia dei  late 15 th /early 16 th century: world er-fahren by Columbus, Vespucci, Magellan, Cortez, Pizarro: world represented in drama becomes more colourful and complex.

32 John Rastell, The Interlude of the Nature of the Four Elements – 2 QU 10 Hu.Why, sir, I say, what man be ye? Sen.I am called Sensual Appetite, All creatures in me delight; I comfort the wits five, The tasting, smelling, and hearing; I refresh the sight and feeling To all creatures alive. For when the body waxeth hungry For lack of food, or else thirsty, Then with drinks pleasant I restore him out of pain, And oft refresh nature again With delicate viand.

33 John Rastell, The Interlude of the Nature of the Four Elements – 3 Sen. (ctd.) With pleasant sound of harmony The hearing alway I satisfy, I dare this well report; The smelling with sweet odour, And the sight with pleasant figure And colours, I comfort; The feeling, that is so pleasant, Of every member, foot, or hand, What pleasure therein can be By the touching of soft and hard, Of hot or cold, nought in regard, Except it come by me. Hu.Then I cannot see the contrary, But ye are for me full necessary,

34 John Rastell, The Interlude of the Nature of the Four Elements – 4 Hu. (ctd.) And right convenient. Stu.Yea, sir, beware yet what ye do, For if you forsake my company so, Lord Nature will not be content. Of him ye shall never learn good thing, Nother virtue nor no other cunning, This dare I well say. Sen.Marry, avaunt, knave! I thee defy! Did Nature forbid him my company? What sayest thou thereto? Speak openly. Hu.As for that I know well nay. Sen. No, by God! I am right sure; For he knoweth well no creature

35 John Rastell, The Interlude of the Nature of the Four Elements – 5 Sen. (ctd.) Without me can live one day. Hu.Sir, I pray you be content, It is not utterly mine intent Your company to exile; But only to have communication, And a pastime of recreation With this man for a while. Stu. Well for your pleasure I will depart. Hu. Now go, knave, go! I beshrew thy heart! The devil send thee forward! pp. 21 ff.

36 John Rastell, The Interlude of the Nature of the Four Elements – 6 So far, the plot structure resembles more conservative medieval morality plays: in Christian/ascetic understanding, Humanity falls prey to deadly sins and loses his soul  dialogue gets livelier as soon as Humanity takes the wrong path – to the tavern: QU 11 Hu.What thing is that, I thee pray? Sen.Marry thus, canst thou tell us yet, Wehre is any rose water to get? Ta.Yea, that I can well purvey, As good as ever you put to your nose, For there is a false wench called Rose

37 John Rastell, The Interlude of the Nature of the Four Elements – 7 Ta. (ctd.) Distilleth a quart every day. Sen. By God! I would a pint of that Were poured even upon thy pate Before all this presence. Ta.Yet I had liever she and I Were both together secretly In some corner in the spence; For, by God, it is a pretty girl! It is a world to see her whirl, Dancing in a round; O Lord God! how she will trip! She will bounce it, she will whip, Yet, clean above the ground! p. 35

38 John Rastell, The Interlude of the Nature of the Four Elements – 8 Taverner: wit especially versed in innuendo and word play  carnivalesque/folkloristic element in mystery plays of 14 th and morality plays of 15 th century: the serious and comical, the sublime and farcical closely entwined Text deviates from the common structure of moralities – no question of sin or repentance; instead discussion of empirical knowledge: Ex.Yes, that I can well prove, QU 12 For this ye know as well as I, Ye see the North Star in the sky, Mark well, ye shall unneth it spy, That ever it doth remove. But this I assure you, if you go Northward an hundreth mile or two,

39 John Rastell, The Interlude of the Nature of the Four Elements – 9 Ex. (ctd.) Ye shall think it riseth, And how that it is near approached The point over the top of your head, Which is called your zenith. Yet if ye go the other way, Southward ten or twelve days' journey, Ye shall then think anon It descended, and come more nigh The circle parting the earth and sky, As ye look straight with your eye, Which is called your horizon; But ye may go southward so far, That at the last that same star Will seem so far down right, Clear underneath your horizon,

40 John Rastell, The Interlude of the Nature of the Four Elements – 10 Ex. (ctd.) That sight thereof can you have none, The earth will stop your sight. This proveth of necessity That the earth must needs round be: This conclusion doth it try. Hu.Now that is the properest conclusion That ever I heard, for by reason No man may it deny. But, sir, if that a man sail far Upon the sea, will then that star Do there as on the ground? Ex.Yea, doubtless, sail northward, rise it will, And sail southward, it falleth still, And that proveth the sea round. pp. 38 f.

41 John Rastell, The Interlude of the Nature of the Four Elements – 11 Experience's arguments are based on sensory perception: empirical and inductive  indications of paradigm shift in thinking: old structures are still there, but challenged by new ones (cf. R. Williams' model of cultural change: emergent, dominant, residual cultural tendencies)  literary discourse reflects these shifts in exemplary ways). In the end, Humanity jollily faces Natura Naturata without any sign of guilt or regret. Nature: defensive tone – admits "necessity" of Sensual Appetite  Christian morality and dogmas seem to have lost their absolute claim  physical/sensual human needs are recognised (as opposed to The Castle of Perseverance).

42 John Rastell, The Interlude of the Nature of the Four Elements – 12 QU 13 Nature Well, Humanity, now I see plainly That thou hast used much folly, the while I have been absent. Hu.Sir, I trust I have done nothing That should be contrary to your pleasing, Nor never was mine intent; For I have followed the consel clear, As ye me bade, of Studious Desire, And for necessity among Sometime Sensual Appetite's counsel, For without him, ye know right well, My life cannot endure long.

43 John Rastell, The Interlude of the Nature of the Four Elements – 13 Nature Though it be for thee ful necessary For thy comfort sometime to satisfy Thy sensual appetite, Yet it is not convenient for thee To put therein thy felicity And all thy whole delight; For if thou wilt learn no science, Nother by study nor experience, I shall thee never advance; But in the world thou shalt dure then, Despised of every wise man, Like this rude beast Ignorance. [The original here ends imperfectly.] p. 50

44 Early English comedy: Gammer Gurton's Needle c. 1550/60 by a certain Mr S, resident of Christ's College, Cambridge – university play. "Plot": searching the needle lost by Grandma Gurton; after many comical incidents and complications, happily found in the end – proves/disproves proverb "not worth a needle"  shows no influence of antique comedy; fuelled by local comic (esp. carnivalesque) tradition  comedy for comedy's sake: no didactic aim. Characters: from middle class and servants' estate; realistic (Gammer Gurton, Diccon, Hodge, Master Bailey) and satirical names (Doctor Rat, Dame Chat, Cock). Popular and realistic style: –spoken in the vernacular –lower comedy, concentrating on farce-like scenes with anal and excremental eroticism

45 Gammer Gurton's Needle – 1 QU 13b Act I, Scene iii Tib Gog's bread, Hodge, thou had a good turn thou wert not here this while! It had been better for some of us to have been hence a mile My gammer is so out of course and frantic all at once, That Cock, our boy, and I, poor wench, have felt it on our bones. Hodge What is the matter, say on, Tib, whereat she taketh so on? Tib She is undone, she saith, alas, her joy and life is gone. If she hear not of some comfort, she is, faith, but dead; Shall never come within her lips one inch of meat ne bread.

46 Gammer Gurton's Needle – 2 Hodge By'r Lady, cham not very glad to see her in this dump–– Chold a noble her stool hath fallen and she hath broke her rump! Tib Nay, and that were the worst, we would not greatly care, For bursting of her huckle-bone or breaking of her chair; But greater, greater is her grief, as, Hodge, we shall all feel. Hodge Gog's wounds, Tib, my gammer has never lost her nee'le? Tib Her nee'le! HodgeHer nee'le?

47 Gammer Gurton's Needle – 3 Tib Her nee'le, by him that made me! It is true, Hodge, I tell thee! Hodge Gog's sacrament, I would she had lost th'heart out of her belly! The devil or else his dam, they ought her sure a shame! How a murrain came this chance, say, Tib, unto our dame? Tib My gammer sat her downe on her pess and bad me reach thy breeches, And by and by––a vengeance on it!––or she had take two stitches To clap a clout upon thine arse, by chance aside she leers, And Gib, our cat, in the milk pan she spied, over head and ears. 'Ah, whore! Out, thief!' she cried aloud, and swapped the breeches down;

48 Gammer Gurton's Needle – 4 Tib (ctd.) Up went her staff and out leapt Gib at doors into the town, And since that time was never wight could set their eyes upon it. Gog's malison chave, Cock and I, bid twenty times light on it! Hodge And is not then my breeches sewed up, tomorow that I should wear? Tib No, in faith, Hodge, thy breeches lie for all this never the near. Hodge Now a vengeance light on all the sort, that better should have kept it, […] (William Stevenson [ed.]. Gammer Gurton's Needle, pp. 9-11)

49 Gammer Gurton's Needle – 5 QU 14 Act II First a Song Back and side, go bare, go bare, Both foot and hand go cold; But Belly, God send thee good ale enough, Whether it be new or old. I can not eat but little meat, My stomach is not good; But sure I think that I can drink With him that wears a hood. Though I go bare take ye no care, I am nothing a-cold: I stuff my skin so full within, Of jolly good ale and old.

50 Gammer Gurton's Needle – 6 Back and side, go bare, go bare, Both foot and hand go cold; But Belly, God send thee good ale enough, Whether it be new or old. I love no roast but a nut-brown toast And a crab laid in the fire; A little bread shall do me stead, Much bread I not desire. No frost nor snow, no wind I trow Can hurt me if I would; I am so wrapped and throughly lapped Of jolly good ale and old. Back and side, go bare, etc.

51 Gammer Gurton's Needle – 7 And Tib my wife, that as her life Loveth well good ale to seek, Full oft drinks she till ye may see The tears run down her cheeks. Then doth she troll to me the bowl, Even as a malt-worm should; And saith, 'Sweetheart, I took my part Of this jolly good ale and old'. Back and side, go bare, etc. Now let them drink till they nod and wink Even as good fellows should do; They shall not miss to have the bliss

52 Gammer Gurton's Needle – 8 Good ale doth bring men to. And all poor souls that have scoured bowls, Or have them lustily trolled, God save the lives of them and their wives, Whether they be young or old. Back and side, go bare, etc. (William Stevenson [ed.]. Gammer Gurton's Needle, pp. 18 f.)

53 Early English comedy: Ralph Roister Doister – 1 Written c by Nicholas Udall, first printed edition from 1566/67. Udall: lecturer in Greek and Philosophy at Corpus Christi College, Oxford; Eaton headmaster  Influences: –Terence's Eunuchus (unsuccessful wooing) and Plautus' Miles gloriosus (cowardly soldier) –local dramatic tradition, esp. of morality plays and interludes

54 Early English comedy: Ralph Roister Doister – 2 Characters: –virtuous lady Christian Custance (Constance) instead of the Roman play's tolerant prostitute –'Christian Custance' and 'Gavin Goodluck' point to the morality tradition, 'Merrygreek' to the Greek figure of the parasite and to the role as jester. –'Tristram Trusty', 'Sim Suresby', 'Tibet Talkapace', 'Madge Mumblecrust', 'Annot Alyface': telling names foregrounding individual character traits  individualisation.

55 Thomas Kyd, The Spanish Tragedy O eyes, no eyes, but fountains fraught with tears; O life, no life, but lively form of death; O world, no world, but mass of public wrongs, Confused and filled with murder and misdeeds. O sacred heavens! If this unhallowed deed, If this inhuman and barbarous attempt, If this incomparable murder thus Of mine, but now no more my son, Shall unrevealed and unrevenged pass, How should we term your dealings to be just, If you unjustly deal with those that in your Justice trust? ( ) 1633 title page courtesy of Columbia Rare Book and Manuscript Library Hieronymo does not just act out God's will, but instead becomes the author of his own destiny. Individual motives lead to various intrigues, psychological forces are shown at play – Kyd dramatizes the power of human feelings, even insanity.

56 Thomas Kyd, The Spanish Tragedy – 2 Thomas Kyd ( ). Only The Spanish Tragedy (written sometime between 1583/84 and 1590/91) and his translation of Tasso's Padre di famiglia have survived. Revenge plot (contemporary predilection for Senecan revenge motif): –villainous deed (esp. murder) set before the dramatic action –ghost of the murdered demanding revenge –protagonist delays revenge – retarding moment –play within the play as part of the revenge plan –death of the guilty party – climax of the action towards the end of the play –death of close relatives out of grief, or as a retribution for the committed murders

57 Thomas Kyd, The Spanish Tragedy – 3 Horatio, Bel-Imperia, and Hieronimo are drawn into a maelstrom of evil and corruption: QU 15 Those garments that he wears I oft have seen – Alas, it is Horatio, my sweet son! Oh no, but he that whilom was my son. O was it thou that calledst me from my bed? O speak, if any spark of life remain: I am thy father. Who hath slain my son? What savage monster, not of human kind, Hath here been glutted with thy harmless blood, And left thy bloody corpse dishonoured here,

58 Thomas Kyd, The Spanish Tragedy – 4 For me, amidst this dark and deathful shades, To drown thee with an ocean of my tears? O heavens, why made you night to cover sin? By day this deed of darkness had not been. O earth, why didst thou not in time devour The vild profaner of this sacred bower? O poor Horatio, what hadst thou misdone, To leese thy life ere life was new begun? O wicked butcher, whatsoe'er thou wert, How could thou strangle virtue and desert? Ay me most wretched, that have lost my joy, In leesing my Horatio, my sweet boy! Enter ISABELLA

59 Thomas Kyd, The Spanish Tragedy – 5 ISABELLA My husband's absence makes my heart to throb – Hieronimo! HIERONIMO Here Isabella, help me to lament, For sighs are stopped and all my tears are spent. ISABELLA What world of grief! My son Horatio! O where's the author of this endless woe? HIERONIMO To know the author were some ease of grief, For in revenge my heart would find relief.

60 Thomas Kyd, The Spanish Tragedy – 6 ISABELLA Then is he gone? and is my son gone too? O, gush out, tears, fountains and floods of tears; Blow, sighs, and raise an everlasting storm: For outrage fits our cursed wretchedness. HIERONIMO Sweet lovely rose, ill plucked before thy time, Fair worthy son, not conquered, but betrayed: I'll kiss thee now, for words with tears are stayed. ISABELLA And I'll close up the glasses of his sight, For once these eyes were only my delight.

61 Thomas Kyd, The Spanish Tragedy – 7 HIERONIMO See'st thou this handkercher besmeared with blood? It shall not from me till I take revenge. See'st thou those wounds that yet are bleeding fresh? I'll not entomb them till I have revenged. Then will I joy amidst my discontent, Till then my sorrow never shall be spent. ISABELLA The heavens are just, murder cannot be hid: Time is the author both of truth and right, And time will bring this treachery to light. pp. 44 f.

62 Thomas Kyd, The Spanish Tragedy – 8 Pain expressed in a highly rhetorical and stylised way – Senacan convention acceptable to Elizabethan audience; QU 15 & 16: various rhetorical devices (parallelism, anaphora, interior rhyme, word play etc.)  16 th century: classical literature becomes most important stylistic model, cf. esp John Lyly (Euphues, 1578/1580) and Sir Philip Sidney (Arcadia, 1590). Hieronimo on the brink of insanity, a predecessor of Hamlet: overwhelming power of feelings  last possible stage of revaluation of individual human motivations in 16 th -century English drama:

63 Thomas Kyd, The Spanish Tragedy – 9 QU 16 Act III, Scene ii pp. 52 f. Enter HIERONIMO HIERONIMO O eyes, no eyes, but fountains fraught with tears; O life, no life, but lively form of death; O world, no world, but mass of public wrongs, Confused and filled with murder and misdeeds! O sacred heavens! if this unhallowed deed, If this inhuman and barbarous attempt, If this incomparable murder thus Of mine, but now no more my son, Shall unrevealed and unrevengéd pass, How should we term your dealings to be just, If you unjustly deal with those that in your justice trust?

64 Thomas Kyd, The Spanish Tragedy – 10 "And princes, now behold Hieronimo, / Author and actor in this tragedy": Man becomes author of his own fate (instead of acting out Providence's script) – changed relation of the individual to universe/Creation, recognition of human responsibility  human plans/intrigues at the centre of history and drama: chaotically unordered reality, no longer supervised by an absolute subject. Gruesome details: characteristic of revenge tragedy; great demand for spectacular action, cf. also Shakespeare's King Lear, Hamlet, Othello, Macbeth and esp. Titus Andronicus. Dramatic representation of primeval psychological forces: for the first time in English drama taken seriously as part of human existence.

65 Christopher Marlowe, Dr Faustus  Enlarged detail of top left hand corner  C. Marlowe's portrait courtesy The Marlowe Society Faustus is the representative of a new concept of reality, the Renaissance man, striving for absolute knowledge. Faustus is the representative of a new concept of reality, the Renaissance man, striving for absolute knowledge. For cheap conjurors' tricks he pawns his soul – in the end the authority- centred world view is restored.  /|

66 Christopher Marlowe, Dr Faustus – 2 Christopher Marlowe ( ). Astonishing literary achievement: esp. Tamburlaine the Great (1587/88), The Jew of Malta (1590), Edward II (1592), D. Faustus (1588 or 1593). Renaissance individual's curiosity/thirst for knowledge dramatised for the first time; still influenced by medieval morality play (good and evil angel, seven deadly vices), antagonists Lucifer and his disciple Mephostophilis; realistic (Wagner, Valdes, Cornelius etc.) as well as comic characters from the lower classes. Christopher Marlowe ( ). Astonishing literary achievement: esp. Tamburlaine the Great (1587/88), The Jew of Malta (1590), Edward II (1592), D. Faustus (1588 or 1593). Renaissance individual's curiosity/thirst for knowledge dramatised for the first time; still influenced by medieval morality play (good and evil angel, seven deadly vices), antagonists Lucifer and his disciple Mephostophilis; realistic (Wagner, Valdes, Cornelius etc.) as well as comic characters from the lower classes.

67 Christopher Marlowe, Dr Faustus – 3 QU 17 Scene 1 Enter FAUSTUS in his Study FAUSTUS Settle thy studies, Faustus, and begin To sound the depth of that thou wilt profess: Having commenced, be a divine in show, Yet level at the end of every art, And live and die in Aristotle's works. Sweet Analytics, 'tis thou hast ravished me: Bene disserere est finis logices. Is, to dispute well, logic's chiefest end? Affords this art no greater miracle? Then read no more, thou hast attained the end; A greater subject fitteth Faustus' wit. Bid on kai me on farewell; Galen come: Seeing, ubi desinit philosophus, ibi incipit medicus. QU 17 Scene 1 Enter FAUSTUS in his Study FAUSTUS Settle thy studies, Faustus, and begin To sound the depth of that thou wilt profess: Having commenced, be a divine in show, Yet level at the end of every art, And live and die in Aristotle's works. Sweet Analytics, 'tis thou hast ravished me: Bene disserere est finis logices. Is, to dispute well, logic's chiefest end? Affords this art no greater miracle? Then read no more, thou hast attained the end; A greater subject fitteth Faustus' wit. Bid on kai me on farewell; Galen come: Seeing, ubi desinit philosophus, ibi incipit medicus.

68 Christopher Marlowe, Dr Faustus – 4 Be a physician, Faustus, heap up gold, And be eternized for some wondrous cure. Summum bonum medicinae sanitas: The end of physic is our body's health. Why Faustus, hast thou not attained that end? Is not thy common talk found aphorisms? Are not thy bills hung up as monuments, Whereby whole cities have escaped the plague, And thousand desperate maladies been eased? Yet art thou still but Faustus, and a man. Couldst thou make men to live eternally, Or, being dead, raise them to life again, Then this profession were to be esteemed. Physic farewell! Where is Justinian? Si una eademque res legatur duobus, Alter rem alter valorem rei, etc. A pretty case of paltry legacies: Be a physician, Faustus, heap up gold, And be eternized for some wondrous cure. Summum bonum medicinae sanitas: The end of physic is our body's health. Why Faustus, hast thou not attained that end? Is not thy common talk found aphorisms? Are not thy bills hung up as monuments, Whereby whole cities have escaped the plague, And thousand desperate maladies been eased? Yet art thou still but Faustus, and a man. Couldst thou make men to live eternally, Or, being dead, raise them to life again, Then this profession were to be esteemed. Physic farewell! Where is Justinian? Si una eademque res legatur duobus, Alter rem alter valorem rei, etc. A pretty case of paltry legacies:

69 Christopher Marlowe, Dr Faustus – 5 Exhereditare filium non potest pater nisi… Such is the subject of the Institute, And universal body of the law: This study fits a mercenary drudge Who aims at nothing but external trash! Too servile and illiberal for me. When all is done, divinity is best: Jerome's Bible, Faustus, view it well: Stipendium peccati mors est: ha! Stipendium, etc. The reward of sin is death? That's hard. Si peccasse negamus, fallimur, et nulla est in nobis veritas. If we say that we have no sin, We deceive ourselves, and there's no truth in us. Why then belike we must sin, And so consequently die. Ay, we must die an everlasting death. What doctrine call you this? Che sara, sara: Exhereditare filium non potest pater nisi… Such is the subject of the Institute, And universal body of the law: This study fits a mercenary drudge Who aims at nothing but external trash! Too servile and illiberal for me. When all is done, divinity is best: Jerome's Bible, Faustus, view it well: Stipendium peccati mors est: ha! Stipendium, etc. The reward of sin is death? That's hard. Si peccasse negamus, fallimur, et nulla est in nobis veritas. If we say that we have no sin, We deceive ourselves, and there's no truth in us. Why then belike we must sin, And so consequently die. Ay, we must die an everlasting death. What doctrine call you this? Che sara, sara:

70 Christopher Marlowe, Dr Faustus – 6 What will be, shall be! Divinity adieu! These metaphysics of magicians, And necromantic books are heavenly! Lines, circles, schemes, letters and characters! Ay, these are those that Faustus most desires. O what a world of profit and delight, Of power, of honour, of omnipotence Is promised to the studious artisan! All things that move between the quiet poles Shall be at my command: emperors and kings Are but obeyed in their several provinces, Nor can they raise the wind, or rend the clouds; But his dominion that exceeds in this Stretcheth as far as doth the mind of man: A sound magician is a mighty god. Here Faustus, try thy brains to gain a deity.pp. 6-9 What will be, shall be! Divinity adieu! These metaphysics of magicians, And necromantic books are heavenly! Lines, circles, schemes, letters and characters! Ay, these are those that Faustus most desires. O what a world of profit and delight, Of power, of honour, of omnipotence Is promised to the studious artisan! All things that move between the quiet poles Shall be at my command: emperors and kings Are but obeyed in their several provinces, Nor can they raise the wind, or rend the clouds; But his dominion that exceeds in this Stretcheth as far as doth the mind of man: A sound magician is a mighty god. Here Faustus, try thy brains to gain a deity.pp. 6-9

71 Christopher Marlowe, Dr Faustus – 7 Superbia (pride) and hubris; Faustus turns his back on God and conjures up the Devil  He evokes Mephostophilis, who serves Lucifer (once one of the archangels – damned for superbia); still there are moments in which Faustus begins to doubt: Superbia (pride) and hubris; Faustus turns his back on God and conjures up the Devil  He evokes Mephostophilis, who serves Lucifer (once one of the archangels – damned for superbia); still there are moments in which Faustus begins to doubt: QU 18 illustration from: Christopher Marlowe, Doctor Faustus. 2 nd ed. (London: The New Mermaids, 1989).

72 Christopher Marlowe, Dr Faustus – 8 QU 19 Scene 5 Enter FAUSTUS in his Study FAUSTUS Now Faustus, must thou needs be damned, And canst thou not be saved. What boots it then to think of God or heaven? Away with such vain fancies and despair, Despair in God, and trust in Belzebub. Now go not backward: no, Faustus, be resolute; Why waverest thou? O, something soundeth in mine ears: Abjure this magic, turn to God again. Ay, and Faustus will turn to God again. To God? He loves thee not: The god thou servest is thine own appetite Wherein is fixed the love of Belzebub. To him I'll build an altar and a church, And offer luke-warme bloud of new-born babes. QU 19 Scene 5 Enter FAUSTUS in his Study FAUSTUS Now Faustus, must thou needs be damned, And canst thou not be saved. What boots it then to think of God or heaven? Away with such vain fancies and despair, Despair in God, and trust in Belzebub. Now go not backward: no, Faustus, be resolute; Why waverest thou? O, something soundeth in mine ears: Abjure this magic, turn to God again. Ay, and Faustus will turn to God again. To God? He loves thee not: The god thou servest is thine own appetite Wherein is fixed the love of Belzebub. To him I'll build an altar and a church, And offer luke-warme bloud of new-born babes.

73 Christopher Marlowe, Dr Faustus – 9 Enter GOOD ANGEL and EVIL [ANGEL] GOOD ANGEL Sweet Faustus, leave that execrable art. FAUSTUS Contrition, prayer, repentance: what of them? GOOD ANGEL O they are means to bring thee unto heaven. EVIL ANGEL Rather illusions, fruits of lunacy, That makes men foolish that do trust them most. GOOD ANGEL Sweet Faustus, think of heaven, and heavenly things. EVIL ANGEL No Faustus, think of honour and of wealth. Exeunt [ANGELS] pp. 25 f. Enter GOOD ANGEL and EVIL [ANGEL] GOOD ANGEL Sweet Faustus, leave that execrable art. FAUSTUS Contrition, prayer, repentance: what of them? GOOD ANGEL O they are means to bring thee unto heaven. EVIL ANGEL Rather illusions, fruits of lunacy, That makes men foolish that do trust them most. GOOD ANGEL Sweet Faustus, think of heaven, and heavenly things. EVIL ANGEL No Faustus, think of honour and of wealth. Exeunt [ANGELS] pp. 25 f.

74 Christopher Marlowe, Dr Faustus – 10 QU 20 Faustus is gone. Regard his hellish fall, Whose fiendful fortune may exhort the wise Only to wonder at unlawful things: Whose deepness doth entice such forward wits, to practice more than heavenly power permits. p. 68 QU 20 Faustus is gone. Regard his hellish fall, Whose fiendful fortune may exhort the wise Only to wonder at unlawful things: Whose deepness doth entice such forward wits, to practice more than heavenly power permits. p. 68  Two different voices inside Faustus' mind (in the morality play called 'psychomachia') allegorical representation is strongly psychological The real tragedy: Faustus has pawned his soul for cheap jugglers' tricks and hollow values; his regrets come too late – at the end, the old authority-centred world picture is restored:  Two different voices inside Faustus' mind (in the morality play called 'psychomachia') allegorical representation is strongly psychological The real tragedy: Faustus has pawned his soul for cheap jugglers' tricks and hollow values; his regrets come too late – at the end, the old authority-centred world picture is restored:

75 Christopher Marlowe, Dr Faustus – 11  Confirms conservative attitude against which Faustus rebelled; different world pictures clash: –absolute striving for self-realisation and criticism of traditional concepts of knowledge –vs. straying from the right path (analogous to Mankind etc. in the morality play); still: tragedy takes the individual's attempt to establish himself as subject of reality seriously In psychological terms: Devil/hell as symbolic projections of feelings of guilt, caused by Faustus' rebellion against the divine law  older dominant interpretative model of reality remains valid far into 18 th century.  Confirms conservative attitude against which Faustus rebelled; different world pictures clash: –absolute striving for self-realisation and criticism of traditional concepts of knowledge –vs. straying from the right path (analogous to Mankind etc. in the morality play); still: tragedy takes the individual's attempt to establish himself as subject of reality seriously In psychological terms: Devil/hell as symbolic projections of feelings of guilt, caused by Faustus' rebellion against the divine law  older dominant interpretative model of reality remains valid far into 18 th century.

76 Renaissance Literature outside Drama 1485: War of the Roses ends, reign of Henry VII Tudor (ruling ) – Tudor myth of Arthurian descent vs. shaky relationship to House of Lancaster. From late 15 th century on: revaluation and reconsideration of classical literature – first public lectures on Greek language and literature in Oxford under the reign of Henry VII. Under Henry VIII (reign ): northern Renaissance, esp. Thomas More and Thomas Wyatt; under Elizabeth I (reign ): first principles of empirical science formulated. Study for the family portrait of Sir Thomas More by Hans Holbein the Younger (c. 1527)

77 Renaissance Literature – Poetry John Skelton ( ): most impressive literary personality at the time of Henry VIII – fast-moving metrical rhythm; moral and political satire in the manner of Juvenal. Sir Thomas Wyatt ( ): takes over Petrarcan sonnet form  later 16 th century: extensive sonnet tradition, combining courtly love with Neoplatonic idealism. Until 18 th century: poetry determined by imitatio, poets as 'makers' (poietes) and teachers vs. "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth) of Romanticism.

78 Renaissance Literature – Narrative Sir Thomas More ( ): one of the most famous humanists of the time, best known for his Neo-Latin Utopia (1516): political sci-fi and utopian satire, but also severe social criticism; beheaded 1535, canonised as martyr of Catholic faith in Last two decades of 16 th century: Elizabethan literature: –printed books more easily available –education in classical rhetoric (esp inventio, dispositio, elocutio; ideal of copia) Mannerist rhetoric: stylish and self-conscious, preferring ornate and artistically arranged words; e.g., John Lyly's Euphues. The Anatomy of Wit (1578) – rich in both schemes and tropes.

79 John Lyly, Euphues. The Anatomy of Wit QU 21 Aye, but Euphues, hath she not heard also that the dry touchwood is kindled with lime, that the greatest mushroom growth in one night? That the fire quickly burneth the flax? That love easily entreth into the sharp wit without resistance, and is harbored there without repentance? QU 22 To love and to live well is not granted to Jupiter. Who so is blinded with the caul of beauty discerneth no colour of honesty. Did not Gyges cut Candaules a coat by his own measure? Did not Paris, though he were a welcome guest to Menelaus, serve his host a slippery prank? 'Euphuistic style': excess of multiplied variation – en vogue for several years; striking feature of Elizabethan rhetoric: amplification (exaggerated, persuasive emphasis), esp. 

80 Sir Philip Sidney, Arcadia – 1 Older, complete version c , incomplete revision ('New Arcadia') ; new literary form: blending pastoral romance and Heliodor’s heroic romance – often described as forerunner of the modern novel (esp. Richardson and Fielding). Five books/'acts': Pyrocles (Macedonian king's son) and Musidorus (son of Thessalian Duchess) are shipwrecked and land in Arcadia; they fall in love with King Basilius' daughters Pamela and Philoclea, who are in a shepherd's custody because of an oracle.

81 Sir Philip Sidney, Arcadia – 2 [synopsis ctd.] The people rise against their king; Pyrocles and Musidorus can stop the rebellion. Before the couples can elope, Basilius drinks a potion intended for Pyrocles and is taken for dead. The Macedonian king sentences his son and nephew to death; Basilius awakes in time, and the narration ends with reconciliation and double marriage. King Basilius' abdication: reflects contemporary nightmare scenario – Elizabeth I has not made arrangements for a successor (motif still engages Shakespeare).


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