3OrWhy bother giving Occupational Therapy to people who have had a stroke?
4Activities of daily living Basic/Personal ADL‘those tasks which all of us undertake every day of our lives in order to maintain our level of care’(Hopson, 1981).-includes such tasks as feeding, dressing, toileting and bathing.
13Nottingham SUE study Drummond et al, 1996 Patients with a stroke were randomly allocated to treatment on the stroke unit or to other wards (General Medical or Health Care of the Elderly wards).Found that SU patients did better on personal ADL than other patients- why?In comparison, mobility same in all settings.
14Occupational Therapy Trials Corr and Bayer, 1995Drummond and Walker, 1995Logan et al, 1997Walker et al, 1999Gilbertson et al, 2000Sackley et al, 2006
15Corr and Bayer, 1995 follow up/review Drummond and Walker, 1995 leisure or ADLGilbertson et al, week follow upLogan et al, 1997 enhanced social services
16Walker et al (1999) recruited people who were not admitted to hospital after their stroke. Those who had an occupational therapy intervention performed better than a control group at six month follow up on a range of self care measures.Unpublished- expertise of therapist important.
17Sackley et al (2006) recruited people in nursing homes who had had a stroke. Those who had an occupational therapy intervention had higher scores indicating maintenance and slight improvement in the functional status compared to the control group.More participants survived in the intervention group.
18Treatment by an Occupational Therapist, who is an expert in stroke care, can reduce activity limitation in people who have had a stroke.
19However, with the exception of the Sackley trial, all these trials were small and single-centred.
20TOTAL Trial of Occupational Therapy and Leisure. Patients who had a stroke were randomly allocated in five UK centres to receive either;additional occupational therapy focused on leisureadditional occupational therapy focused on activities of daily livingnormal care.Parker, Gladman, Drummond et al (2001)
23In contrast to the findings of the previous smaller trials, neither of the additional occupational therapy treatments showed a clear beneficial effect on mood, leisure activity or independence in ADL measured at either six or twelve months follow up.
24Problems?Publication bias – negative trials difficult to get published.Overall impact of results in stroke.
25Explanation for results? artificial situation for therapists who found day to day implementation difficult, resulting in contamination between the groups.people were withdrawn -or indeed not even entered into the study- by therapists, who believed they needed normal, routine care (that is, both ADL and leisure interventions).i.e. practical difficulties with protocol adherence could explain the negative results obtained.
26Literature now confusing We decided to conduct a systematic review.Information already there- therefore no use repeating.
27ObjectiveTo determine whether Occupational Therapy focused specifically on personal activities of daily living (ADL) improves recovery for patients following a stroke.
28Systematic reviews are important but the details can be dull!
29Criteria for studiesAll RCTs of stroke pts receiving intervention by an Occupational Therapist (or under OT supervision) with aim of facilitating personal ADL compared to usual/no care.Definition of stroke.Excluded mixed aetiology (less than 50% stroke).
38Occupational Therapy- Increased performance scores(St Mean diff 0.18, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.32, p=0.01)Reduced risk of poor outcome(death, deterioration or dependency in PADL)(OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.87, p=0.003)i.e. life in years not years in life.
39ThusFor every 100 people who received Occupational Therapy focused on PADL, 11 would be spared a poor outcome. (95% CI 7 to 30)
40DifficultiesInformation from trialists- some not forthcoming or slow to obtainCluster randomization- statistical nightmareTime and moneyAuthorship
42Why bother giving Occupational Therapy to people who have had a stroke?
43Occupational Therapy focused on improving personal ADL in patients with a stroke can improve performance and reduce the risk of deterioration in these abilities.
44The debate now needs to move away from whether focussed Occupational Therapy is beneficial to whether it is a right and not a privilege for everyone who has had a stroke.
45The questions we should now seek to answer are; what specific interventions are most effective?,with whom? (i.e. the selection of appropriate patients),how much? (i.e. the intensity of treatment sessions)and for how long? (the duration of the treatment).
46Patient with stroke- medical note entry Patient with stroke- medical note entry. ‘Nothing more could be done for the patient so he was referred for rehabilitation’