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1 Al-Husain: Anecdotes and Sayings By A.S. Hashim. MD Sayings of Imams taken from: Ziyarah of Imams taken from:

2 Ashuraa Zainab and Zainul Abideen By A.S. Hashim. MD

3 About this slide show The Vision of Ashuraa to be kept alive Manner of broadcasting Salient ways to reach the people over many years Zainab’s Role in the effort and the Image of Ashuraa Zainul Abideen in Medina and the Image of Ashuraa 1.Boycott 2.Writing Du’aas, Epistle of Rights and Obligations 3.Active mode of Crying 4.About Al-Husain and the Majlis 5.The urging to visit Al-Husain's Tomb 6.Discussions with scholars

4 Karbala with Al-Husain Zainul Abideen, along with: his wife (Fatima), and his son (Al-Baaqir) join Al-Husain to Karbala He witnesses the savage treatment dealt to the family of the Prophet in Karbala Sees his father, 5 uncles, and many relatives (17 youths) mercilessly cut to pieces and heads cut off Sees the tents burned and children screaming, alarmed, and running in fright, here and there for shelter Witnesses the nightmare of the moment while he was sick in bed near fainting

5 Day of Ashuraa: Comparing Size of the Enemy (Yazid’s Forces) The Overwhelming Number Size of the Camp of Imam Husain

6 Zainul Abideen and the vision of Ashuraa Immediately after the martyrdom of Imam Husain (ﻉ), the ruthless enemies turned to the tents to burn and plunder. The overwhelming grief, the flames of burning tents, and the tumult among the widowed ladies and orphans must have taken its toll on the sensitive Sajjad. Neither tongue nor pen could have described the psychological impact. But the son of Al- Husain maintained his composure and spiritual serenity.

7 Next day after Ashuraa Next day, Omar ibn Sa'd: assembled all his slain soldiers, performed the funeral prayers for them and arranged for their burial, Left unattended were: the disfigured body of Imam Husain, and bodies of the slaughtered others of his family and the decapitated bodies of his faithful adherents Uncovered, Un-shrouded, and Unburied, simply lying on the ground.

8 The Image of Ashuraa It was a grotesque scene of the loved ones The bodies left in the open, decapitated, disfigured, bloody, wounded, barely clad with cloth Bodies left in haphazard manner where the battle took place The bodies were of the family that were talking to each other only the day before: Whose children played together Who joked and teased each other Who taught others. Who helped others. Who preached the message of Islam Who were gracious, nice, spiritual, peaceful, knowledgeable, and revered.

9 The deeply cutting feeling What went on in Ashuraa was so agonizing and hurtful, that Zainul Abideen preferred seclusion To have almost no contact with people in seclusion To have time to reflect, to conclude, and to assess Seclusion went on for at least one year. Dedicating his whole being to the Almighty Reflecting on the horrid tragedy and the spiteful cruel people who fought against them

10 Zainul Abideen in Medina. After Karbala Zainul Abideen takes up seclusion in the outskirts of Medina, for about one year, in a tent Zainab takes provisions for him every day Only about 5 people are permitted to meet with him Uncle Muhammad ibn Al-Hanafiyah represents him and acts on his behalf Spends time in composing Du’aa, Meditating, and Prayers Be away from spies and secret agents of Benu Umayya

11 In Seclusion for about one year Staying away from worldly pursuits, he kept himself busy by either: Worshipping his Lord or Reflecting upon the heart-rending events of Karbala, Keeping Karbala's memories alive. He wept whenever he remembered his father and He wept whenever he saw food or water, reflecting upon the thirst and hunger of his father, Imam Husain.

12 Hymns, Du’aas, and Prayers He took to hymns and prayers. The words of those prayers are a treasure- houses of theological mysteries and reflective of the relationship between the Creator and His creation. A collection of these hymns and prayers, known as Al-Saheefa al-Kamila, or Al-Saheefa al- Sajjadiya, has survived despite all the odds. In the pages of this collection, we can find what we cannot perhaps attain even from reading lengthy addresses and discourses presented in a similarly appealing manner, if such can be found at all.

13 The Vision of Ashuraa Persists The Incredibly agonizing Vision of Ashuraa keeps on in the mind of Zainul Abideen: 1.Al-Husain without head, body desecrated and disfigured 2.Two brothers without heads, body desecrated 3.Five of his uncles without heads, body desecrated 4.Ten cousins without heads, body desecrated 5.Their garments snatched and stolen 6.About 158 supporters killed and beheaded 14 Women and some children maligned and ill treated Zainab in charge, most inflamed just as others felt.

14 Zainab’s Mission For years Zainab used to have circle of discussions about Islam, so people knew her well Now Karbala is the very focus. She would discuss it to the fullest extent In her admirable eloquence, she would move the audience to tears The speeches became the favorite for the women of Medina to talk about. The women would then acquaint their husbands and whip their emotions and raise their ire People of Medina were highly inflamed

15 Zainab Stirring Influence Frequent lecturing over a period of 1-2 years kept Ashuraa and Karbala alive Benu Umayya could not hide it anymore So effective Zainab’s speeches were, that Marwan the governor of Medina wrote to Yazid: Zainab's speeches were so stirring and highly effective that a revolt against him may soon take place Not too long afterwards, a revolt by Medina people against Yazid did take place,

16 The Women in the Majlis Zainab being the leader, along with Umm Kulthoom, Fatima bint Al-Hasan, and wives of Al-Husain were the very bugle that stirred the conscience of the audience And were instrumental in keeping Karbala alive. On Ashuraa, of the 15 females present on that day, one was killed, and one (Sukayna) died in Damascus The 13 left, would all incessantly talk to friends and relatives about the events of Ashuraa The friends would talk to their relatives and friends. Thus, the news in its all gruesome detail spread all over Medina and soon spilled over to other areas

17 Zainab Talks In the various Majlis, Zainab emphasizes The stand of Al-Husain The loss of Ali and the baby, sons of Husain The loss of her two sons: Youthful, vibrant, lovely The loss of her five brothers: Al-Abbas and his brothers: brave men, decent, outstanding The loss of her nephews, the sons of Al-Hasan The loss of the sons of Aqeel All were well known and familiar to the people in Medina for years She would explain and contrast the good versus the bad, and how the enemy, drunk with brute power, horridly tried to eradicate the family of the Prophet

18 Zainab and Abdullah lose 2 2. Muhammad Son 1.Aun Son Zainab daughter of Ali Abdullah son of Ja’far, son of Abu Talib +

19 Muslim son of Aqeel son of Abu Talib Aqeel brother of Ali son of Abu Talib Aqeel, brother of Ali, loses three killed 2. Muslim Son of Abu Talib 1.Ja'far Son of Abu Talib + + Abu Saeed son of Aqeel son of Abu Talib 3. Muhammad Grandson of Abu Talib 4. Abdullah and 5. Abu Abdullah Grandsons of Abu Talib

20 Turmoil of the times Zainul Abideen witnesses the grave consequences of the failed Medina uprising: a. a.Sahaaba killed, b. b.Wives assaulted, and c. c.P roperty pilfered Ka’ba was attacked by Yazid to pacify Ibn Zubair Yazid dies at age of 33 Years Yazid’s forces leave Mecca upon hearing of his death

21 During the 3 yr of Yazid Rule 3. Attacks Ka’ba Atrocities of Yazid’s Rule 1. Karbala Atrocities 2. Invades Medina

22 The Men in the Majlis After the tumult following the invasion of Yazid’s force of Medina Yazid’s forces were poised to attack Mecca when Yazid died, so the force withdrew Zainab and her husband left to Damascus on business trip Zainab, the female hero, died in Syria at the age of 57, just as Al-Husain was killed when he was 57 Having had left an indelible effect by Zainab, now it is the mission of Zainul Abideen to carry out the task.

23 Karbala Lives on Zainab had broadcast the events of Karbala to the women of Medina in a brilliant manner Zainab accomplished the Short term Effect Zainab is succeeded by Zainul Abideen to carry out the Long Term Strategy: Lay down the blue print for Islamic works by the succeeding Imams Influence the people by educating scholars about Karbala Husain’s Principles and Emphasis on Taq'wa

24 Zainul Abideen Emphasized the unique and the Central Role of Ahlul Bayt in Islam. Zainul Abideen emphasized the unique and the Central Role of Ahlul Bayt in Islam. The role of Karbala and the magnificent stand of Imam Husain: Unparalleled. And he worked hard to produce high quality scholars, a. a.who were to teach others about true Islam, b. b.thus spread the word about the motive and the principles which Imam Al ‑ Husain had given his life for, and c. c.at the same time expose the offenses of the vile Benu Umayya.

25 To Keep on Karbala in Mind 1. Imam Zainul Abideen urged the people to visit the site of Karbala, to connect with Imam Al ‑ Husain. This way they become actively involved. 2. He encouraged Muslims to observe the anniversary of Karbala every year. Thus Karbala was institutionalized. 3. This led to Majlis every year done at the anniversary in confidential manner, in private houses. The government of the time was none to be trusted. 3. This led to Majlis every year done at the anniversary in confidential manner, in private houses. The government of the time was none to be trusted. 4. He used to visit the burial site of Imam Al ‑ Husain every year. 4. He used to visit the burial site of Imam Al ‑ Husain every year. 5. He would visit Karbala un ‑ announced, often unnoticed.

26 To Keep Karbala in Mind He recommended that in Sujood to touch a clean Turbah. This was recommended so that a person's highest part of Salat (Sujood) be associated with the principles that Imam Al ‑ Husain gave his life for, meaning authentic Islam. He used a logo: May the Killer of Al ‑ Husain Ibn Ali be Debased and Defiled. The Logo became popular

27 Zainul Abideen’s Knowledge His ocean of knowledge was sought by the most distinguished scholars and theologians of the time, Many rose to a lofty status after obtaining such knowledge from him. They came to him from all parts of Arabia, the Middle East, and from Africa. The list of individuals who benefited from his knowledge and became scholars in their circles includes, Abu Hamza al-Thamali, Thabit ibn Dinar, al-Qasim ibn Muhammed ibn Abu Bakr, Ali ibn Rafi, al-Dhahhak ibn Muzahim al-Khurasani, to name a few

28 The Islamic Institute Steady growth of the Islamic Institute over the years Diligent work in tutoring of scholars. Growth steady but fast growing Al-Baaqir, and grandson Al-Saadiq participate in the Discourses and Discussions Al the end, 160 Scholars graduate at the hands of Zainul Abideen

29 More than 160 scholars attend

30 Renowned Students Al ‑ Baaqir and his brother Zayd also participated in the discourses, Other well known students were: Hasan Al-Basri the poet al-Farazdaq Sa‘id ibn al-Musayyab al-Makhzami Ibn Tawoos, and many other erudite scholars

31 The Magnificent Obsession: 35 Yrs Al-Sajjad’s Persistence about Karbala for 35 years through: Often crying and let other people cry in sympathy Frequent discourses about Al-Husain and his stand in the face of oppression, corruption, and injustice Encouraging people to take the trouble to visit the tomb of Al-Husain And holding Majlis regularly, every year, and activating a surprisingly powerful social movement All have led to an ever alive Karbala and Ashuraa in the hearts of people

32 The scholars spread the Message

33 Hisham son of Abdul Malik It was extremely crowded near the Black stone of the Ka’ba. For it was Haj time The cross-eyed Hisham couldn’t reach it and he stood aside along with his numerous guards Soon however he saw a man, seemingly of high stature, approach the area Everyone made space for him out of reverence, so the man approached the Black Stone in a calm and steady manner and kissed it. Once he left, the area became once more very crowded and immediately so.

34 Hisham, disparagingly asks: Belittlingly but with suppressed envy, Hisham asked who is this man? As if pretending he didn’t know who he was Asking so to show off The great poet Al-Farazdaq was near by, and upon hearing Hisham, he delivered a famous poem on behalf of Zainul Abideen Because of the poem, Al-Farazdaq was taken to jail After a few months Al-Farazdaq was released Quotes of some lines appear in next slide

35 Poem of Al-Farazdaq والبيت يعرفه والحلُّ والحرمُ هذا الذي تعرف البطحاء وطئته هذا التقي النقي الطاهرُ العلمُ هذا ابن خير عباد الله كُلُّهمُ بجده انبياء الله قد ختموا هذا ابن فاطمةٍ انْ كنت جاهله العرب تعرف من انكرت والعجمُ وليس قولك منْ هذا؟ بضائره لولا التشهّد كانت لاءه نعمُ ما قال لا قط ْ الا في تشهده عنها الغياهب والاملاق والعدمُ عمَّ البرية بالاحسان فانقشعت الى مكارم هذا ينتهي الكرمُ اذا رأته قريش قال قائلها

36 Character Zainul Abideen was very forgiving and generous. During Ramadhan, he would record whatever misdemeanor his servants did, then let them acknowledge, then give them their freedom He used to buy as many slaves as he could afford, educate them then set them free He was revered in the community since he was the Imam of the Ummah

37 Zainul Abideen personifies excellence of the human perfections Zainul Abideen was a true copy of his ancestors. In both Karbala and Kufa, he demonstrated extreme patience and courage. In Medina, he proved to be most forbearing and forgiving. Once, an insolent person spoke to Zainul Abideen in an abusive and taunting tone. The serene, high-spirited Imam replied saying, "May Allah forgive me if you have told the truth or forgive you if you are wrong." The man was taken aback, impressed by this nobility, so he lowered his head in shame as he said, "In reality, what I said was wrong."

38 The relevance of Ashuraa to humanity today “Every day is Ashuraa and every land is Karbala.” - Imam Ja’far As-Saadiq (as)

39 Thomas Carlyle: The spirit of Ashuraa “The best lesson which we get from the tragedy of Cerebella [Karbala] is that Husain and his companions were rigid believers in God. They illustrated that numerical superiority does not count when it comes to truth and falsehood. The victory of Husain, despite his minority, marvels me!”

40 Mohandas Gandhi: The spirit of Ashuraa I have learned from Husain how to be oppressed yet victorious.

41 The spirit of Ashuraa modern commentary Edward Gibbon: “In a distant age and climate, the tragic scene of the death of Husain will awaken the sympathy of the coldest reader.”

42 Mohandas Gandhi: The spirit of Ashuraa “I wanted to know the best of the life of one who holds today an undisputed sway over the hearts of millions of mankind.... I became more than ever convinced that it was not the sword that won a place for Islam in those days in the scheme of life. “I wanted to know the best of the life of one who holds today an undisputed sway over the hearts of millions of mankind.... I became more than ever convinced that it was not the sword that won a place for Islam in those days in the scheme of life. It was the rigid simplicity, the utter self- effacement of Husain, the scrupulous regard for pledges, his intense devotion to his friends and followers, his intrepidity, his fearlessness, his absolute trust in God and in his own mission to save Islam. These and not the sword carried everything before them and surmounted every obstacle.” It was the rigid simplicity, the utter self- effacement of Husain, the scrupulous regard for pledges, his intense devotion to his friends and followers, his intrepidity, his fearlessness, his absolute trust in God and in his own mission to save Islam. These and not the sword carried everything before them and surmounted every obstacle.”

43 Zainul Abideen dies Zainul Abideen dies at age of 57, reportedly poisoned. Had calloused skin at place of Sujood (forehead) Thick skin in his back due to carrying sacs of flour at night to distribute to the poor Became pale with curved back due to incessant prayers Had the roughest experience: be it in Karbala, political times, and other circumstances His load was enormously heavy and psychologically taxing

44 Excerpts from Ziyarah Ashuraa يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ لَقَدْ عَظُمَتِ الرَّزِيَّةُ وَجَلَّتْ وَعَظُمَتِ الْمُصِيبَةُ بِكَ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى جَمِيعِ أَهْلِ الْإِسْلاَمِ‏ وَجَلَّتْ وَعَظُمَتْ مُصِيبَتُكَ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ عَلَى جَمِيعِ أَهْلِ السَّمَاوَاتِ‏ وَجَلَّتْ وَعَظُمَتْ مُصِيبَتُكَ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ عَلَى جَمِيعِ أَهْلِ السَّمَاوَاتِ‏ فَلَعَنَ اللَّهُ أُمَّةً أَسَّسَتْ أَسَاسَ الظُّلْمِ وَالْجَوْرِ عَلَيْكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ‏ وَلَعَنَ اللَّهُ أُمَّةً دَفَعَتْكُمْ عَنْ مَقَامِكُمْ وَأَزَالَتْكُمْ عَنْ مَرَاتِبِكُمُ الَّتِي رَتَّبَكُمُ اللَّهُ فِيهَا وَلَعَنَ اللَّهُ أُمَّةً دَفَعَتْكُمْ عَنْ مَقَامِكُمْ وَأَزَالَتْكُمْ عَنْ مَرَاتِبِكُمُ الَّتِي رَتَّبَكُمُ اللَّهُ فِيهَا وَلَعَنَ اللَّهُ أُمَّةً قَتَلَتْكُمْ وَلَعَنَ اللَّهُ الْمُمَهِّدِينَ لَهُمْ بِالتَّمْكِينِ مِنْ قِتَالِكُمْ‏ وَلَعَنَ اللَّهُ أُمَّةً قَتَلَتْكُمْ وَلَعَنَ اللَّهُ الْمُمَهِّدِينَ لَهُمْ بِالتَّمْكِينِ مِنْ قِتَالِكُمْ‏ بَرِئْتُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَإِلَيْكُمْ مِنْهُمْ وَمِنْ أَشْيَاعِهِمْ وَأَتْبَاعِهِمْ وَأَوْلِيَائِهِمْ‏ بَرِئْتُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَإِلَيْكُمْ مِنْهُمْ وَمِنْ أَشْيَاعِهِمْ وَأَتْبَاعِهِمْ وَأَوْلِيَائِهِمْ‏ يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ إِنِّي سِلْمٌ لِمَنْ سَالَمَكُمْ وَحَرْبٌ لِمَنْ حَارَبَكُمْ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ إِنِّي سِلْمٌ لِمَنْ سَالَمَكُمْ وَحَرْبٌ لِمَنْ حَارَبَكُمْ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ

45 Translation: Ziyarah Ashuraa O Abu Abdullah! Ominous is the agony for us over you and for all the true Muslims, And what is committed against you has greatly distressed the heavens and the dwellers of the heavens. O Ahlul Bayt! May Allah condemn the people who set up the means for others to harm you and bear hard upon you. May Allah condemn the people who tried to obscure and deny your stature, neglecting your rank that Allah had enjoined. May Allah condemn the people who had killed you and those who had instigated and had a part in fighting against you. I turn away from them, their henchmen, their followers and friends, O Abu Abdullah! I am in peace with those who are in peace with you, and in war against those who are in war with you, till the Day of Judgment.

46 In Conclusion The Magnificent approach to enlighten the people about Husain 1.Zainab’s approach along with other women 2.Zainab’s short term effect, 1-2 Years 3.Zainul Abideen’s personal approach 4.Zainul Abideen’s Long Term: over 35 years a.Crying for Husain and involving others to cry b.Encouraging others to hold Majlis c.Encouraging others to visit Al-Husain in Karbala d.Educating scholars about Karbala 5.The influence of Karbala over others: Ghandi and Western Writers

47 Be in Allah’s Care Thank you and May God Bless you. Dr. A.S. Hashim


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