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Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia,

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Presentation on theme: "Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Passive Radar Krzysztof Kulpa Professor Scientific Director Defense and Security Research Center Institute of Electronic Systems Warsaw University of Technology Nowoiejska 15/ Warsaw, Poland

2 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December Introduction to Passive Multistatic Radars 2.Array antenna 3.Direct signal and clutter cancelation 4.Detection 5.Tracking 6.Applications Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions Outline Tx Rx

3 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions WUT is the largest of 18 Polish technical universities Public state school

4 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions Warsaw University of Technology 19 faculties Over 30 thousand students ~2500 academic staff

5 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions WUT Radar Technology Lab Radar Modeling, Signal Processing, Applications Passive radar Noise radar FMCW radars Maritime radars ATC micro-Doppler NCTR THZ active imaging Active radars (inc. MIMO) Electronically Scanned Antenna T/R modules control and calibration SAR radars (X, W bands 15 m -> 5 cm res.) ISAR (ships, planes, ground targets) Radar signal simulations ECM/ECCM inc. DRFM Cooperation with: radar industry PITRADWAR Polish Army EDA NATO STO International labs

6 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Active radar detection Mono-static site Bi-static site Moving target Emission (illumination) Echo return Bi-static Echo return Advantage: Mature technology Reliable Independent Disadvantage: Target warning High power consumption Limited accuracy Low Pd for low RCS targets Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

7 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Angle/time estimation sites Moving target On board Man- made Emission Advantage: Mature technology High Accuracy Covertness Processing Site Data Link DOA or TDOA Disadvantage: Requires target man-made emissions High bandwidth data links needed Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

8 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems Passive Coherent Localization Advantage: No dedicated transmitters Covert High Accuracy No warning of target Different illuminators Mono- or multi-static receivers NOT PASSIVE !!! Disadvantage: Not mature technology High computational power High complexity of algorithms Not fully reliable Required illuminators of opportunity Data Link Processing Site Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

9 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Signal processing and Visualisation using oscilloscope Detection range: 8 miles ! Illuminator of opportunity: BBC - Empire Radio Station, 10 kW, wavelength 49m 26 February 1935 Arnold Wilkins (operator), A. P. Rowe & Robert Watson Watt. Daventry Experiment Introduction Coverage Sognals Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

10 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 First operational passive radar Germany (1943) C C C C CC C Illuminator: Chain Home radar (GB) Receiver antenna France Target Klein Heidelberg Introduction Coverage Sognals Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

11 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 PCL Radar principles Bi-static detection range Transmitter Receiver Target Bi-static detection equation rTrT rRrR Detection: Cross-ambiguity function (matched filtering) Received signal Introduction Coverage Sognals Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions rBrB r B = r R + r T - r B

12 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 PCL Detection range FM TV DAB/DVB-T GSM/GPRS WIMAX/LAN Wi-Fi Air surveillance (long range) Urban operations Introduction Coverage Sognals Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

13 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 FM Signal spectrum Introduction Coverage Sognals Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

14 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 FM Signal ambiguity Introduction Coverage Sognals Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

15 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 DVB-T Signal spectrum Introduction Coverage Sognals Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

16 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 DVB-T Signal ambiguity Introduction Coverage Sognals Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

17 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 GSM Signal spectrum Introduction Coverage Sognals Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

18 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 GSM Signal ambiguity Introduction Coverage Sognals Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

19 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 PCL Scenario Target echo Reference antenna Main antenna Transmitting antenna Reference signal Ideal case Introduction Coverage Sognals Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

20 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Bi-static detection range P = 10 kW Coverage prediction Introduction Coverage Signals Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions Fighter Airliner Missile

21 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Array Antenna 8 element FM circular array antenna 3 directional TV antennas Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

22 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Digital beamforming dB deg Lin - polar 8 element FM circular array antenna 8 x λ/2 dipoles Rectangular window 12 dB gain, -7dB sidelobes Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

23 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Digital beamforming dB Lin - polar 8 element FM circular array antenna 8 x λ/2 dipoles C windows set 11 dB gain, -28 sidelobes deg Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

24 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Digital beamforming 8 element FM circular array antenna 8 x λ/2 dipoles Multi-beam beamforming 8 beams, -3dB crossing Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

25 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Digital beamforming 8 element FM circular array antenna 8 x λ/2 dipoles Multi-beam beamforming 16 beams, -1dB crossing Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

26 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 PCL Scenario Target echo Reference antenna Main antenna Transmitting antenna Reference signal Direct signal Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

27 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 PCL Scenario Target echo Direct signal Reference antenna Ground Clutter Reference signal Main antenna Transmitting antenna Direct signal + clutter Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

28 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 PCL Scenario Target echo Direct signal Reference antenna Ground Clutter Reference signal Indirect Reference signal (multipath) Main antenna Transmitting antenna Direct signal + Clutter + multipatch and targets in Reference signal Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

29 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Bistatic Measurements Targets Range-Doppler correlation results Dynamic 120 dB Long observation time (~1s) Low/medium range resolution No angle resolution High Doppler resolution Measurement of R, V [,a] different illuminators of opportunity: FM, DAB, DBVT, GSM, WiMax and others Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

30 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Transmitter Receiver Target1 Short range target signal masking effects – multiple targets Strong echo return can be assumed as a noise signal while detecting long-range targets rTrT rRrR Target2 Correlation based detection is optimal only for single target case Masking effect Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

31 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Direct power Pt=10kW Pt=1MW Direct power P = 100 kW R = 10 km p = -11 dBm kTB = -121 dBm pt = -146 dBm Required dynamic Range to noise = 110 dB to target = 135 dB Correlation gain dB (only) dB direct signal and clutter cancelation is required Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

32 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Final coverage [km] Detection RCS - near target suppresed [dBsm] receiver transmitter Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

33 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Strong signal masking effect Near range strong signal can be treated as an additional noise during long-range target detection To decrease long- range target detection loses strong target echo removal procedures must be apply detection loses [dB] Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

34 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Short distance target masking effect Short distance strong echo masking effect Solution: Adaptive clutter/targets removal Requirements: Good channels match reference and main, low multi-path effects [km] Detection RCS - near target blinding effect [dBsm] receiver transmitter target dBs m Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

35 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Strong echo removal procedure CLEAN STEP I - Strong echo estimation using maximum of range-Doppler correlation function STEP II - Strong echo removal STEP III – long-range echo estimation using maximum of range-Doppler correlation function STEP IV – test: if strongest echo > limits -> continuation of strong echo removal ( go to STEP II ) Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

36 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Strong echo removal effect Direct signal masking effects and short distance strong echo masking effect taken into consideration Direct signal antenna base suppression [km] Detection RCS - near target suppresed [dBsm] receiver transmitter target Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

37 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Reference channel problems Main antenna Reference antenna Reference receiver Main receiver DSP PCL processor Reference signal Transmitting antenna Refrence and Main Receiver response characteristic difference Multipath in reference channel Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions f |A|

38 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Why good reference channel is required Low target side-lobes Good attenuation of direct signal Good attenuation of ground clutter Adaptive removal of strong targets Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

39 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Reference channel equalization methods Knowledge based equalization methods Constant amplitude method Methods based on signal structure Digital signal reconstruction Indirect path knowledge base Environment-based method Ground clutter based equalization DSP-based method Maximum contrast methods Reference point equalization Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

40 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Reference channel signal restoration A/C Digital decoder Digital coder Restored signal For digital modulation (GSM, WiFi, DAB, DVBT) it is possible to restore original signal by: decoding the bit-stream apply the bit-error correction encode Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

41 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Single-antenna system A/C Digital decoder Digital coder Restored signal Clutter cancelation Range- Doppler Correlation Plot extraction Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

42 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 PCL localization x meas1 (t) x meas2 (t) Single Transmitter/Receiver pair Range/Angle estimation Poor cross-range resolution Multi Transmitter/Receiver pair Range/Angle estimation + Ellipsoid cross-section estimation Good range & cross-range resolution For good performance several transmitters are needed Increase of sensitivity due to multistatic operation Bistatic Multistatic Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

43 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 PCL localization Multistatic Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions Single receiver blind zone possible zones of low Doppler or range resolution zones with reduced visibility towards the transmitters possibility of ghost targets Ghost targets Blind zones

44 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 PCL localization Multistatic Multi receiver Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions Reduced blind zones High probability of detection/tracking Data exchange required

45 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Tracking Combining bistatic measurements from different TxRx pairs Calculating Cartesian coordinates of plots Tracking Plot-track association Kalman filtering Bistatic tracking Plot-track association Kalman filtering Cartesian Tracking Extended Kalman filtering Track verification Single-stage tracker Two-stage tracker Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

46 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Cartesian Tracking Combining bistatic tracks from different TxRx pairs Time aligment Calculating Cartesian coordinates of tracks Track fusion (for N TxRx >3) Cartesian Tracking Extended Kalman filtering Track verification Bistatic Tracks Bistatic Plots Bistatic Trackers Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

47 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Parallel updating Extended Kalman filtering High dimension of measurement matrices Bistatic tracking – for primary plot selection If missing plot in single TxRx pair – Kalman prediction used instead of plot For asynchronous measurements - interpolation Filter equations dependant on the number of TxRx pairs Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions All ellipsoids

48 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Serial updating Extended Kalman filtering Constant dimensionality (low) Bistatic tracking – for primary plot selection If missing plot in single TxRx pair – no action is taken ready for asynchronous measurements comparable computational power switch Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions one ellipsoid a time

49 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Results Scenario: Rx - 1 Tx - 3 Targets - 3 Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

50 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 WUT PaRaDe PCL demonstrator Correlator display Track display Plot display FM radio as illuminator of opportunity Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

51 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 PARADE Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

52 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 PARADE Real time processing Plot display Track display Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

53 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions PARADE Long range tracking: km bistatic Bistatic display XY display

54 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Mobile PaRaDe (2007) R T (t) L(t) Direct signal and clutter Transmitter of opportunity PCL system on moving platform R S (t) R T (t) Target Clutter PCL platform Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

55 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Airborne PaRaDe (2008) Detected target First trials Multistatic coverage Antennas Hardware Data fusion STAP processing Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

56 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 PET-PCL Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions PIT-RADWAR POLAND GUNICA  PCL PCL-PET 4 mobile radar set Area: 40x40 km

57 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Passive detection based on active radar illumination Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

58 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Passive radar features (1) High update rate FM1s DVB-T0.1 s GSM0.3 s SAT-TV s High detection range FM 800 km bistatic DVB-T 400 km bistatic GSM 40 km bistatic No own emission (ARM missile - not a danger) Possible of exploitation pulse (radar) emitters Possible of exploitation of over-horizon far transmitters (up to 400 km range) Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

59 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Passive radar features (2) Continues illumination on target no range/Doppler ambiguity no blind speeds/ranges NCTR capabilities ISAR imaging micro-Doppler analysis detection of rotor flashes engine modulation detection Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

60 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Passive radar features (3) Detection coverage increase by: netted PCL radars data fusion on track level (classical) data fusion on bistatic track level data fusion on plot level data fusion on raw data level Data link requirements high data throughput – especially for raw data level fusion Time synchronization requirements track/plot level - 1 ms data level – 10 ns + frequency and phase coherency Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

61 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Passive radar features (4) Detection of low RCS targets: stealth targets drones /UAV missiles Detection of target behavior acceleration measurement target split shape changes Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

62 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Passive radar features (5) Multiband operation: FM radio ( MHz) DAB (~200 MHz) DVB-T ( MHz) GSM, LTE..: 850, 950, 1800, 2100 and others DVB-S (C, X Ku band) Satellite radio (C band) Active radar exploitation VHF/UHF radar L band radars (including SSR) C band radars (including weather radars) S band radars Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

63 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Passive radar features (6) ECM resistant: wide bandwidth lack on knowledge where is (are) receivers high power jammer may be used as illuminator Jammer tracking DOA TDOA (high accuracy) No transmitter case Add own FM/DVB-T transmitter Add high power jammers (NOISE RADAR !) Relay on neighbors transmitters (up to 400 km range) Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

64 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Mobile systems Airborne sensors Future of PCL Personal sensors Fixed systems Maritime sensors Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions

65 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Future conferences in POLAND Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions SPS-2015 Signal Processing Symposium June 2015 Poland, Warsaw/Debe Important Dates Papers for reviewing (3 - 4 pages): February 10, 2015 Notification for Authors: March 10, 2015 Early participants ́ registration: April 01, 2015 Full paper submission: April 21, 2015 SPS 2015: June 10-12, 2015 Radar, remote sensing Biomedical signal processing Image processing Security

66 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Future conferences in POLAND Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions IRS th International Radar Symposium May 10-12, 2016 Krakow, Poland Chaired by: Krzysztof Kulpa Hermann Rohling mrw2016.org

67 Krzysztof Kulpa, Passive radar Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Electronic Systems POLAND Radar Symposium 2014, KACST, Riyadh Saudi Arabia, 9-10 December 2014 Thank you Introduction Coverage Design Antennas Clutter CLEAN Tracking WUT PaRaDe Conclusions


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