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**Derivation of Engineering-relevant Deformation Parameters **

“Measuring the Changes” Joint Symposium 13th FIG Symposium on Deformation Measurement and Analysis 4th IAG Symposium on Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering Lisbon, Portugal, May 2008 Derivation of Engineering-relevant Deformation Parameters from Repeated Surveys of Surface-like Constructions Athanasios Dermanis Department of Geodesy and Surveying Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

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**Surface-like Construction:**

One dimension insignificant compared to the other two. Behaves like a thin-shell

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**Usual surveying approach to “deformation”:**

Determination of 3-dimensional displacements between two epochs t and t (usually at particular discrete points)

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**The construction engineer approach to “deformation”**

(Strength of material point of view): Local deformation (strain) related to forces (stresses) through the constitutive equations of the material (stress-strain relations)

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**1 Three types of relevant local deformation parameters dilatation**

before after dilatation 1 Dilatation (change of area) at a point P: (relative change of area) Dilatation may be positive (expansion) or negative (shrinkage)

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**1 Relates to central stresses (forces)**

Three types of relevant local deformation parameters before after dilatation 1 Dilatation (change of area) at a point P: Relates to central stresses (forces) positive dilatation (expansion)

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**1 Relates to central stresses (forces)**

Three types of relevant local deformation parameters before after dilatation 1 Dilatation (change of area) at a point P: Relates to central stresses (forces) negative dilatation (shrinking)

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**2 Three types of relevant local deformation parameters shear strain**

before after shear strain 2 Shear strain at a point P in a particular direction: before after direction of shear We seek the direction where maximum shear occurs

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**2 Relates to shearing stresses (tearing forces)**

Three types of relevant local deformation parameters before after shear strain 2 Maxumum shear strain at a point P: Relates to shearing stresses (tearing forces)

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**3 Three types of relevant local deformation parameters bending**

before after bending 3 Bending at a point P in a particular direction: Realized by the change of the radius of curvature R of the corresponding normal section (radius of curvature = radius of best fitting circle) We seek the direction where maximum bending R-R occurs

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**3 Relares to bending torques**

Three types of relevant local deformation parameters before after bending 3 Bending at a point P in a particular direction: Relares to bending torques

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**Planar deformation is completely determined by the gradient matrix F**

after before

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**Planar deformation is completely determined by the gradient matrix F**

after before Diagonalization of F

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**Planar deformation is completely determined by the gradient matrix F**

after before Diagonalization of F

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**Planar deformation is completely determined by the gradient matrix F**

after before Diagonalization of F Deformation only from the eigenvalues of F !

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**Planar deformation is completely determined by the gradient matrix F**

after before Diagonalization of F

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**Deformation of a curved surface**

For dilatation and maximum shear the surface is approximated by the local tangent plane at P (best fitting plane)

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**Deformation of a curved surface**

For dilatation and maximum shear the surface is approximated by the local tangent plane at P (best fitting plane) For maximum bending the surface is approximated by the local oscillating ellipsoid at P (best fitting ellipsoid)

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**Deformation of a curved surface – Dilatation and maximum shear strain**

On a curved surface only curvilinear coordinates (u,v) can be used Coice of curvilinear coordinates: horizontal cartesian coordinates u = X, v = Y at the original epoch t At second epoch t : Use as coordinates those of original epoch t u = X, v = Y (convected coordinates) Curvilinear deformation gradient Fq = I : simple but inappropriate because it refers to oblique axes and non unit basis vectors

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**Deformation of a curved surface – Dilatation and maximum shear strain**

original epoch t second epoch t

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**Deformation of a curved surface – Dilatation and maximum shear strain**

original epoch t second epoch t transformation to orthonormal systems

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**Deformation of a curved surface – Dilatation and maximum shear strain**

original epoch t second epoch t

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**Deformation of a curved surface – Dilatation and maximum shear strain**

original epoch t second epoch t

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**Deformation of a curved surface – Dilatation and maximum shear strain**

Diagonalization Invariant (independent of coordinate systems) deformation parameters principal elongations directions of principal elongations , respectively dilatation maximum shear strain at direction angle

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**Deformation of a curved surface – Bending**

Normal section at P: intersection of surface with any plane containing the surface normal at P R = radius of circle best fitting to normal section k = 1/R curvature of normal section at P R Among all normal sections there are two perpendicular principal directions where the curvature obtains its maximum value k1 and its minimum value k2 (principal curvatures)

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**Deformation of a curved surface – Bending**

Normal section at P: intersection of surface with any plane containing the surface normal at P 90 R = radius of circle best fitting to normal section k = 1/R curvature of normal section at P Among all normal sections there are two perpendicular principal directions where the curvature obtains its maximum value k1 and its minimum value k2 (principal curvatures)

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**Deformation of a curved surface – Bending**

Normal section at P: intersection of surface with any plane containing the surface normal at P R = radius of circle best fitting to normal section k = 1/R curvature of normal section at P Among all normal sections there are two perpendicular principal directions where the curvature obtains its maximum value k1 and its minimum value k2 (principal curvatures) The curvature of any normal section at angle from the first principal direction is given by

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**Deformation of a curved surface – Bending**

Computation of principal curvatures Tangent vectors Normal vector First Fundamental Form Sencond Fundamental Form Mean curvature Gaussian curvature

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**Deformation of a curved surface – Bending**

original epoch t second epoch t Value for maximum from numerical solution of a non-linear equation Most differing radii of curvature over all normal sections through P

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**Deformation of a curved surface - Interpolation**

To compute dilatation, maximum shear strain and maximum bending we need the following functions Using convective coordinates the required functions reduce to They can be obtained from the interpolation of the available discrete data

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**Deformation of a curved surface - Interpolation**

Interpolation of the available discrete data In general: Interpolate a function from discrete data One possibility: Collocation (Minimum norm interpolation = Minimum Mean Square Error Prediction) Use two-point covariance function: etc.

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1 Principal stresses/Invariants. 2 In many real situations, some of the components of the stress tensor (Eqn. 4-1) are zero. E.g., Tensile test For most.

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