Presentation on theme: "Identification and Quantification of Arsenic Species in Gold Mine Wastes Using Synchrotron-Based X-ray Techniques Andrea L. Foster, PhD U.S. Geological."— Presentation transcript:
Identification and Quantification of Arsenic Species in Gold Mine Wastes Using Synchrotron-Based X-ray Techniques Andrea L. Foster, PhD U.S. Geological Survey GMEG Menlo Park, CA
Arsenic is an element of concern in mined gold deposits around the world Don Pedro Harvard/Jamestown Kelly/Rand (Au/Ag) Ruth Mine (Cu) Spenceville (Cu-Au-Ag) Lava Cap (Nevada) Empire Mine (Nevada) low-sulfide, qtz Au Argonaut Mine (Au) Ketza River (Au) sulfide and oxide ore bodies Goldenville, Caribou, and Montague (Au)
The common arsenic-rich particles in hard-rock gold mines have long been known Arsenopyrite FeAsS Primary Secondary Scorodite FeAsO 4 2H 2 O Kankite : FeAsO43.5H2O Jarosite KFe 3 (SO 4 ) 2 (OH) 6 Tooleite [Fe 6 (AsO 3 ) 4 (SO 4 )(OH) 4 4H 2 O Pharmacosiderite KFe 4 (AsO 4 ) 3 (OH) 4 6–7H 2 O Secondary/Tertiary Iron oxyhydroxide (“rust”) containing arsenic up to 20 wt% arsenide n = 1-3 n-n- Arseniosiderite Ca 2 Fe 3 (AsO 4 ) 3 O 2 ·3H 2 O Yukonite Ca 7 Fe 12 (AsO 4 ) 10 (OH) 20 15H 2 O “arsenian” pyrite As -1 pyrite Fe(As,S) 2 Reich and Becker (2006): maximum of 6% As -1
But it is still difficult to predict with an acceptable degree of uncertainty which forms will be present thermodynamic data lacking or unreliable for many important phases kinetic barriers to equilibrium changing geochemical conditions (tailings management) Langmuir et al. (2006) GCA v70
Typical exposure pathways at arsenic-contaminated sites are linked to particles and their dissolution in aqueous fluids ingestion of arsenic-bearing water solid-phase arsenic near-neutral, low dissolved organic carbon, low salinity waters inhalation or ingestion of arsenic-rich particles solid-phase arsenic lung and gastic/intestinal tract fluids (saline, aqueous solutions-high dissolved organic carbon, enzymes, bile, some low pH, most near-neutral) critical to know the form(s) of arsenic in the solid phase only a subset of those forms may be reactive dissolution
This talk will review the results of synchrotron X-ray studies of arsenic speciation, with focus on gold mine wastes Brilliant, high flux radiation produced at points tangent to a circular orbit of electrons moving at near- relativistic speeds 75 synchrotrons around the world 10 in US (4 suitable for environmental work) Stanford Berkeley
Large ( 1-10 mm) or small (2 -150 m) X-ray beams are available for most techniques Bulk Microbeam Precision stage (micron) CCD detector (diffraction) Solid-state detector Gas ionization detector X-ray Fluorescence X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy X-ray Diffraction X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Vibrational Spectroscopies Magnetic spectroscopy Small Angle Scattering CCD Detector
Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Spectrometry Bulk Microbeam One EDS spectrum Per point (> 1000) Elemental ID Element Correlation Spatial distribution As Ca Fe 1800 microns Elemental ID One average Spectrum Ca Fe As Voltage (energy)
Synchrotron-based X-ray Diffraction (SXRD) 2-D pattern goethite/lepidocrocite mixture Synchrotron XRD 20 min 1-D patterns Conventional XRD 8 hours Mineral ID Mineral Mapping Amorphous materials (scattering)
X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) Oxidation state, species “fingerprinting” Absorbance Energy (eV) > 1 mg/kg EXAFS function (k) Photoelectron Wave vector k (Å -1 ) Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) Speciation = identity, #, distance of neighboring atoms > 75 mg/kg
Spectral Deconvolution by Least-Squares Fits Orpiment (As 3+ -S) As 5+ on rust (iron oxyhydroxide) As 3+ in water (As 3+ -O) 13.5 % As 5+ 86.5% As 3+ Bangladesh Aquifer Sediment 10-10.4 meters depth As 3+ As 5+ Unique spectral shape Energy increases with oxidation state Arsenopyrite (As 1- ) Energy, (electron volts) 11860118801190011920 XANES spectra
Principal Component Analysis of XANES or EXAFS Spectra Energy (eV) Component Intensity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 n Energy Set of Unknown XANES Spectra PCA Principal Components (= number of species) Subset “best” model compounds For LSA PC 2 (v 2 *w 2,i ) 22% of variance PC 1 (v 1 *w 1,i ) 35% of variance Variance Plot N = 19 Energy (eV) Set of Model Compound XANES Spectra Target Transformation Using principal components N = 30
Synchrotron studies of As in Gold Mine Wastes Early Days: 1994-2002 individual field and lab projects at “targets of opportunity, typically with limited connection to regulators’ needs Bulk XANES + EXAFS 2003- present collaborative projects at high-profile sites; research focused on addressing needs Microbeam studies: 2005 and later Coupled XAFS, XRD XRF Coupled bulk and microbeam Multi-metal XAFS Complimentary Lab-based techniques Micro Raman, XRD
As L 50 m Fe K Energy (eV) 11850 11950 11900 As5+ As-Fe = 3.25 Å Fe As Al As-Al 3.16 Å Ruth Mine: Ballarat District (Trona, CA) Tailings (ca 1000 mg/kg As) used for residential landscaping Foster et al., (1998) American Mineralogist 83, 553-568 D. Lawler, BLM Ruth Mine Trona, CA
Mesa De Oro: Should be “Mesa de Arsenico” http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/environment/su perfund_4-16.htmlhttp://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/environment/su perfund_4-16.html (transcript of 1996 show called “Paying for the Past”) Gold tailings with 115 – 1320 mg/kg arsenic 40 homes developed on Mesa between 1975-1985 EPA emergency response halted new home construction removed and replaced about 1 foot of soil shored up sides of Mesa George Wheeldon, “geologist”: arsenic from the mine is in a form that is not dangerous Time Magazine Sept 25, 2000 San Jose Mercury News Residents won 2,000,000 for loss of property value http://consumerlawpage.com/article/environmental_pollution_ 1.shtml
XANES spectra of Mesa de Oro soil samples demonstrate that arsenic is not in arsenopyrite form Arsenopyrite FeAsS As 5+ on rust (iron oxyhydroxide) Arsenopyrite (As 1- ) Energy (KeV) 11.8611.8811.9011.92 Arsenic (V) on Rust Range of Mesa de Oro Samples (n =4) Mr Wheeldon’s Error: assuming that arsenic stays in original form A. Foster, R. Ashley, and J. Rytuba, USGS: unpublished data
Arsenic species in mine-impacted sediment from the Lava Cap Mine Foster et al., (2010) Geochemical Transactions pyrite arsenopyrite pronounced oxidation minimal oxidation -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 -0.7-0.6-0.5-0.4-0.3-0.2-0.10 PC 2 (v 2 *w 2,i ) 22% of variance PC 1 (v 1 *w 1,i ) 35% of variance subareal tailings 30% FeAsS Pyrite-rich ore 69% Fe(As,S) 2 65% FeAsS Arsenopyrite-rich ore (FeAsS) submerged tailings typical ore 2468101214 subareal tailings photoelectron wave vector k (Å -1 ) k 3 -weighted EXAFS Our first studies at Lava Cap showed that submerged tailings from the private lake contain As in its original forms. Tailings exposed to air after the burst of a log dam in 1998 have oxidized considerably.
Kelly/Rand Mines: Ultra-high arsenic in mine tailings gold-silver mines operated until 1947 approximate volume: 100,000 tons breach of tailings levee; migration of tailings into residences in Randsburg 3000->10,000 mg/kg As remote, Federal Land (BLM), popular with OHVers Kim, C.S., Wilson, K.M., and Rytuba, J.J. (2011) Particle-size dependence on metal distributions in mine wastes: implications for water contamination and human exposure. Applied Geochemistry 26, 484-495.
Secondary arsenates and As 5+ -rich sulfate phases predominate in Kelly/Rand tailings 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 “background” soil FeAsO 4 2H 2 O am-FeAsO4 Ca 2 Fe 3 (AsO 4 )3O 2 3H 2 O KFe 3 [(S,As)O 4 )](OH) 6 As-FeOOH Secondary crusts Tailings Low-grade Ore Linear Combination fits to EXAFS no evidence for primary sulfide phases (below detection? Oxidized?) solubility and kinetics of dissolution of precipitates is expected to be very different than that of arsenic on ferric oxyhydroxide Kim, C.S., Wilson, K.M., and Rytuba, J.J. (2011) Particle-size dependence on metal distributions in mine wastes: implications for water contamination and human exposure. Applied Geochemistry 26, 484-495.
Lungs of tortoises collected near mines contain particles similar to those found in mine tailings 687 lung tissue 11860118801190011920 scorodite jarosite Spot 2 Spot 1 4.6 mm 3.5 mm As 1 2 A. Foster, unpublished data
Ultra-high As gold mines in Nova Scotia, Canada Walker et al (2009) Canadian Mineralogist v 47
Current and Future directions in synchrotron-based arsenic research Validated method for As bioaccessibility test – Coupled to geochemistry, As speciation Bioreactors (anaerobic and aerobic) – Aerobic: naturally-occurring microbial consortia? – Anaerobic: relative bioaccessibility of As in neo- sulfides vs. organic compounds (biomass) Plants – Finding more accumulators, maximizing uptake – Coupling genetics, protein expression, and location of metal (As) sequestration
Arsenic Relative Bioavailability Project (Empire Mine State Historic Park) N =25 25 Chemistry X-ray diffraction Electron Probe QEMSCAN Particle size analysis “Bulk” Synchrotron studies “Microfocused” Synchrotron studies In vitro In vivo Model of mineralogical control on As bioaccessibility Correlation with easily- measured parameter Helping to find a cost-effective means of evaluating the potential for re-development of mined lands contaminated with arsenic % Bioaccessible % Bioavailable This study is conducted through a proposal by CA Department of Toxic Substances Control and USGS that was funded by US-EPA (Brownfields Program)
Principal Component Analysis predicts 4-5 unique arsenic species Component 1 Component 2 Component 1 Component 2 N =19 N =18 Outlier removed Variance can be visualized on additional Component axes (3, 4, 5)
Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability have similar trends with key arsenic species % relative bioavailability Ca-Fe-Arsenate Pyrite/Arsenopyrite SEE MORE AT ALPERS TALK TOMORROW SESSION 10
Arsenic in roasted ore treated by an anerobic biochemical reactor Maghemite-rich More As3+ Hematite-rich Less As3+ Paktunc et al. (2008) Proceedings of the 9 th Intl Conference for Appl. Mineralogy Anerobic Reactor Samples Mostly As3+, but organic NOT SULFIDE (??) As 3+ S CH 3
New and improved pyrite: now with As 3+ Deditius et al (2008) Yanacocha, Peru Should be present in other low- sulfidation epithermal deposits: Nevada Au? (Fe,Au)(As,S) 2
Arsenic attenuation by naturally-occurring microbial consortia: Lava Cap Mine (NPL), CA LL2 LL1 LL1adj LL10 Foster et al, USGS Open File Report 2009-1268 LL1 LL10 LL2 algae LL2 fe floc LL1 adj LL2 sediment Biogenic Fe-(hydroxide) accumulates arsenic to levels several times to orders of magnitude greater than the original mine tailngs (yellow horizontal line)
Monitoring the performance of a natural passive bioreactor LL1 LL10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Jun 06Oct 06Nov 06Feb 07Mar 07Aug 07Oct 07Mar 08 As Fe Mn As: 12-30 g/l10 g/l Mn: 235-2000 g/l 300 g/l EPA cleanup goal: % removed between LL1 and LL10 Concentration range at LL10
Arsenic is associated with Fe Oxyhydroxides rather than with biological materials (contrast the anerobic treatment of Paktunc) -0.10 0.16 0.11 0.46 99AF-wLL5 00AF-LCD1a post-rinse 00AF-LCD1a v 2 *w 2,i v 1 *w 1,i As(V)-FeOOH dominant 1000x EPA region 9 Superfund has a pilot aerobic /anerobic treatment in place at the adit, but is not supplanting it with the native microorganisms
As Speciation in Pteris vittata Hyperaccumulating Fern Webb et al (2003) ES&T Pickering et al. Environ. Sci. Technol., 40 (2006) 5010-5014.
Synchrotron techniques have had great utility in the study of arsenic speciation in gold mines..there is more to come! Arsenopyrite Primary (ore, concentrates) Pyrite n = -1, +3 n 3+3+ 5+ O S Fe As-poor acidic Near-neutral Ca minerals + Ca FeOOH Ca-Fe arsenates As-rich Fe arsenates Fe sulfates
The End Leptothrix ochracea from the Lava Cap Mine
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