Download presentation

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Published byKane Prewett Modified over 3 years ago

1
MAT 128 1.0 Math. Tools II Tangent Plane and Normal Suppose the scalar field = ( x, y, z, t) at time t o, the level surfaces are given by ( x, y, z, t o ) = c’ i.e. ( x, y, z ) = c P The plane through P, perpendicular to is called the tangent plane.

2
Equation of the Tangent Plane P roro r Since PQ = r - r o lies on the tangent plane,it is perpendicularto. So the equation of the tangent plane is Q Cartesian Equation Let r o = ( x o, y o, z o ), r = ( x, y, z ) and Above equation becomes

3
Cartesian Equation of the Normal becomes E.g. For the scalar field φ = ( x - y ) 2 +2t x y + t 2 z, find the equation of the tangent plane and the normal at the point A ( 1, 2, 1 ) when t =1. SolutionWhen t =1 level surfaces are given by ( x - y ) 2 +2 x y + z = c

4
i.e. x 2 + y 2 + z = c For the level surfaces through A, 1 2 + 2 2 + 2 = c So, c = 6 At A, So, the equation of the tangent plane is

5
So, the equation of the normal is

6
Vector fields Field lines Suppose A is a vector field, and l is a curve in the domain of the vector field. At any point P on l, A(P) is parallel to the tangent to l at P, then l is called a field line. Equation of a Field line drdr P Suppose that A = ai + bj + ck, then dr = ( ai + bj + ck ) i.e. dx i + dy j + dz k = ( ai + bj + ck ) So dx = a, dy = b, dz = c. l

7
We represent the field lines as the curve of intersection of two such surfaces. Solutions represents surfaces. Differential equation of a field line We solve this equation pair wise.

8
E.g.Find the field lines of A = x 2 yz i + xy 2 z j + xyz 2 k solutionDifferential equation of a field line So, field lines are given by the curve of the intersection of the surfaces

9
Since x = Ay and y = Bz means equation of planes the intersection is a straight lines. So, field lines are given by E.g.Find the field lines of solutionDifferential equation of a field line So, field lines are given by the curve of the intersection of the surfaces

10
E.g.Find the field lines of E.g.Find the field lines of

11
r P O Here OP= r. x = r cos θ, y = r sin θ X Y Metric Systems of coordinates … in 2-D y x Polar coordinates

12
r P O X Y Unit Vectors

13
Different types of coordinates in 3-D 1. Cylindrical polar coordinates z Q P O Here OQ= r. So P. x = r cos, y = r sin and z = z. X Y Z Metric

14
z Q P 2. Spherical polar coordinates Here OP = r. So P. x = r sin cos, y = r sin sin. Z = r cos X Y Z Metric

15
In 3-dimension with respect to a mutually perpendicular system of coordinates Ouvw, the metric is given by The unit vectors in the increasing directions of u, v and w are, and respectively. Curvilinear Coordinates So the unit vectors are given by, and

16
For a scalar field the gradient is For the vector field

17
Values for different system of Coordinates Cylindrical Polar 1r1 Spherical Polar 1rr sin

18
With Cylindrical polar cdts

19
With Spherical polar cdts

20
Small Area in 2-D with Oxy cdts X Y x = c dx y = k dy Area = dx dy

21
Small Area in 2-D with Polar cdts r = c dr Area =

22
With Cylindrical Polar Cdts Volume element is given by dz dr Small Volume in 3-D

23
With Spherical Polar Cdts Volume element is given by Small Area in 3-D

Similar presentations

OK

Mathematics. Session Three Dimensional Geometry–1(Straight Line)

Mathematics. Session Three Dimensional Geometry–1(Straight Line)

© 2018 SlidePlayer.com Inc.

All rights reserved.

To ensure the functioning of the site, we use **cookies**. We share information about your activities on the site with our partners and Google partners: social networks and companies engaged in advertising and web analytics. For more information, see the Privacy Policy and Google Privacy & Terms.
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.

Ads by Google

Ppt on various layers of the earth Download free ppt on active and passive voice Ppt on case study format Ppt on two point perspective lesson Ppt on central limit theorem calculator Ppt on fire extinguisher types for servers Ppt on topography of pakistan Ppt on object recognition in dip Ppt on political parties and electoral process in the united Convert pdf to ppt online free