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1 Some Considerations on the Measurements of Snow Specific Surface Area from 3D Images F. Flin 1, B. Lesaffre 1, A. Dufour 1, L. Gillibert 1, A. Hasan.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Some Considerations on the Measurements of Snow Specific Surface Area from 3D Images F. Flin 1, B. Lesaffre 1, A. Dufour 1, L. Gillibert 1, A. Hasan."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Some Considerations on the Measurements of Snow Specific Surface Area from 3D Images F. Flin 1, B. Lesaffre 1, A. Dufour 1, L. Gillibert 1, A. Hasan 1, S. Rolland du Roscoat 2, S. Cabanes 1 1 Centre d’Etudes de la Neige, CNRM – GAME URA 1357 Meteo-France – CNRS Saint Martin d’Heres, France 2 Laboratoire 3S-R UMR 5521, CNRS – UJF – INPG Grenoble cedex 9, France

2 2 SSA: Motivations Definition Importance –Related to grain size (spherical approximation) [L -1 ] –Characterize snow metamorphism evolution –Surface available for chemical reactions Measurements –CH4 adsorption (Legagneux et al, 2002; Kerbrat et al 2008) –Near Infra Red methods (Gallet et al, 2009) –Tomography (Flin et al, 2004; Schneebeli and Sokratov, 2004) SSA = S / M S: surface area M: mass

3 3 SSA: Motivations General method 3 different approaches for surface computation –Same results? –Representativeness? Extend SSA measurements to more sophisticated measurements - Toward an estimation of the Grain Contact Area Surface area estimation from a digital image

4 4 Method 1: Stereology Intercept computation L nb h Underwood, 1970 Torquato, 2002

5 5 Method 2: Triangulation Marching Cubes approach

6 6 Method 2: Triangulation Marching Cubes approach

7 7 Method 2: Triangulation Marching Cubes approach

8 8 Method 2: Triangulation Marching Cubes approach

9 9 Method 3: Voxel Projection Use all the information contained in the normal of each voxel to improve the area estimation: –Tangent plane approximation –Normal dependent coefficients Lenoir et al. (1996) tangent plane

10 10 In our case, normals are located in the center of each voxel: Lenoir’s method cannot be used directly 2 « free » facets 1 « free » facet Redundant parts tangent plane Tangent plane approximation

11 11 VP method: Surface contribution: The projection ratio is obtained by projecting the tangent plane on the fonctional plane Fonctional plane : the coordinate plane along which each voxel presents a unique facet tangent plane

12 12 Surface area for one voxel: tangent plane VP method: Surface contribution: The projection ratio is obtained by projecting the tangent plane on the fonctional plane Flin et al., 2005

13 13 Resolution tests on diverse snow types : Fresh Snow edge: 2.5 mm Decomposing Particles edge: 2.5 mm Rounded Grains edge: 2.5 mm Melt Forms edge: 4.5 mm

14 14 Resolution test:  At high resolution, all methods agree within ± 15%  Results strongly depend on the snow type  ST methods give different estimations between z and x-y directions  Marching Cubes systematically overestimates SSA  VP is particularly sensitive to resolution decrease Fresh snow Decomposing Particles Rounded Grains Melt Forms

15 15 REV estimation Method: growing neighborhoods Result: Conclusion For all the studied samples, the REV seems to be attained for cubic volumes of edge = 2.5 mm.

16 16 SGCA estimation Idea: estimating the size of the contact area between grains Method:

17 17 SGCA estimation Idea: estimating the size of the contact area between grains Method: –Estimate the SSA of the snow sample

18 18 SGCA estimation Idea: estimating the size of the contact area between grains Method: –Estimate the SSA of the snow sample –Estimate the average SSA for the grains constituting the snow sample (SSA tot )

19 19 SGCA estimation Idea: estimating the size of the contact area between grains Method: –Estimate the SSA of the snow sample –Estimate the average SSA for the grains constituting the snow sample (SSA tot ) –SGCA = SSA tot -SSA is the SSA that would be released by neck breaking

20 20 CDGS Algorithm Curvature-Driven Grain Segmentation algorithm: snow labeling into different geometrical grains Main idea: detect necks with a curvature analysis (Gaussian and Mean curvature) Sign of the lowest principal curvature Gillibert et al, 2010

21 21 CDGS Algorithm Comparison to DCT: “Diffraction contrast tomography” Ludwig et al. 2009, Rolland et al.: Adv. Eng. Mater. (in press)

22 22 Validation by Diffraction Contrast Tomography DCT CDGS 8 mm

23 23 Exemples of CDGS Melt Forms Edge size = 4.5 mm -129 grains Decomposing Particles / Rounded Grains Edge size = 2.5 mm grains

24 24  Relationship between SSA (grain size) and SGCA (neck size).  Mechanically processing “old” snow samples would double their SSA  SGCA seems a potential parameter to help in determining the snow type SGCA Computation: Results Melt Forms Fresh snow Facetted Crystals Rounded Grains Decomposing Particles

25 25 Conclusions The main numerical methods that are commonly used to determine SSA from 3D images give slightly different results Each method has its own drawbacks: ST is not adapted to anisotropic media, MC overestimate SSA and VP is particularly sensitive to resolution decrease. Depending on the method, SSA estimation of recent snow require high resolution images (voxel size < 5 µm) REV for SSA is attained for cubes of 2.5 mm edge Thanks to the combination of SSA and CDGS algorithms, SGCA values can be estimated: this opens new outlooks for the study of snow microstructure

26 26

27 27 MC Gaussian smooth + MCADGF method Application to snow Flin et al., 2005

28 28 Method 2: Triangulation Marching Cubes approach


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