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10.4 Tangents and Secants After studying this section, you will be able to identify secant and tangent lines and segments. You will be able to distinguish between two types of tangent circles and recognize common internal and external tangents.

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DefinitionA secant is a line that intersects a circle at exactly two points. (Every secant contains a chord of the circle.) AB DefinitionA tangent is a line that intersects a circle at exactly one point. This point is called the point of tangency or point of contact. T Tangent line Secant line

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PostulateA tangent line is perpendicular to the radius drawn to the point of contact. PostulateIf a line is perpendicular to a radius at its outer endpoint, then it is tangent to the circle.

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DefinitionA tangent segment is the part of a tangent line between the point of contact and a point outside the circle. A B DefinitionA secant segment is the part of a secant line that joins a point outside the circle to the farther intersection point of the secant and the circle. C D E DefinitionThe external part of a secant segment is the part of a secant line that joins the outside point to the nearer intersection point.

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TheoremIf two tangent segments are drawn to a circle from an external point then those segments are congruent (Two-Tangent Theorem). A B O E

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DefinitionTangent circles are circles that intersect each other at exactly one point. DefinitionTwo circles are externally tangent if each of the tangent circles lies outside the other. Tangent Circles Q P G S T R DefinitionTwo circles are internally tangent if one of the tangent circles lies inside the other. Notice that there is one common tangent at their point of contact. Also, the point of contact lies on the line of centers.

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A B O D E DefinitionA common tangent is a line tangent to two circles (not necessarily the same point). Such a tangent is a common internal tangent if it lies between the circles (intersects the segment joining the centers). Or a common external tangent if it is not between the circles (does not intersect the segment joining the centers). C OA is the line of centers EC is a common internal tangent DB is a common external tangent

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Given: XY is a common internal tangent to circles P and Q at X and Y. XS is tangent to circle P at X and YT is tangent to circle Q at T. Conclusion XS is congruent to YT Example 1 P S X Q Y T

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Example 2 TP is tangent to circle O at T. The radius of circle O is 8mm. Tangent segment TP is 6 mm long. Find the length of OP T O P

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Example 3 A P Q B R A circle with a radius of 8 cm is externally tangent to a circle with a radius of 18 cm. Find the length of a common external tangent Common-Tangent Procedure 1.Draw the segment joining the centers. 2.Draw the radii in the points of contact. 3.Through the center of the smaller circle, draw a line parallel to the common tangent. 4.Observe that this line will intersect the radius of the large circle (extended if necessary) to form a rectangle and a right triangle. 5.Use the Pythagorean Theorem and properties of a rectangle.

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Given: Each side of a quadrilateral ABCD is tangent to the circle. AB = 10, BC = 15, AD = 18 Find CD A Example 4 B D C

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Summary Summarize what you have learned about secants and tangents. Homework: worksheet

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