Presentation on theme: "I’m going nuts over derivatives!!! 2.1 The Derivative and the Tangent Line Problem."— Presentation transcript:
I’m going nuts over derivatives!!! 2.1 The Derivative and the Tangent Line Problem
Calculus grew out of 4 major problems that European mathematicians were working on in the seventeenth century. 1.The tangent line problem 2.The velocity and acceleration problem 3.The minimum and maximum problem 4.The area problem
The tangent line problem (c, f(c)) secant line f(c+ ) – f(c) x (c, f(c)) is the point of tangency and is a second point on the graph of f.
The slope between these two points is Definition of Tangent Line with Slope m
Find the slope of the graph of f(x) = x 2 +1 at the point (-1,2). Then, find the equation of the tangent line. (-1,2)
Therefore, the slope at any point (x, f(x)) is given by m = 2x What is the slope at the point (-1,2)? m = -2 The equation of the tangent line is y – 2 = -2(x + 1) f(x) = x 2 + 1
The limit used to define the slope of a tangent line is also used to define one of the two funda- mental operations of calculus --- differentiation Definition of the Derivative of a Function f’(x) is read “f prime of x” Other notations besides f’(x) include:
Find f’(x) for f(x) = and use the result to find the slope of the graph of f at the points (1,1) & (4,2). What happens at the point (0,0)? 1
Therefore, at the point (1,1), the slope is ½, and at the point (4,2), the slope is ¼. What happens at the point (0,0)? The slope is undefined, since it produces division by zero
Find the derivative with respect to t for the function
Theorem 3.1 Alternate Form of the Derivative The derivative of f at x = c is given by (c, f(c)) cx (x, f(x))
Derivative from the left and from the right. Example of a point that is not differentiable. is continuous at x = 2 but let’s look at it’s one sided limits. 1
The 1-sided limits are not equal., x is not differentiable at x = 2. Also, the graph of f does not have a tangent line at the point (2, 0). A function is not differentiable at a point at which its graph has a sharp turn or a vertical tangent line(y = x 1/3 or y = absolute value of x). Differentiability can also be destroyed by a discontinuity ( y = the greatest integer of x).