Presentation on theme: "CELL BIOLOGY (C)-2010 National Bio Rules Committee Chairman"— Presentation transcript:
1 CELL BIOLOGY (C)-2010 National Bio Rules Committee Chairman KAREN LANCOURNational Bio RulesCommittee Chairman
2 Cell Biology (C) Competition – topics chart Process Skills - observations, inferences, predictions, data analysis, and calculationsEvent Parameters – be sure to check the rules for resources allowed and safety goggles required.
3 Training Materials Training Handout – content Event Supervisor Guide – sample stations, process skills, methodsInternet Resource – links to on-line courses, lab manuals, notes, sitesSample Tournaments – sample stations with key
4 Topics - Regional and State Biological monomers and polymers also HDL & LDLpHEnzymesCell organelles/structures and their functionsDifferences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cellsQUALITATIVE aspects of photosynthesis and respirationMembrane structure and functionMovement across membranesImportance of ATPStructure of virusesCell cycle and mitosisChromosome StructureFermentation Products and their uses
5 Topics – Nationals All of topics from state and regional plus: Cell communication and membrane receptorsApoptosisEnzyme inhibitionStem cell concepts and usesViral replicationC3 vs. C4 vs. CAM plantsConsequences of changes in protein shapeCancerous vs normal cellsGenomicsBioethics relating to above topics
6 Monomers and Polymers simple sugar (monosaccharide) polysaccharide exampleReagentssimple sugar(monosaccharide)polysaccharidestarch, cellulose,glycogen (animal)Benedicts-glucoseIodine-starchamino acidprotein, polypeptidehair, enzyme,hemoglobin, insulinNinhydrin,Biuretnucleotidenucleic acidDNA, RNAmethyl greenfatty acid/glycerolfat or tri glyceridecooking oil, buttergrease test withbrown paper
7 pH Hydrogen ion concentration Liquid may be acid, base or neutral 7 is neutralBelow 7 is acidicAbove 7 is basicLogarithmicBuffers in cells
8 Enzymes Catalysts Made of Protein May have non-protein parts Lower Activation EnergyNot changed during reactionEnzyme-substrate complexInhibition – Competitive and noncompetitive
9 Plant Cell – Special Features Cell wall – protection and supportChloroplast - for photosynthesisLarge central vacuole-for storage and increase surface area
12 Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Prokaryotic – single cell with nuclear material but no nuclear membrane or membrane bound organellesEukaryotic – most cells – with organized nucleus and membrane bound organelles
13 PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis – Trapping of sunlight energy followed by its conversion to chemical energy (ATP, NADPH, or both) and then synthesis into sugar phosphates which convert into sucrose, cellulose, starch, and other end products. It is the main pathway by which energy and carbon enter the food webs.
14 Cell RespirationCellular Respiration - Organic substances are broken down to simpler products with the release of energy which is incorporated into special energy-carrying molecules (ATP) and is eventually used for metabolic processes. All cells carry on some form of cellular respiration. Most plants and animals require oxygen.NOTE: The amount of NET ATP production varies from cell to cell.
15 Fermentation Products and their Uses Carbon dioxide – bread makingAlcohol – wine making and brewingLactic Acid – lactic acid bacteria ferment milk into products as yogurt
23 Importance of ATP Energy storage chemical for cell processes Most of ATP is produced via electron transport chainMain reason that cells need oxygen: to allow them to make lots of ATPInvolved in both photosynthesis and respiration
24 Structure of Viruses Non-cellular infectious agent Composed of DNA or RNA and a protein coatReplicates only after its genetic material enters a host cellSubverts the host’s metabolic machinery
25 Cell Cycle G1 Phase – high rate of biosynthesis and growth S Phase – DNA content doubles and chromosomes replicateG2 Phase - final preparations for MitosisM Phase – Mitosis and Cytokinesis
26 MitosisProphase – chromatid pairs coil up, spindle forms, nuclear membrane dissolves, chromatid pairs attach to spindle fibers (microtubules)Metaphase – chromatid pairs move to the equator, chromatid pairs align at the equatorAnaphase – chromatids separate into individual chromosomes, chromosomes are pulled apart toward the equator by the spindle fibers (microtubules)Telophase - chromosomes uncoil, spindle dissolves, nuclear membrane reformsCytokinesis – division of the cytoplasm to make two new cells
27 Chromosome Structure Nuclesosomes Solenoid c. Chromatin fiber d. Metaphase chromosomes
28 Fermentation products and uses Lactic Acid Fermentationyogurt, cheese, sauerkraut, and picklesmuscle cells can also use fermentation for a quick burst of energyAlcoholic FermentationBeverage IndustryBread dough