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CELL BIOLOGY (C)-2010 CELL BIOLOGY (C)-2010 KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules Committee Chairman

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Presentation on theme: "CELL BIOLOGY (C)-2010 CELL BIOLOGY (C)-2010 KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules Committee Chairman"— Presentation transcript:

1 CELL BIOLOGY (C)-2010 CELL BIOLOGY (C)-2010 KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules Committee Chairman karenlancour@charter.net

2 Cell Biology (C) Competition – topics chart Competition – topics chart Process Skillsobservations, inferences, predictions, data analysis, and calculations Process Skills - observations, inferences, predictions, data analysis, and calculations Event Parameters – be sure to check the rules for resources allowed and safety goggles required. Event Parameters – be sure to check the rules for resources allowed and safety goggles required.

3 Training Materials Training Handout – content Training Handout – content Event Supervisor Guide – sample stations, process skills, methods Event Supervisor Guide – sample stations, process skills, methods Internet Resource – links to on-line courses, lab manuals, notes, sites Internet Resource – links to on-line courses, lab manuals, notes, sites Sample Tournaments – sample stations with key Sample Tournaments – sample stations with key

4 Topics - Regional and State Biological monomers and polymers also HDL & LDL Biological monomers and polymers also HDL & LDL pH pH Enzymes Enzymes Cell organelles/structures and their functions Cell organelles/structures and their functions Differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells Differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells QUALITATIVE aspects of photosynthesis and respiration QUALITATIVE aspects of photosynthesis and respiration Membrane structure and function Membrane structure and function Movement across membranes Movement across membranes Importance of ATP Importance of ATP Structure of viruses Structure of viruses Cell cycle and mitosis Cell cycle and mitosis Chromosome Structure Chromosome Structure Fermentation Products and their uses Fermentation Products and their uses

5 Topics – Nationals All of topics from state and regional plus: All of topics from state and regional plus: Cell communication and membrane receptors Cell communication and membrane receptors Apoptosis Apoptosis Enzyme inhibition Enzyme inhibition Stem cell concepts and uses Stem cell concepts and uses Viral replication Viral replication C3 vs. C4 vs. CAM plants C3 vs. C4 vs. CAM plants Consequences of changes in protein shape Consequences of changes in protein shape Cancerous vs normal cells Cancerous vs normal cells Genomics Genomics Bioethics relating to above topics Bioethics relating to above topics

6 Monomers and Polymers monomerpolymerexampleReagents simple sugar (monosaccharide) polysaccharidestarch, cellulose, glycogen (animal) Benedicts-glucose Iodine-starch amino acidprotein, polypeptide hair, enzyme, hemoglobin, insulin Ninhydrin, Biuret nucleotidenucleic acidDNA, RNAmethyl green fatty acid/glycerolfat or tri glyceride cooking oil, buttergrease test with brown paper

7 pH Hydrogen ion concentration Hydrogen ion concentration Liquid may be acid, Liquid may be acid, base or neutral base or neutral 7 is neutral 7 is neutral Below 7 is acidic Below 7 is acidic Above 7 is basic Above 7 is basic Logarithmic Logarithmic Buffers in cells Buffers in cells

8 Enzymes Catalysts Catalysts Made of Protein Made of Protein May have non-protein parts May have non-protein parts Lower Activation Energy Lower Activation Energy Not changed during reaction Not changed during reaction Enzyme-substrate complex Enzyme-substrate complex Inhibition – Competitive and noncompetitive Inhibition – Competitive and noncompetitive

9 Plant Cell – Special Features Cell wall – protection and support Chloroplast - for photosynthesis Large central vacuole- for storage and increase surface area

10 Animal Cell

11 Nucleus Nuclear envelope – double membrane Nuclear envelope – double membrane chromatin – DNA chromatin – DNA RNA RNA nucleolus – Ribosome sub- units nucleolus – Ribosome sub- units

12 Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Prokaryotic – single cell with nuclear material but no nuclear membrane or membrane bound organelles Prokaryotic – single cell with nuclear material but no nuclear membrane or membrane bound organelles Eukaryotic – most cells – with organized nucleus and membrane bound organelles Eukaryotic – most cells – with organized nucleus and membrane bound organelles

13 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Photosynthesis – Trapping of sunlight energy followed by its conversion to chemical energy (ATP, NADPH, or both) and then synthesis into sugar phosphates which convert into sucrose, cellulose, starch, and other end products. It is the main pathway by which energy and carbon enter the food webs.

14 Cell Respiration Cellular Respiration - Organic substances are broken down to simpler products with the release of energy which is incorporated into special energy-carrying molecules (ATP) and is eventually used for metabolic processes. All cells carry on some form of cellular respiration. Most plants and animals require oxygen. Cellular Respiration - Organic substances are broken down to simpler products with the release of energy which is incorporated into special energy-carrying molecules (ATP) and is eventually used for metabolic processes. All cells carry on some form of cellular respiration. Most plants and animals require oxygen. NOTE: The amount of NET ATP production varies from cell to cell. NOTE: The amount of NET ATP production varies from cell to cell.

15 Fermentation Products and their Uses Carbon dioxide – bread making Carbon dioxide – bread making Alcohol – wine making and brewing Alcohol – wine making and brewing Lactic Acid – lactic acid bacteria ferment milk into products as yogurt Lactic Acid – lactic acid bacteria ferment milk into products as yogurt

16 Cell Membrane

17 Osmosis

18 Animal Cells – in different solutions

19 Plant Cells – Turgor Pressure and Plasmolysis

20 Passive Transport – no energy used

21 Active Transport – uses energy

22 Endocytosis and Exocytosis

23 Importance of ATP Energy storage chemical for cell processes Energy storage chemical for cell processes Most of ATP is produced via electron transport chain Most of ATP is produced via electron transport chain Main reason that cells need oxygen: to allow them to make lots of ATP Main reason that cells need oxygen: to allow them to make lots of ATP Involved in both photosynthesis and respiration Involved in both photosynthesis and respiration

24 Structure of Viruses Non-cellular infectious agent Non-cellular infectious agent Composed of DNA or RNA and a protein coat Composed of DNA or RNA and a protein coat Replicates only after its genetic material enters a host cell Replicates only after its genetic material enters a host cell Subverts the host’s metabolic machinery Subverts the host’s metabolic machinery

25 Cell Cycle G1 Phase – high rate of biosynthesis and growth G1 Phase – high rate of biosynthesis and growth S Phase – DNA content doubles and chromosomes replicate S Phase – DNA content doubles and chromosomes replicate G2 Phase - final preparations for Mitosis G2 Phase - final preparations for Mitosis M Phase – Mitosis and Cytokinesis M Phase – Mitosis and Cytokinesis

26 Mitosis Prophase – chromatid pairs coil up, spindle forms, nuclear membrane dissolves, chromatid pairs attach to spindle fibers (microtubules) Prophase – chromatid pairs coil up, spindle forms, nuclear membrane dissolves, chromatid pairs attach to spindle fibers (microtubules) Metaphase – chromatid pairs move to the equator, chromatid pairs align at the equator Metaphase – chromatid pairs move to the equator, chromatid pairs align at the equator Anaphase – chromatids separate into individual chromosomes, chromosomes are pulled apart toward the equator by the spindle fibers (microtubules) Anaphase – chromatids separate into individual chromosomes, chromosomes are pulled apart toward the equator by the spindle fibers (microtubules) Telophase - chromosomes uncoil, spindle dissolves, nuclear membrane reforms Telophase - chromosomes uncoil, spindle dissolves, nuclear membrane reforms Cytokinesis – division of the cytoplasm to make two new cells Cytokinesis – division of the cytoplasm to make two new cells

27 Chromosome Structure a.Nuclesosomes b.Solenoid c. Chromatin fiber d. Metaphase chromosomes

28 Fermentation products and uses Lactic Acid Fermentation yogurt, cheese, sauerkraut, and pickles muscle cells can also use fermentation for a quick burst of energy Alcoholic Fermentation Beverage Industry Bread dough


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