Presentation on theme: "Animal Survival Water and Waste. G1: Identify the ways in which a mammal gains and loses water Water Gain Food Drink Chemical Reactions* Water Loss Urine."— Presentation transcript:
Animal Survival Water and Waste
G1: Identify the ways in which a mammal gains and loses water Water Gain Food Drink Chemical Reactions* Water Loss Urine (Urea in water) Faeces Sweat Breathing *Respiration = how the body releases energy from food. Oxygen + Food Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
The kidneys make sure that the amount of water gain equals the amount of water loss Water Balance Water In = Water Out
G2: State that the kidneys are the main organs for regulating the water content in a mammal. This is called OSMOREGULATION G3: Identify the position and state the functions of the kidney, renal arteries, renal veins, ureter and bladder. water regulate/control
NameFunction KidneyFilter blood. Remove excess water and urea Renal Arteries Supply blood to the kidneys Renal Vein Take filtered blood away from the kidneys UreterTake urine (urea and water) from the kidneys to the bladder BladderStores urine until it is passed out of the body
G4: State that the kidneys work by filtration of blood and reabsorption of useful materials such as glucose. G5: State that urea is a waste product removed in the urine.
FILTRATION As blood flows through the kidneys, a lot of water and most of the substances dissolved in the plasma are filtered out. This includes urea, glucose, amino acids and salt.
RE-ABSORPTION Many of these substances are needed by the body, so are RE-ABSORBED back into the blood. Urea and just the right amount of water that the body needs to lose are NOT re- absorbed. They pass out of the kidneys, down to the bladder and are excreted in the urine
C1: Explain the process of urine production using a simple diagram of the nephron.
Part of NephronFunction Glomerulus Blood is filtered and collects in the Bowman’s Capsule Kidney Tubule Useful substances are re-absorbed (eg, glucose, amino acids) and pass back into the capillaries. Collecting Duct Final re-absorption of water occurs here. The amount re-absorbed is controlled by ADH (anti-diuretic hormone).
C2: State the source of urea in the body and describe how urea is transported to the kidneys. Urea is a poisonous nitrogenous (contains nitrogen) waste. It is made in the liver when surplus amino acids are broken down. Amino Acids Glycogen + Urea Useful carbohydrate stored in the liver Urea passes into the bloodstream and is transported to the kidneys where it is removed from the blood.
New term …… diuretic A diuretic is a substance which causes an increase in the production of urine. Opposite terms eg, clockwise/anti-clockwise social/anti-social anti-viral Don’t copy this!!!!!!!
Diuretic A diuretic is a substance which causes an increase in the production of urine. Anti-diuretic An anti-diuretic will reduce the production of urine.
C3: Explain the role of ADH (anti- diuretic hormone) in the regulation of water balance Anti-diuretic hormone = decrease production of urine Anti-diuretic hormone is released by the pituitary gland (part of the brain). Body can either produce lots of ADH or a little ADH Lots of ADH = less urine
Releases little ADH Scenario 1: Drank too much water Blood too dilute Drink too much Low volume of water reabsorbed by kidney Large volume dilute urine to bladder Water conc. in blood normal
Releases lots ADH Scenario 2: Body has lost too much water Blood too concentrated sweating High volume of water reabsorbed by kidney Small volume concentrated urine to bladder Water conc. in blood normal
G6: Explain the implications of damage to the kidneys by accidents or disease People can live with only one kidney, but if both kidneys become damaged, urea will build up and will eventually cause death if not treated. Treatment Dialysis (kidney machine) Kidney Transplant
C4: Describe the benefits and limitations of replacement and “artificial” kidneys.
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