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Defence Application of SoS Professor C.E. Dickerson Loughborough University.

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Presentation on theme: "Defence Application of SoS Professor C.E. Dickerson Loughborough University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Defence Application of SoS Professor C.E. Dickerson Loughborough University

2 Outline  Background  A Transition to Network Enablement of SoS  SoS or Network Enablement?  Some Examples from the U.S. DoD  Summary and Related Work

3 A Move Towards Capability Engineering  The Challenge: the integration of multiple capabilities across developing systems and often disparate legacy systems to support multiple warfare areas  U.S. DoD Policy changes  Joint Capability Integration and Development System  Revisions to DoD 5000 policies  U.K. MOD Policy changes  Smart Acquisition  Military Capability across the Defence Lines of Development [1]

4 Defence Systems in the Late 20 th Century  A transition in forces and technologies from  Symmetric to asymmetric warfare  Defence sponsored to commercially funded R&D  MILSPEC to COTS and open architecture  A Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA)  The power of precision weapons coupled with IT  Net Centric Warfare and System of Systems [2]  Analogous to Blitzkrieg integration of communications

5 Outline  Background  A Transition to Network Enablement of SoS  SoS or Network Enablement?  Some Examples from the U.S. DoD  Summary and Related Work

6 Network Enablement of Naval Forces  Network-Centric Naval Forces [3]  Introduced concept of Net Centric Operations (NCO)  Combat, Support, and C4ISR Force Elements  Integrated into an operational and combat network  Supported by common C 2 and information infrastructure  Geographically dispersed forces with  Enhanced speed of command  Self synchronisation of force elements  Rapid application of fires and manoeuvres  Greater economy of force application

7 System of System Integration through Networks Battlespace Network Centric System Architecture Shared Battlespace Platform 1 Platform 2 Platform 3 Battlespace Platform Centric Sensor ProcessorWeapon System Architecture Battlespace Sectored Battlespace Adapted from: Network-Centric Naval Forces, Naval Studies Board, National Research Council, Figure 1.5, Page 27 Network S S S S S S P P P W W W P P P W W W SPW Capabilities are achieved by interoperation of systems Interoperability is enabled by networks [3, 4]

8 Network Centric Warfare Report to Congress NCW DoD Report to Congress [5] Vision and implementation plans From all DoD Services And related Agencies Sought asymmetrical information advantage over threat forces Simultaneous domain relationships Physical, information, cognitive

9 From Net Centric Enablement to SoS  SoS Point of View by Admiral William Owens [6]  Three Key ‘Systems’ That Must Interoperate  Intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR)  C 2, communications, intelligence processing (C4)  Precision force  Integration of advanced weapons and information technology and the military organisation and doctrine to exploit both simultaneously

10 SoSE for USAF Capability Development  SoSE for Air Force Capability Development [7]  Four key considerations were emphasised  Role of the human in SoS  Discovery and application of convergence protocols (e.g. TCP/IP)  Motivation issues  Experimentation venues for  Developing concepts of operations  Evaluation of candidate convergence protocols  Rapid fielding of SoS enabled capabilities  Enhancement of infrastructure for SoS

11 Outline  Background  A Transition to Network Enablement of SoS  SoS or Network Enablement?  Some Examples from the U.S. DoD  Summary and Related Work

12 A Lesson from History  Blitzkrieg was a WWII RMA based on the  Integration of weapons, communications, and  C2 and doctrine to achieve military capability  The lynchpin of the concept was the radio [8]  Miniaturisation had reduced power demands  Reliability had increased  Every tank had a portable radio  A Division of Panzer tanks was an SoS

13 Fleet Battle Experiment (FBE) - India  The FBEs were a series of joint NCO experiments  FBE-I explored NCO for time critical strike (TCS) [9]  Embodied Admiral Owens’ concept of SoS  Capabilities integration at the mission level  Geographically dispersed forces supported by  Common C 2 and information infrastructure  SoS integration focused on information exchange  Achieved using the network  Emergent SoS capabilities achieved through NCO

14 FBE-I Concept of Operations Fires and manoeuvre concept: Embodied using STOM Enabled by NCO TCS Deeper and swifter penetration Acronyms LPTF: littoral penetration task force STOM: ship to objective manoeuvre TAOR: tactical area of regard

15 Outline  Background  A Transition to Network Enablement of SoS  SoS or Network Enablement?  Systems and Systems of Systems Engineering  Some Examples from the U.S. DoD  Related Work

16 SoS in the U.S DoD  Joint staff instruction CJCSI 3170.01E, 11 May 2005: A system of systems is a set or arrangement of interdependent systems that are related or connected to provide a given capability.  Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology (A&T) [10]:  SoS SE Guide initiated May 2006  Provides guidelines to program managers  There is no archetype for a defence SoS  But every SoS is information intensive  And is a candidate for net centric enablement

17 Future Combat System (FCS)  U.S. Army SoS for transformation  See first, understand first, act first, finish decisively  Trades armour for information superiority  Four building blocks of the FCS network  SoS Common Operating Environment  Battle Command software  Communications and computers  ISR systems  Traditional systems engineering approach

18 Naval Integrated Fire Control - Counter Air (NIFC-CA)  U.S. Navy Theater Air and Missile Defense  ‘Over the horizon’ targeting  Engage on remote capability  Core ‘pillar programs’ based on legacy systems  Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC)  Standard Missile (SM-6)  E-2D Advanced Hawkeye  Systems engineering approach focuses on  Functional allocation to pillar elements  Synchronisation of programs across the SoS

19 Single Integrated Air Picture (SIAP)  Consists of common, continual, unambiguous tracks  Network enabled capabilities for heterogeneous SoS  ‘Capability Drops’ target interoperability problems  Implemented with Model Driven Architecture (MDA TM )  Platform Independent Model (PIM) derives from  Executable Peer-to Peer Integrated Architecture Behaviour Model  Services receive the PIM and use it to implement the software adaptive layers for their specific sensors

20 MDA TM for SoS Software Applications Requirements PIM PSM Code Running system Model transformation Adapted from: Jones, V., van Halteren, A., Konstantas, D., Widya, I., Bults, R. (2007) “An application of augmented MDA for the extended healthcare enterprise“, International Journal of Business Process Integration and Management, Volume 2, Number 3, pp. 215-229(15) The OMG MDA TM is a paradigm shift in software engineering from ‘objects’ to models. Platform Independent Model Platform Specific Model

21 Architecting a Net Centric Defence SoS Force Elements (mission requirements) Information Needs and Capabilities Architecture Integrated Operational and Combat Network Common C 2 & Information Infrastructure abstraction

22 Outline  Background  A Transition to Network Enablement of SoS  SoS or Network Enablement?  Some Examples from the U.S. DoD  Summary and Related Work

23 Summary  Systems of systems and network enablement are intimately intertwined.  Information exchange in Defence SoS is both critical and central for  Emergent behaviour and military capability.  Defence SoS must be understood through the integration of capabilities in a mission context.  Capabilities are achieved by interoperation  Interoperability is enabled by networks

24 Related Work  U.K. MOD SEIG and NECTISE research  U.S. OSD A&T and NII  IEEE ICSOS  INCOSE AWG and MBSE  OMG MDA TM and Formal Semantics SIG

25 List of Acronyms (1 of 2) [#] : reference number (listed at end of brief) AWG: Architecture Working Group C 2 : command and control C4: command, control, communications, and computers CEC: Cooperative Engagement Capability COTS: Commercial off the shelf DoD: U.S. Department of Defense FBE-I: Fleet Battle Experiment – India FCS: Future Combat System ICSOS: International Consortium on System of Systems INCOSE: International Council on Systems Engineering ISR: Intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance IT: Information Technology MBSE: Model based systems engineering MDA: Model driven architecture MILSPEC: Military [system] specification MOD: U.K. Ministry of Defence

26 List of Acronyms (2 of 2) NCO: Net centric operations NCW: Network centric warfare NECTISE: Network Enabled Capabilities through Innovative Systems Engineering NIFC-CA: Naval Integrated Fire Control – Counter Air OMG: Object Management Group OSD: Office of the Secretary of Defense OSD A&T: OSD Acquisition and Technology OSD NII: OSD Network Integration and Interoperability PIM: Platform Independent Model PSM: Platform Specific Model R&D: Research and Development RMA: revolution in military affairs SEIG: Systems Engineering and Integration Group SIAP: Single Integrated Air Picture SIG: Special Interest Group (in the OMG) SoS: System of systems TCP/IP: Transmission control protocol/internet protocol

27 References 1. Secretary of State for Defence. December 2005. Defence industrial strategy. London: Defence White Paper Cm 6697 2. Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Vision 2010, Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1996 3. Committee on Network-Centric Naval Forces, Naval Studies Board. 2000. Network-centric naval forces: a strategy for enhancing operational capabilities, Washington, DC: National Academy Press 4. Alberts, D.S., et al. August 1999. Network centric warfare: developing and leveraging information superiority. Washington, DC: CCRP Press

28 References (cont’d) 5. Office of the Secretary of Defense. 27 July 2001. Network centric warfare, department of defense report to congress. Washington, D.C. 6. Owens, W.A. February 1996. The emerging U.S. system-of- systems, Washington, DC: The National Defense University, Institute of National Security Studies, Number 63 7. Saunders, T. et al., July 2005. Systems-of-systems engineering for Air Force capability development. Washington, DC: United Stated Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, Report SAB-TR-05- 04. 8. Hall, C., MITRE Corporation. 29 February 2000. Private communication

29 References (continued) 9. Dickerson, C.E. et al. August 2003. Using architectures for research, development, and acquisition. Office of the Chief Engineer of the Navy, Assistant Secretary of the Navy. Defense Technical Information Center ( ADA427961. 10. Director, Systems and Software Engineering, Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition and Technology), Office of the Under Secretary of Defense, (Acquisition, Technology and Logistics). 22 December 2006. System of systems systems engineering guide, version 9.

30 Thanks for your attention

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