Presentation on theme: "Sorghum Malting for Future Foods"— Presentation transcript:
1Sorghum Malting for Future Foods Tom Roberts, Senior LecturerDepartment of Plant and Food Sciences
2Acknowledgements Thanks to: Dr Meredith Wilkes (former Lecturer now at Baiada Poultry)Briony Young (former BScAgr 4th- year student)Ali Khoddami (PhD student)Assoc. Prof. Peter Selle (Faculty of Veterinary Science)O’Brien beers made from sorghum and millet.
3Sorghum Grain as a Food Ingredient in Australia A tiny proportion of sorghum grown in Australia is used in human food.Whole grain cereals (73%) [wheat (39%), rye (12%), sorghum (11%), oats (11%)], sugar, rice (7%), puffed wheat, barley malt extract, wheaten cornflour, coconut (1.5%), salt, honey (0.5%), vegetable oils, vitamins [niacin, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, vitamin E (contains soy)], mineral (iron).Sanitarium Multi-Grain Weet-Bix.
4Sorghum as a CropSorghum grain: a vital food for millions across parts of Africa and Asia.Sorghum bicolor is one of the most important food and animal feed crops in arid and semi-arid regions of the world.There are many potential economic, environmental and social benefits if utilised as a food grain in the Western world.Starch digestibility is limited – attractive for obesity sufferers.Gluten-free; i.e. safe for consumption by sufferers of Coeliac disease.Sorghum grain head.
5Sorghum-based Foods in the Developing World Foods made primarily from sorghum are uncommon in the Western world.BreadsPorridgeCouscousTortillasCookiesKunun-zaki (non-alcoholic Nigerian beverage)+ Beer (of course) – a food?Sorghum porridge.
6Sorghum as a Australian Commodity In Australia, sorghum ranks 7th in production but not in top 20 in value.
7Sorghum in Australian Crop Production Sorghum is a relatively low-value crop in Australian agriculture.Australian Bureau of Statistics.
8Physiological Advantages of the Sorghum Plant Sorghum is a C4 plant adapted to tropical conditions.Sorghum has Kranz anatomy.Compared to other cereals (C3), such as barley, sorghum has:excellent drought toleranceexcellent heat resistanceexcellent water-use efficiencyTransverse section of sorghum leaf.
9The Genetic Diversity of Sorghum Australia is the natural centre of diversity for the Sorghum genus.17 of the 25 recognised Sorghum species are native to Australia.Sorghum halepense, Pers. "Evergreen Millet"Maiden, Joseph Henry (1898). Manual of Grasses New South WalesWorldwide distribution of sorghum taxa
10Sorghum vs Barley Grain Anatomy Young, B. (2011). BScAgr 4th-year thesis.The storage proteins of sorghum grain (kafirins) are more hydrophobic than other cereal prolamins.Thus the endosperm is relatively impermeable to water and therefore resistant to breakdown by hydrolytic enzymes released from the aleurone.
11The Basics of MaltingMalting involves steeping, germinating and kilning.Malting is the process of steeping, germinating and drying (kilning) cereal grains to promote the development of hydrolytic enzymes that are otherwise absent in ungerminated grains.Malting produces grains with a profoundly different flavour compared to unmalted grain.Bamforth (1998). Beer: Tap into the Art and Science of Brewing. Prenum Press (New York)
12Malt as a Food Ingredient Malt has multiple functions as a food ingredient.Dough leaveningSoftening and moisture retention of bakery crumbBrowning of bakery crustAddition of colourAroma and flavour enhancementTexture improvement and nutrition enrichmentWestern food and beverage products containing barley malt.
13Sorghum Malting: Adding Value Well-established barley malting protocols cannot be directly applied to sorghum.Enzyme levels, particularly amylase activities, are low.Starch gelatinisation temperatures are high (compared to those of barley).As a result, malt extract (fermentable sugar) levels are frequently low.Sorghumpeak viscosity= 1331 cPWheatpeak viscosity= 996 cP
14Properties of Sorghum Malt What is the flavour of sorghum malt?It’s no good producing sorghum malt if it is unpalatable!We want the health advantages of the phenolics without excessively bitter taste (mainly due to tannin).The development of white and yellow sorghum varieties has helped in the production of flours which do not develop unwanted colours and flavours in food products.Overall, sorghum should be considered as a functional food ingredient.
15Phytochemicals in Sorghum Grain Phytochemicals in sorghum grain are dominated by phenolics.Sorghum grain contains phenolic acids and flavonoids.Australian sorghums do not contain condensed tannins (made via the condensation of flavans). Thus they do not have a pigmented testa and are classified as Type I sorghums.
16Phytochemicals in Sorghum Grain Some phytochemicals in sorghum may have benefits to human health.Epidemiological evidence suggests that sorghum consumption reduces the risk of certain types of human cancers compared to other cereals (Awika & Rooney, 2004).The high concentration of phytochemicals in sorghum may be partly responsible.Sorghum phytochemicals promote cardiovascular health in animals.Gluten-free malt extract.Briess-p/lme012.htm
17Phytochemicals in Sorghum Grain What happens to sorghum phytochemicals upon malting?From Taylor and Duogo (2014) J Sci Food Agric:“The food-processing operations applied to these grains, i.e. dehulling and decortication, malting, fermentation and thermal processing, drammatically affect the quantity of phenolics present, most generally lowering them.”Ali Khoddami’s work shows that malting of Australian cultivars of sorghum increases (a lot!) the concentrations of various classes of phenolic compounds.
18Ali Khoddami’s PhD Research - Poster Effect of malting on anthocyanin compounds and antioxidant activity in Australian sorghums.Four Australian sorghum cultivars:Dominator (Nuseed)G22 (Pioneer)G99 (Pioneer)G56 (Pioneer)Compared unmalted and malted grain:Total phenolicsSpectrophotometric methodAntioxidant activityDPPH and ABTS methodsSpecific phenolicsHPLC and mass spectrometryAnthocyaninsFlavan-4-ols3-deoxyanthocyanins
19Potential of Sorghum Malting Malting of Sorghum has Potential to Produce Food IngredientsA commercial sorghum malting industry is yet to be developed in Australia.Malting of sorghum on a commercial scale will help to develop a sustainable demand for a hardy summer crop.With greater diversity of sorghum products, a reliable income stream may be retained during periods where production of less hardy crops may not be feasible.
20A Future for Australian Sorghum Malting Several important aspects need to be considered in the screening of sorghum varieties for quality malt production.Young, Briony. (2011). BScAgr 4th-year thesis.
21Ideas for Western Food Products Containing Sorghum The functionality and low cost of sorghum are its advantages.Snacks (e.g. muesli bars) - whole grainsInfant foods - increase antioxidant levelsMulti-grain porridges – where sorghum would not act as a thickening agent (c.f. oats)Based on high gelatinization temperature of sorghumPuffed (popped?) sorghumFractured grain (not flour) in breadPuffed sorghum (produced by Woods Foods).