2 Introduction Workshop Developer Mark Chadwick, CEM Training Officer This is a workshop presenting recognition of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs), homemade explosives, and explosives precursors. The workshop will include information on the four components of an IED, types of stimulus, three types of explosives response incidents, evacuation decisions, shelter-in-place, and response safety issues.Workshop DeveloperMark Chadwick, CEMTraining Officer(210)
3 Objectives1. Recognition of common IED's, homemade explosives, and precursors. 2. Recognition of the basic components of an IED. 3. Identification of the three main types of explosives response incidents. 4. Emphasis on first responder safety concerns for explosives response.
17 What makes Homemade Explosives a weapon of choice? They are made from ordinary household productsThe products can be purchased or possessed legallyThey are cheaper to makeYou don’t need a lab to make themThey are simple to makeThey can be just as effective as Commercial or Military explosivesKeep in mind that it was a Homemade Explosive that was used in Oklahoma City.
18 SourcesThe Internet, books, bookstores, libraries, and people with an interest in explosives are all sources that can be used to learn how to make Homemade Explosives.
21 Types of HMEs: Ammonium Nitrate-Based Ammonium nitrate-based explosives, consisting of ammonium nitrate and another precursor that serves as a fuel, are the most widely used types of binary explosives.Popular fuels to mix with AN include:Fuel oil (ANFO)Sugar (ANS)Aluminum powder (ANAL)Nitromethane (ANNM)Ammonium NitrateAluminum PowderAmmonium Nitrate Sugar (ANS)Ammonium Nitrate / Nitromethane
24 Types of HMEs: Hydrogen Peroxide-Based Extremely sensitive to heat, shock, and friction, hydrogen peroxide-based explosives, such as HMTD and TATP, are some of the most commonly used HME in IEDs.Food Additives for Citric AcidDrain Cleaners for Sulfuric AcidCamp Stove Fuel Tablets for HexamineHair Bleach for Hydrogen PeroxideNail Polish Remover for AcetoneHexamethylene Triperoxide Diamine (HMTD)Triacetone Triperoxide (TATP)The Millennium bomber, Ahmed Ressam, planned to use HMTD as part of an IED attack on the Los Angeles International Airport on New Years Eve 1999, while Richard Reid in 2001 attempted to use TATP as a booster in his shoe bomb.
27 Additional Dangers of HME for Law Enforcement Law Enforcement Officers may mistake HME for drugs during initial investigation.+=Portable drug test kits sold under the name NIK are designed to test for cocaine, PCP, LSD and brown heroin. If mixed with TATP or HMTD, the reaction may be violent resulting in injury to the officer.
30 3 Types of Response to Explosives Incidents Pre-DetonationResponse to a threat by phone, , letter, note, or in-person where a detonation has not yet occurred.Post-DetonationResponse after a detonation has occurred.Continuing Explosives IncidentResponse where an incident has occurred (hostage situation, active shooter, etc…) where a detonation has occurred or explosives are believed to be present and the aggressor is still present and the situation is on-going.
31 Evacuation Decisions No Evacuation Partial Evacuation Full Evacuation If you evacuate, you must search the route you will use for evacuation and the evacuation location to insure that additional devices have not been hidden.Otherwise you may be walking people into a situation where a bomber is planning on using multiple devices to cause mass casualties and injure responders.
32 Shelter-In-Place Move to an interior portion of the building Near a supporting wallCompletely away from windowsDo not assume that people understand what it means to Shelter-In-Place!!!
33 Utilize the principles of Time, Distance, and Shielding. Responder SafetyUtilize the principles of Time, Distance, and Shielding.Minimize your amount of Time near a danger.Maximize your distance between you and the danger.Get behind something solid to use as Shielding.
34 The Dangers of Reflective Pressure Can increase the magnitude from 2 to 9 times the explosive’s original potential.
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