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Explosives Threats to First Responders

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Presentation on theme: "Explosives Threats to First Responders"— Presentation transcript:

1 Explosives Threats to First Responders

2 Introduction Workshop Developer Mark Chadwick, CEM Training Officer
This is a workshop presenting recognition of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs), homemade explosives, and explosives precursors. The workshop will include information on the four components of an IED, types of stimulus, three types of explosives response incidents, evacuation decisions, shelter-in-place, and response safety issues. Workshop Developer Mark Chadwick, CEM Training Officer (210)

3 Objectives 1. Recognition of common IED's, homemade explosives, and precursors. 2. Recognition of the basic components of an IED. 3. Identification of the three main types of explosives response incidents. 4. Emphasis on first responder safety concerns for explosives response.

4 IED Components Power Supply Initiator Explosive Switch Container

5 Power Supply

6 Initiators

7 Explosives

8 Switches

9 Imagination is the ONLY limit!
Containers Imagination is the ONLY limit!

10 Explosives Stimuli Friction Impact Shock Heat
ED – Electrostatic Discharge Radio Frequencies

11 Common Types of IEDs

12 Pipe Bomb: ½ lb of Black Powder

13 Pipe Bomb in Slow Motion

14 Gas Bomb in Plastic Bottle

15 50 lb Explosion

16 ALF Incendiary Device

17 What makes Homemade Explosives a weapon of choice?
They are made from ordinary household products The products can be purchased or possessed legally They are cheaper to make You don’t need a lab to make them They are simple to make They can be just as effective as Commercial or Military explosives Keep in mind that it was a Homemade Explosive that was used in Oklahoma City.

18 Sources The Internet, books, bookstores, libraries, and people with an interest in explosives are all sources that can be used to learn how to make Homemade Explosives.

19 Explosives Precursors

20 Poor Man’s C-4 Potassium Chlorate + Vaseline

21 Types of HMEs: Ammonium Nitrate-Based
Ammonium nitrate-based explosives, consisting of ammonium nitrate and another precursor that serves as a fuel, are the most widely used types of binary explosives. Popular fuels to mix with AN include: Fuel oil (ANFO) Sugar (ANS) Aluminum powder (ANAL) Nitromethane (ANNM) Ammonium Nitrate Aluminum Powder Ammonium Nitrate Sugar (ANS) Ammonium Nitrate / Nitromethane

22 Ammonium Nitrate + Aluminum (AN/AL)

23 Ammonium Nitrate + Fuel Oil (AN/FO)

24 Types of HMEs: Hydrogen Peroxide-Based
Extremely sensitive to heat, shock, and friction, hydrogen peroxide-based explosives, such as HMTD and TATP, are some of the most commonly used HME in IEDs. Food Additives for Citric Acid Drain Cleaners for Sulfuric Acid Camp Stove Fuel Tablets for Hexamine Hair Bleach for Hydrogen Peroxide Nail Polish Remover for Acetone Hexamethylene Triperoxide Diamine (HMTD) Triacetone Triperoxide (TATP) The Millennium bomber, Ahmed Ressam, planned to use HMTD as part of an IED attack on the Los Angeles International Airport on New Years Eve 1999, while Richard Reid in 2001 attempted to use TATP as a booster in his shoe bomb.


26 TATP Explosion

27 Additional Dangers of HME for Law Enforcement
Law Enforcement Officers may mistake HME for drugs during initial investigation. + = Portable drug test kits sold under the name NIK are designed to test for cocaine, PCP, LSD and brown heroin. If mixed with TATP or HMTD, the reaction may be violent resulting in injury to the officer.

28 Urea Nitrate

29 Mercury Fulminate

30 3 Types of Response to Explosives Incidents
Pre-Detonation Response to a threat by phone, , letter, note, or in-person where a detonation has not yet occurred. Post-Detonation Response after a detonation has occurred. Continuing Explosives Incident Response where an incident has occurred (hostage situation, active shooter, etc…) where a detonation has occurred or explosives are believed to be present and the aggressor is still present and the situation is on-going.

31 Evacuation Decisions No Evacuation Partial Evacuation Full Evacuation
If you evacuate, you must search the route you will use for evacuation and the evacuation location to insure that additional devices have not been hidden. Otherwise you may be walking people into a situation where a bomber is planning on using multiple devices to cause mass casualties and injure responders.

32 Shelter-In-Place Move to an interior portion of the building
Near a supporting wall Completely away from windows Do not assume that people understand what it means to Shelter-In-Place!!!

33 Utilize the principles of Time, Distance, and Shielding.
Responder Safety Utilize the principles of Time, Distance, and Shielding. Minimize your amount of Time near a danger. Maximize your distance between you and the danger. Get behind something solid to use as Shielding.

34 The Dangers of Reflective Pressure
Can increase the magnitude from 2 to 9 times the explosive’s original potential.

35 Vehicle Barriers

36 Never Approach a Suspicious Device

37 Don’t Become a Victim

38 Even Small Blasts are Dangerous

39 If You Can See the Bomb – It Can See You

40 Questions??? Mark Chadwick, CEM Training Officer

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