Presentation on theme: "Explosives Threats to First Responders. Introduction Workshop Developer Mark Chadwick, CEM Training Officer (210) 206-8688."— Presentation transcript:
Explosives Threats to First Responders
Introduction Workshop Developer Mark Chadwick, CEM Training Officer (210) This is a workshop presenting recognition of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs), homemade explosives, and explosives precursors. The workshop will include information on the four components of an IED, types of stimulus, three types of explosives response incidents, evacuation decisions, shelter-in-place, and response safety issues.
Objectives 1. Recognition of common IED's, homemade explosives, and precursors. 2. Recognition of the basic components of an IED. 3. Identification of the three main types of explosives response incidents. 4. Emphasis on first responder safety concerns for explosives response.
IED Components Power Supply Initiator Explosive Switch Container
Containers Imagination is the ONLY limit!
Explosives Stimuli Friction Impact Shock Heat ED – Electrostatic Discharge Radio Frequencies
Common Types of IEDs
Pipe Bomb: ½ lb of Black Powder
Pipe Bomb in Slow Motion
Gas Bomb in Plastic Bottle
50 lb Explosion
ALF Incendiary Device
Homemade Explosives What makes Homemade Explosives a weapon of choice? They are made from ordinary household products The products can be purchased or possessed legally They are cheaper to make You don’t need a lab to make them They are simple to make They can be just as effective as Commercial or Military explosives Keep in mind that it was a Homemade Explosive that was used in Oklahoma City.
Sources The Internet, books, bookstores, libraries, and people with an interest in explosives are all sources that can be used to learn how to make Homemade Explosives.
Poor Man’s C-4 Potassium Chlorate + Vaseline
Types of HMEs: Ammonium Nitrate-Based Popular fuels to mix with AN include : Fuel oil (ANFO) Sugar (ANS) Aluminum powder (ANAL) Nitromethane (ANNM) Ammonium nitrate-based explosives, consisting of ammonium nitrate and another precursor that serves as a fuel, are the most widely used types of binary explosives. Ammonium Nitrate Sugar (ANS) Ammonium Nitrate / Nitromethane Ammonium Nitrate Aluminum Powder
Ammonium Nitrate + Aluminum (AN/AL)
Ammonium Nitrate + Fuel Oil (AN/FO)
Types of HMEs: Hydrogen Peroxide-Based Extremely sensitive to heat, shock, and friction, hydrogen peroxide-based explosives, such as HMTD and TATP, are some of the most commonly used HME in IEDs. Hexamethylene Triperoxide Diamine (HMTD) Hair Bleach for Hydrogen Peroxide Camp Stove Fuel Tablets for Hexamine Drain Cleaners for Sulfuric Acid Food Additives for Citric Acid The Millennium bomber, Ahmed Ressam, planned to use HMTD as part of an IED attack on the Los Angeles International Airport on New Years Eve 1999, while Richard Reid in 2001 attempted to use TATP as a booster in his shoe bomb. Triacetone Triperoxide (TATP) Nail Polish Remover for Acetone
Additional Dangers of HME for Law Enforcement Law Enforcement Officers may mistake HME for drugs during initial investigation. += Portable drug test kits sold under the name NIK are designed to test for cocaine, PCP, LSD and brown heroin. If mixed with TATP or HMTD, the reaction may be violent resulting in injury to the officer.
3 Types of Response to Explosives Incidents Pre-Detonation Response to a threat by phone, , letter, note, or in- person where a detonation has not yet occurred. Post-Detonation Response after a detonation has occurred. Continuing Explosives Incident Response where an incident has occurred (hostage situation, active shooter, etc…) where a detonation has occurred or explosives are believed to be present and the aggressor is still present and the situation is on-going.
Evacuation Decisions No Evacuation Partial Evacuation Full Evacuation If you evacuate, you must search the route you will use for evacuation and the evacuation location to insure that additional devices have not been hidden. Otherwise you may be walking people into a situation where a bomber is planning on using multiple devices to cause mass casualties and injure responders.
Shelter-In-Place Move to an interior portion of the building Near a supporting wall Completely away from windows Do not assume that people understand what it means to Shelter-In-Place!!!
Responder Safety Utilize the principles of Time, Distance, and Shielding. Minimize your amount of Time near a danger. Maximize your distance between you and the danger. Get behind something solid to use as Shielding.
The Dangers of Reflective Pressure Can increase the magnitude from 2 to 9 times the explosive’s original potential.
Never Approach a Suspicious Device
Don’t Become a Victim
Even Small Blasts are Dangerous
If You Can See the Bomb – It Can See You
Questions??? Mark Chadwick, CEM Training Officer (210)