Presentation on theme: "Stereotypes and Prejudice as Barriers C hapter 4 Does stereotyping & prejudice impede communication? If so, how? What effect do media stereotyping & prejudice."— Presentation transcript:
Stereotypes and Prejudice as Barriers C hapter 4 Does stereotyping & prejudice impede communication? If so, how? What effect do media stereotyping & prejudice have on face-to-face communication? How can communication deal with stereotyping & prejudice?
Stereotypes and Prejudice as Barriers Stereotype: negative or positive judgments made about individuals on the basis of their membership. Mistakes our brains make in the perception of other people that are similar to those mistakes our brains make in the perception of visual illusions. Asian Americans Prejudice: the irrational suspicion or hatred of a particular group, race, religion, or sexual orientation. A highly prejudiced individual is identified as authoritarian personality. S/he tends to overgeneralize, thinks in bipolar terms, and uncritical of higher authority. Groups have experienced prejudice in the U.S.: African- Americans, Irish immigrants, & Jewish immigrant.
Case Studies of Prejudice Roma: Experienced prejudice and discrimination as “Gypsy” Migrated from India to Persia and then Europe. Were persecuted by Nazi Germany. Remembrance of Holocaust is central to Roma identity Japan & Korean: Japanese-born Koreans are the victims of social, economic, and political prejudice. United States: minority groups are disproportionately represented in media (Hispanics, American Indians, Asian-Americans, women, elderly, poor, disabled)
Criticism of How the Press Portrays Minorities Harmful stereotyping Ignorance of Cultural Differences Use of racially biased or insensitive language Double standard Failure to photograph or quote minorities Lumping all Hispanics, or Asian Americans together
Racism Any policy, practice, belief, or attitude that attributes characteristics or status to individuals based on their race. Racism involves not only prejudice but the exercise of power over individuals based on their race. Racism can be either conscious or unconscious, intentional or unintentional (Van Dijk, 1987). Racism appears in songs, insults, malicious humor, employments ads, advertising with European-looking models.
Why Does Prejudice Continue? Socialization: Prejudices are learned Social Benefits: May gain support from group if you support their views. Economic Views: Prejudice may be strong when there is direct competition for jobs. Psychological Benefits: False sense of superiority & simple answers to complex questions (“they are to blame.”)
Hate Speech & Hate Crime Hate speech: includes threats or verbal slurs directed against specific groups or physical acts. For example, burning crosses or spray-painting swastikas on public or private property (Walker, 1994) Hate speech is prohibited in Australia, Britain, Germany, and New Zealand. Hate Crimes: Stems from a fear of differences and results in hostility toward people considered different. Assaults against those who are different because of their race, religion, sexual orientation, or ethnicity. According to FBI report most hate crimes are related to race.
Since Banning Hate Is Unconstitutional in the USA, What Can We Do? Establish cultural norms against hate speech. Present a more balanced picture of minority life in the media