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Hunt’s Algorithm CIT365: Data Mining & Data Warehousing Bajuna Salehe The Institute of Finance Management: Computing and IT Dept.

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Decision Tree Induction Algorithms Number of Algorithms: Hunt’s – Hunt's Algorithm (1966) Quinlan's – Iterative Dichotomizer3 (1975) uses Entropy – C4.5 / 4.8 / 5.0 (1993) uses Entropy Brieman's – Classification And Regression Trees (1984) uses Gini Kass's – CHi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector (1980) uses ____ IBM: Mehta – Supervised Learning In Quest (1996) uses Gini Shafer – Scalable PaRallelizable INduction of decision Trees (1996) uses Gini

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Hunt’s Algorithm In the Hunt’s algorithm, a decision tree is grown in a recursive fashion by partitioning the training records successively into purer subsets

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Hunt’s Algorithm Let Dt be the set of training records that are associated with node t and y = {y1, y2, · · ·, yc} be the class labels. The following is a recursive definition of Hunt’s algorithm. Step 1: If all the records in Dt belong to the same class yt, then t is a leaf node labeled as yt.

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Hunt’s Algorithm Step 2: If Dt contains records that belong to more than one class, an attribute test condition is used to partition the records into smaller subsets. A child node is then created for each outcome of the test condition. The records in Dt are distributed to the children based upon their outcomes. This procedure is repeated for each child node.

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Hunt’s Algorithm Dt = {training node t} If Dt = {records from different classes} – Split Dt into smaller subsets via attribute test – Traverse each subset with same rules If Dt = {records from single class yt} – Set Node t = leaf node with class label yt If Dt = {} (empty) – Set Node t = leaf node with default class label yd Recursively apply above criterion until... – No more training records left

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Example Consider the problem of predicting whether a loan applicant will succeed in repaying her loan obligations or become delinquent, and subsequently, default on her loan. The training set used for predicting borrowers who will default on their loan payments will be as follows.

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Example. Figure1

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Example A training set for this problem can be constructed by examining the historical records of previous loan borrowers. In the training set shown in Figure 1, each record contains the personal information of a borrower along with a class label indicating whether the borrower has defaulted on her loan payments.

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Example The initial tree for the classification problem contains a single node with class label Defaulted = No as illustrated below: Figure 1a: Step 1 This means that most of the borrowers had successfully repayed their loans. However, the tree needs to be refined since the root node contains records from both classes.

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Example The records are subsequently divided into smaller subsets based on the outcomes of the Home Owner test condition, as shown in Figure below: Figure 1b: Step 2 The reason for choosing this attribute test condition instead of others is an implementation issue that will be discussed later.

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Example Now we can assume that this is the best criterion for splitting the data at this point. The Hunt’s algorithm is then applied recursively to each child of the root node. From the training set given in Figure 1, notice that all borrowers who are home owners had successfully repayed their loan.

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Example As a result, the left child of the root is a leaf node labeled as Defaulted = No as shown in figure 1b For the right child of the root node, we need to continue applying the recursive step of Hunt’s algorithm until all the records belong to the same class.

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Example This recursive step is shown in Figures 1c and d below: Figure1c: Step 3 Figure 1d: step 4

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Example Generally the whole diagram will be as follows

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Design Issues of Decision Tree Induction How to split the training records? - Each recursive step of the tree growing process requires an attribute test condition to divide the records into smaller subsets. To implement this step, the algorithm must provide a method for specifying the test condition for different attribute types as well as an objective measure for evaluating the goodness of each test condition.

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Design Issues of Decision Tree Induction When to stop splitting? A stopping condition is needed to terminate the tree growing process. A possible strategy is to continue expanding a node until all the records belong to the same class or if all the records have identical attribute values.

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How to Split an Attribute Before automatically creating a decision tree, you can choose from several splitting functions that are used to determine which attribute to split on. The following splitting functions are available: – Random - The attribute to split on is chosen randomly. – Information Gain - The attribute to split on is the one that has the maximum information gain.

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How to Split an Attribute – Gain Ratio - Selects the attribute with the highest information gain to number of input values ratio. The number of input values is the number of distinct values of an attribute occurring in the training set. – GINI - The attribute with the highest GINI index is chosen. The GINI index is a measure of impurity of the examples.

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Training Dataset AgeIncomeStudentCreditRatingBuysComputer <=30highnofairno <=30highnoexcellentno highnofairyes >40mediumnofairyes >40lowyesfairyes >40lowyesexcellentno lowyesexcellentyes <=30mediumnofairno <=30lowyesfairyes >40mediumyesfairyes <=30mediumyesexcellentyes mediumnoexcellentyes highyesfairyes >40mediumnoexcellentno

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Resultant Decision Tree

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Attribute Selection Measure: Information Gain (ID3/C4.5) The attribute selection mechanism used in ID3 and based on work on information theory by Claude Shannon If our data is split into classes according to fractions {p 1,p 2 …, p m } then the entropy is measured as the info required to classify any arbitrary tuple as follows:

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Attribute Selection Measure: Information Gain (ID3/C4.5) (cont…) The information measure is essentially the same as entropy At the root node the information is as follows:

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Attribute Selection Measure: Information Gain (ID3/C4.5) (cont…) To measure the information at a particular attribute we measure info for the various splits of that attribute For instance with age attribute look at the distribution of ‘Yes’ and ‘No’ samples for each value of age. Compute the expected information for each of these distribution. For age “<=30”

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Attribute Selection Measure: Information Gain (ID3/C4.5) (cont…) At the age attribute the information is as follows:

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Attribute Selection Measure: Information Gain (ID3/C4.5) (cont…) In order to determine which attributes we should use at each node we measure the information gained in moving from one node to another and choose the one that gives us the most information

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Attribute Selection By Information Gain Example Class P: BuysComputer = “yes” Class N: BuysComputer = “no” – I(p, n) = I(9, 5) =0.940 Compute the entropy for age: AgeIncomeStudentCreditRatingBuysComputer <=30highnofairno <=30highnoexcellentno highnofairyes >40mediumnofairyes >40lowyesfairyes >40lowyesexcellentno lowyesexcellentyes <=30mediumnofairno <=30lowyesfairyes >40mediumyesfairyes <=30mediumyesexcellentyes mediumnoexcellentyes highyesfairyes >40mediumnoexcellentno Age pipi nini I(p i, n i ) >= – >

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Attribute Selection By Information Gain Computation means “age <=30” has 5 out of 14 samples, with 2 yes and 3 no. Hence: Similarly:

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