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Edited 3/31/01 Soc. 100 Lecture 11.Chapter 4 Socialization 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Edited 3/31/01 Soc. 100 Lecture 11.Chapter 4 Socialization 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Edited 3/31/01 Soc. 100 Lecture 11.Chapter 4 Socialization 1

2 Chapter 4 Socialization
0. Intro:Comparison of a Japanese, Chinese and US preschool 1. The "Nature" of Human Behavior 2. The Process of Socialization 3. Agents of Socialization 4. Socialization and the Life Cycle 2

3 1. The "Nature" of Human Behavior
* 1. The "Nature" of Human Behavior (1) Nature vs. Nurture (2) Impact of Socialization* - feral children - isolates - social depravation - cross cultural social roles (3) Contemporary Views* Mixed Push Pull (biological Determinism) (environmental determinism) 3

4 (1b) Contemporary Consensus
* Many reject pure nature or nurture -Biology sets the stage, socialization writes the script -Biology is an outline---direct cells to become human, establish a timetable (walk, see, talk..). -Genetic characteristics,easy vs whiney baby, may evoke different environmental response 4

5 (1c) Impact of Socialization
* (1c) Impact of Socialization Basic human characteristics depend on socialization • Feral Children • Isolates ---Anna, Isabel, Genie • Social depravation •Spitz Iran orphanage study (not in text) •Old age and amount of social interaction X death rates • Cross cultural social roles (M Mead Sex and Temperament) •Arapesh - both M&F mild, nurturing •Mundugumor uncaring - hot tempered, uncaring M&F •Techambuli --F business, -M primped and gossiped 5

6 Feral Children M. Gerstein 1998
Example of an Isolated/Feral child appropriate For reading to children.

7 Feral Children Copied from The book. Buy the book It’s a great
Little book!

8 (1d) Socialization and Brain Development
Neurobiology evidence supports importance of socialization --birth 100 billion loosely connected neurons --experience causes connections and branches --at 10 explosive growth stops, 18 low flex Depressed mothers result in low brain activity for child at 3 6

9 2. The Process of Socialization
* 2. The Process of Socialization •Sigmund Freud -- •Charles Horton Cooley •George Herbert Mead* socialization is conflict between child and society Personality, stages of development: oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital three components: Id, Ego, Super Ego "Looking Glass" self; individuals sense of “who am I” 1 our imagination of others perception of us 2 our judgment of their evaluation 3 resultant feeling about ourselves Primary groups have the most effect socialization is a collaboration between child and society "self" develops through symbolic interaction 7

10 * •George Herbert Mead* -2 stages
"self" develops through symbolic interaction -2 stages Play stage "taking the role of the other" Game stage -reciprocal relationships, with others, baseball game, awareness of others perception Generalized other; the image of norms, values, society as whole Me; the socialized self, internalized norms, values and self evaluation I; impulsive, creative, egocentric self Significant others/individual/groups holds in high esteem Reference Group/individual uses as normative, comparative, evaluative (negative and positive) Freud Mead ID I EGO ME Super ME Compete Cooperate with with Society Society Develop Lifetime by development 8

11 3. Agents of Socialization
* 3. Agents of Socialization Individuals or groups that influence behavior and self (a) The Family* (b) Peers* (c) School* (d) TV * 9

12 (a) The Family •primary socialization agent •change over time
1940's child spent all time with family Today(60% under 6) child spend most time with non parents •types of socialization X type of family Types of Power distribution in US families (Baumrind 1980) Authoritarian:: see obedience as prime virtue, parents desires/needs come first Child : dependent, clinging, selfish uncooperative Permissive: set free expression as virtue Child : dependent, clinging, selfish uncooperative Authoritative: in between above Child : independent, friendly, cooperative Social Class (Kohn 1974) and work style are major determiners of type of power Working Class: Traditional, focus on neat, clean, obedient respectful Middle Class: Developmental focus on communicative, eager to learn, share, cooperate happy WHY: relates to work WC,manipulate things, directed MC, manipulates relations and self directed Structure--two natural parents tend to be more permissive or authoritarian Single mothers tend to be more permissive and grant autonomy to early 10

13 -Creative and communal aspects of socialization
(b) Peers -Creative and communal aspects of socialization -Importance varies with age (and culture) •3 year old fascinated by babies, small play groups •4-5 try's out cooperative play egalitarian, trial and error, give and take •adolescents strong peer relationship -identity -Compared to child adult not governed by status or dependency -Functions •anticipatory socialization-learning/practicing •reference group for developing Identity 11

14 • Specifically designed for formal socialization
(c) School • US 180 days a year minimum • Specifically designed for formal socialization Expanded role in socialization last 100 years [civics, sex, m-f roles, soc problem {drugs, abuse}] • Major responsibility preparation for work force, legitimizes economic disparity • Takes role of certifying (tracking) • First introduction to large, impersonal organizations, bureaucracy 12

15 My Youngest Daughter in school in China in 1991
This is Sarah’s class. Notice the size and comparative behavior of the children This plastic statue was of great interest to Sarah. It was in the front of the school

16 (d) TV; 98.3 % households have TV
• Typically 2-3 hours a day • Exposes naive child to sex, drugs, R&R young child sees TV as TRUE • Impact on violence (correlation early exposure to TV violence and adult aggression especially for M) • Reinforces traditional values(good over evil…) but Images of sex role (gender stereotyping), sexual explicitness, materialism effected • Positives- exposure to wider knowledge and with good selection (Sesame Street, Mr. Rogers, Barney? ) •Negatives -Bad roles and time spent lost to other possibilities (also Canadian study), weight gain 13

17 4. Socialization and the Life Cycle
all societies divide life into stages with laws defining limits, rights, obligations, expectations and ages at which these are appropriate Erikson (neo-freudian)* Stages of US Life Cycle* Childhood (1-6)* Adolescence (puberty to 20)* Transitions to adulthood* Middle adulthood* Late adulthood* 14

18 Erikson’s (neo-freudian) Life Cycle
* 15

19 * Erikson's theory Erikson was a student of Freud- immigrated to US, created development theory Added additional adult stages and developmental tasks to Freud's model Saw childhood cycle as 4 progressive stages, -individual needs are conflicted against demands of society each stage characterized by a central problem 1 Human infant totally dependent on caretaker. Basic Trust; if care adequate and consistent Lasting mistrust (anxiety); if care is inadequate 1-2 Child begins to explore but has no sense of possible dangers Sense of autonomy; if caretaker guides gently and encouragingly Shame and Doubt; if caretaker exercises too much or too little control 2-6 After gaining body control child wants to do things on its own, terrible twos and typical defiance initiative; if care taker understands wish to be independent guilt; if caretaker treats child as constant nuisance and ridicules efforts 6-11 About 6 child starts school, first opportunity to test themselves outside the family, mastering skills is school criteria for recognition industry; if efforts at mastery are encouraged and applauded inferiority; if efforts are not encouraged and applauded 16

20 * Critique of Erikson -attempted to describe all children but;
economic, religious, educational, racial/ethnic, occupation factors not considered- •cultural beliefs and values related to care taking and importance of role of the child •failed to take account of external factors (outside immediate family) e.g. Ghetto child not have same opportunity to develop in same way as A WASP farm child, ESL child not have same opportunity in school NOTE --seeing students as having problems in 60's and development of development stage "Studentry" by Parsons (1970 exhibits this) -focus on psychic health limits applications, -stage theory too set, -too much sex, -inadequate examination of interaction (interlocking biographies.) -inadequate focus on later stages (e.g. Levinsen's Ladder BGL) 17

21 -Psychologist, the most influential on cognitive
Not in text Piaget -Psychologist, the most influential on cognitive development of children -Two concepts for adaptation & change (1) schemata-organized way of interacting with objects in the world (grasping & sucking schemas) Older children gradually add new schema (2) change through assimilation-applying old schema new objects accommodation modifies old schema new object -Children progress through 4 stages of intellectual development 18

22 Cognitive development Piaget
Not in text Age Stage Birth - 1 1/ Sensormotor 1 1/ Preoperational Concrete Operational 11 - up Formal Operational 19

23 -demonstrated that child's thinking differs from adults
Critique of Piaget Not in text -demonstrated that child's thinking differs from adults -distinct stages not clearly supported -seems to underestimate capacities of young children - dubious conceptualization of the why of moral position •authoritarian position of parents to cooperation of peer play, experience •ability to grasp perspectives of others seems relevant 20

24 Cognitive/Moral Development-Kohlberg based on Piaget
Not in text Stage Basic Issue 1. Obedience /Punishment "might makes right" 2. Instrumental relativist "you scratch my back I'll scratch yours" 3. Approval Orientation "Good child morality" 4. Conventional Orientation "Law and order" 5. Social Contract "Greatest good for the greatest number" 6. Universal ethical Principals personal., logical, ethics 21

25 Critique of Kohlberg Not in text
1. (K) too cognitive does not allow for emotions and or conflicts between individuals and society and within society 2. (K) Political bias; Radicals and liberals score higher then conservatives 3. (K) Theory reflects male reasoning and implies that females do not have the higher levels of reasoning--Note Kohlberg's research was started during anti-Vietnamese period and was developed using male subjects. Gilligan [1982, 86] points out females appear stuck in approval, stage 3 females use their own vocabulary in defining and resolving moral issues. Maintaining attachments and developing sensitivity are major issues. Morality centered on human relationships, skills in interpersonal communication males are concerned with independence and competition -- major developmental issues for boys thus morality based on achieving individual rights and rules of fair play (4) (K & P) Overdoes cognitive --fails to account for interaction, biography, history, culture etc.. 22

26 * Levinson's Ladder (p147) 23

27 Stages of US Life Cycle* Childhood (1-6)*
Erikson Infancy; total dependence, if infant receives adequate, consistent care they develop basic trust. If infant does not receive adequate, consistent care they develop mistrust and anxiety. 24

28 Adolescence (puberty to 20)
Adolescence is a modern (related to industrialization) invention Pre-industrial society’s had clear rite of passage after which individual treated as adult, not as previously, a child. Adolescence is an ambiguous stage--not a child but not an adult Forming an identity is central task in adolescence. Seek continuity, may over identify with pop figures due to ambiguity, identity crisis may occur, Erickson saw as perquisite for young adult intimacy, some see female track (intimacy-> identity) as different from male (identity->intimacy) many changes are occurring (especially MC and UC) Changing views about adolescence. Conventionally a time of stress, reality happy most of time, able to cope, good relations with parents, positive about future but do tend to take risks.(only 10% adolescence alienated or psychologically disturbed. More adult like behavior with work, dating, etc. 25

29 Transitions to Young Adulthood
Postponement of earlier expectations; Finishing school (school-work-return to school) More likely to live with parents Marriage (typical marriage F 23-24, M 23-26) More variability of young adults as well as M and F in this classification 26

30 Patterns of Middle adulthood
Two decades age middle age begin at 40 Early 90s middle age has moved to 50 and beyond Middle age, women over 40 no longer see themselves over the hill” Many part of “sandwich generation”, responsibilities to children and parents Men frequently divorce and start “second family” More variability of middle adults as well as M and F in this classification like young adulthood, requires resocialization (unlearning traditional norms in order to take on new expectations) Menopause, a biological change in level of hormones seems to be mostly behaviorally defined by the culture not physiological changes (Matthews study p149) Male menopause existence has recently been much debated 27

31 Late adulthood Life expectancy 1900-49, today-79, “graying of America”
People 60 plus are “younger” in health and lifestyle Demographers now distinguish between “young old” (65-80) and “oldest old” (80 plus). Retirement now a process (change in work schedule and/or type) not a specific stage (previous generation “retired”[full time leisure] at 65), majority “work” decreasing with age, now have a new “leisure class” (older retireds with time and money). Health is major issue, most report at least one chronic ailment (varies in severity). Mental conditions affected by aging (memory loss), Alzheimer’s disease is rare but increases with age, severe dementia is major reason why for most institutionalization occur. Great majority of “younger olds” are active and alert (go to school, travel, sex decline but still there) Living arrangements for majority are independent households for couples but women outlive men so numerous single F homes, by 80 many need help but only 5% live in nursing homes Relations with children is mutual support 28

32 * Dying Many cultures/times have accepted, welcomed death, US described as “death denying” The Kubler-Ross study was a break through, seeing predictable stages of death: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance for person and similar stages for the family The Ira Boyk study found ideal death was quick but this is actually rare, dying well depends on landmarks;asking forgiveness, accepting forgiveness, finding dignity, saying goodbye. Most patients would prefer painkilling drugs (one study found 1/2 of dying patients experienced moderate to sever pain in last days), at home death ( medical system wants to treat and send to hospital) American medical system views death as failure but changes with “palliative medicine”, hospices and doctor assisted suicide. 29

33 Also WYAWYWW---(we will discuss in class) 30

34 Group Discussion * (1) Decide at which stage you should be according to Erickson and Levinson. What seems to work for these models in describing you? What seems to be inaccurate about the model for you. Discuss this with diffirent age members of your group. (2) What is the current consensus on Push-Pull models (3) Compare and contrast Freud and Cooley-Mead (4) How does TV effect socialization (how many hours of TV did you watch last night) (5) Is adolescent and adult socialization the same. If not what are the characteristics and important aspects of each (be specific) (6) What if any is the difference in male and female socialization and the stages (7) How has adolescent socialization changed in the short term (last years) and long term (human history) (8) What factors other then “stage” and “agents” effect your ways of seeing the world (one possibilities are life crises: divorce, death, …. After completing the above look at the vocabulary on page 156. Be able to define and give an example, not from the book, on each term. Make sure you also understand all other terms in the chapter and that you are able to think of an example. 31

35 * Alternative Intelligence's By Howard Gardner--Harvard Psychologist
(1) Linguistic--skill with words (2) Logical-Mathematical--skill in reasoning, math or scientific pursuits (3) Spatial--skill in thinking and creating in images (interestingly related to dyslexia) (4) Musical--sensitivity to sound, melody and rhythm (5) Body-kinesthetic--skill in movement and coordination “Bend it Like Beckam” (6) Interpersonal--ability to understand and work effectively with people (7) Intrapersonal--deep self awareness 32

36 Don’t Print (1) Children raised by animals have been found
C4 Socialization Quiz Don’t Print (1) Children raised by animals have been found to behave like the animals. What are they are called (2) Cooley's theory of self development is called? (3) The big difference between Cooley-Mead and Freud is that the relationship between the child and society for Freud is ____________. (4) Why do parents develop different styles of parenting expectations (traditional vs. developmental) (5) Name one stage as an adult in Erikson's model (6) According to Levenson what typifies for year old males. (7) According to Levenson and his collaborator for the second study, what typifies for year old females. (8) Name one 1 of Howard Gardner’s alternative intelligence's usually ignored in discussions about intelligence. 34

37 Socialization Quiz Answers
Don’t Print * Socialization Quiz Answers (1) Children raised by animals have been found to behave like the animals. They are called FERAL (2) Cooley's theory of self development is called? LOOKING GLASS SELF (3) The big difference between Cooley-Mead and Freud is that the relationship between the child and society for Freud is conflict (4) Why do parents develop different styles of parenting expectations (traditional vs. developmental) social class differences in work (5) Name one stage as an adult in Erikson's model Young Adulthood, Maturity, Old Age (6) According to Levenson what typifies for year old males midlife crisis/transition (7) According to Levenson and his collaborator for the second study, what typifies for year old females. midlife crisis/transition--same as men but more varied (8) Name one 1 of Howard Gardner’s alternative intelligence's usually ignored in discussions about intelligence. Musical, Body-kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal 35

38 Old 5th Edition. Introduction - Margaret Mead
Don’t Print - 50 years ago - Expectations for a girl - Expectations for herself at age 30 - Professional growth in her 50's - Production until death at 76 36


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