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Lieutenant Colonel Jim Dryburgh Royal New Zealand Corps of Signals

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1 Lieutenant Colonel Jim Dryburgh Royal New Zealand Corps of Signals
The last mile first Lieutenant Colonel Jim Dryburgh Royal New Zealand Corps of Signals Capability Branch New Zealand Defence Force Ladies and Gentlemen good afternoon and to the team from Microsoft thank you for the privilege of being asked to address this forum on what has been an adventure of discovery for the New Zealand Army which we have shared with Microsoft and other industry partners for just over 4 years now. I work currently in the military capability world and I am ever conscious that we are vying for resources allocated by government amidst all of the other government departments competing demands such as health, education, environment and welfare. So any case we construct for development of existing or for new capabilities needs to be compelling and water tight because military capability tends to be expensive. But you know this is nothing new military capability has always been expensive as this story demonstrates

2 Thoughts “Give me three good sections, add a solid headquarters and we got the makings of a great Platoon... Give me three good platoons add a solid headquarters and we’ve got the makings of a great Company... Provide the right level of organic support from Combat Support and Combat Service Support Arms and we have a Combined Arms Task Group……NZ’s LAND PLATFORM” I just want to ask you to join me at the beginning of this presentation in an experiment in thinking. Specifically about how the Land Component in a modest force the size of my own might attempt to justify resources in support of capability development and acquisition when in competition with the Martime and Air Components. I would hazard to suggest that they have a slightly easier job in convincing politicians as they are clearly platform based deriving the majority of their combat effect by manning complex expensively engineered combat platforms. The approach we have taken in the Land Capability space in NZ is to articulate task organised self contained Combined Arms Task Groups, based on one or two combat manoeuvre elements, with the attendant support from Offensive Support, Mobility Counter Mobility, Combat Logistics and C4 enablers as the Land Platform. Its point of difference being that it can like the Transformer of the Hollywood Movie be relatively quickly transformed from one type of platform to another without expensive engineering support. I can report that we are at last seeing evidence that our politicians in the Defence Department are prepared to recognise and accept this. That said the C4 backbone required to support this concept, built on Mobile Adhoc Networking or MANET utilising dynamic, responsive and intuitive bandwidth management is no less challenging a task than building an integrated platform such as a warship or a sophisticated combat aircraft. It is with this in mind that just over 4 years ago we embarked on a series of experiments using the Army Command and Control BattleLab as the basis for those experiments.

3 Sequence A2CBL Overview NZ Army Operations The Last Mile
NZ Operating Context NZ C4 Enabling Concepts The Way Ahead These are the areas I will attempt to cover in the next minutes


5 AC2BL – Role and Function
The role for the AC2BL is to develop People, build relationships , expose and evaluate technology and integrate chosen solutions - Enabling Army to: -Provide focussed experimentation in Land C4 to support the introduction of a LAND C4 capability as part of the NZDF LAND C4ISR Project. -Grow as an organisation -Meet the C4ISR Environment of the future (FLOC) -Assure the land component of NEC First of all to give you some context We are about to go to government with an initial business case for a multi million dollar Land C4ISR Project which will transform the New Zealand Land component from a largely CNR paper staff procedures based organisation into a Network Enabled modern force capable of defending our own territory, supporting the defence of our closest geographic ally Australia and standing shoulder to shoulder with our allies on any given coalition operation.

6 Battle Lab Industry Engagement
Currently an Informal Arrangement. Product Selection. HP was engaged to help the Battle Lab select the most appropriate components for experimentation in NZ. Knowledge Transfer. Essential for Battle Lab project delivery, and in the longer term to help bridge Army’s knowledge gap. Integration Assistance. HP assisted Army to integrate components and systems in order to provide an end-to-end solution. Capability Delivery. Evolutionary Acquisition. Architectures. Creation of a deployable architecture within an enterprise architecture. Use of other best practice, including project management, stakeholder engagement and governance. A Partnership for System Integration. A formal role for an NZ based system integrator to work alongside Army. A Programme Based Approach. Project teams formed for specific tasks. Our approach has been not necessarily to develop capability but to become educated customers and to grow our knowledge in order to be in a position to exploit whichever candidate solution we might select when we go to acquisition. I have always maintained that our challenge has been not in selecting a system or hardware or software components or the very real challenge of integration but our success or failure in this initiative will rest ultimately on having prepared the right people with the right skills at the right time to be able to exploit whatever it is that we intend to buy in due course.

7 Industry Partnership We have entered into limited objective partnerships over time with a range of companies, suppliers and integrators in order to test candidate components of solution. In doing so once again our main acquisition has been knowledge with there being very little in the way of materiel to show for the 4 years we have been in business as a BattleLab. In reality that knowledge has been relatively inexpensive and during the process the benefits derived by those companies that have worked with us has been in their opportunities to readily understand our driving philosophy, culture and requirements.

8 Three Years of Experimentation
Oct Start of basic research and winning the internal information campaign thus allocation of resources Jun 2006 CWID Internal Experiment Jun nd CWID Internal Experiment Oct LAV Coy Assessment Jun ISR Experimentation Jun 2009 Tactical Area Networked Environment Demonstration Oct 2009 Tactical Area Networked Environment Bn Level Exercise Validated Concepts through Failures and Successes This slide shows some of the Major milestones and achievements we have been through in the last 4 years but perhaps the most important point made on this slide is that validation of ideas was equally informed by failure as well as success. This may sound obvious to an audience which I suspect has a high proportion of engineers used to the rigours of experimentation, prototyping and production selection. Our Battlelab project officer however is a highly motivated professional Signaller whose cultural upbringing drove him to deliver success to support operations. He found it quite difficult to understand at first that failure was often going to teach us just as much as success in our experimentation programme.


10 Operations Since 1994 Of company size or smaller.
Battalion deployed to East Timor in 1999 was the largest commitment Mounted and Dismounted Patrols mainly operating from FOBs Conducted in partnership (Coalition). focused on maintaining security, law and order, and providing humanitarian relief. Troop Rotation four to six months. Characterised by the need to support significant operations simultaneously in different countries. Joint effects delivered by coalition partners In helping you to understanding what we are aiming to support I would just spend a couple of minutes talking about the NZ operational challenge for the Land component. The New Zealand Defence Force comprises about 9,800 Regular Force, 2,300 Reserves, and 2,675 civilian staff members. The Army is currently around 5,000. Since 1994 our Operations have been characterized by these factors FOBs RESTRICTED

11 Today the NZ Army is involved in FOURTEEN missions
and operations in TEN countries around the world Even given our relatively small size we are proud to be able to provide a meaningful contribution based on quality rather than quantity. RESTRICTED

12 Which brings me back to the title of this talk.
Our challenge for the future as the providers of the command and control enablers is in the last mile it is in the company combat team or combined task group and below where we invariably make our operational contributions and so it is there that we have to provide flexible responsive and efficient C4 capability.

13 The Last Mile We have defined the last mile as the provision of the Command and Control Support System to the Soldier, Platform and Command Post at Combat team and below. Perhaps better defined here

14 The Last Mile (Why) NZ Army Developing Combat Team focus Operate Dispersed Platoons Greatest need Efficient and Effective of Resources (People and Finance) Tangible It is the level at which we Train, Operate and Fight and lays a platform for growth and diversity Why Quite simply because” NZ Army Developing Combat Team focus Operate Dispersed Platoons Greatest need Efficient and Effective of Resources (People and Finance) Tangible RESTRICTED

15 The Last Mile People Information Networks “Launch & Learn”
Training, education and change ( Learning Organisation) War fighters in the Job now – OC, XO, Pl & Sect Comd + Soldiers Technical Personnel Information Corporate + Tactical blending Raw + Processed Near and real-time sharing and collaboration. Networks Team, Area, Theatre and Strategic “Launch & Learn” We have in developing our strategy to meet the requirement identified 3 areas that we need to address in experimentation in order to achieve solutions in acquisition Again what you will note here and the recurring theme of our approach is that development of people and knowledge across the disciplines RESTRICTED

16 The future operating context requires us to do more with less

17 Future Land Operating Concept
Our future Land Operating Concept attempts to identify the characteristics and requirements that will enable us to realise effects across a broad range of operations utilising a modular responsive and flexible structure and enablers

18 Future Land Operating Concept
Is designed to meet future challenges Recognises need to engage in close combat Realises technology and improved situational awareness enables better combat decision making Reflects NZ Army’s enduring ethos and values Network Enabled Army provides opportunities to meet the future intent (FLOC) It therefore is designed to: meet future challenges recognise that there will always be a need to engage in close combat accept that technology and improved situational awareness provide potential opportunities for better combat decision making reflect the NZ Army’s enduring ethos and values of Courage, Commitment, Comradeship and Integrity or the C3I That a Network Enabled Army provides the opportunities to realise the intent of the future land concept

19 Deployment A Typical NZDF deployment sees us away from NZ and dispersed in and across theatre. The NZ CATG tends to operate over large distances placing stress on our traditional comms systems and strategic bearers

20 Multi Role - Multi Mission
We have on the ground Complex Requirements for instance NZ SF conducting a snatch operation supported by Aviation, Light infantry Cavalry and coalition forces requires real time planning and co-ordination. No Longer are we clearing the village we now practice precision effects and need to clear the house.

21 Operating Environment Outcomes
Cardinal Points Degrees of Arrangement Degrees of Capacity Degrees of Connectivity Degrees of Interoperability Soldier Team Command Our environment is determined by a range of requirements Degrees of Arrangement. More and more formal and informal task organisation: JIM, Ad hoc, on the fly Degrees of Capacity. Low capacity Data – High Capacity Degrees of Connectivity. Fixed, Nomadic ( ie Move, Halt,establish), Ad hoc (ie a nex group appears from A coy that you need to communicate with Degrees of Interoperability, Voice Data, BFT 21

22 Network Enabling - nz army last mile
So what has the experimentation taught us over this time Network Enabling - nz army last mile

23 Design Drivers Force projection and protection
Coalition support for Situational Awareness . Operations are conducted in non-contiguous areas of operations with tailored, widely dispersed units that are mobile and lethal. Access to a Global Information environment. Need to reduce footprints through reach back. Enable the Soldier, Team and Commander to mass effects rather than forces. We have determined over the course of testing component candidate solutions that the factors shown here are recurring drivers of design RESTRICTED 23

24 Common Services Voice Collaboration and Messaging
Common Operating Picture Publish, Discover, Subscribe Productivity Tools The main groups of services that we have determined are common across the operational context have dropped out of our 4 year experimental programme Voice will always be required to convey the personal intent of the commander Collaboration and messaging become even more important as collaborative environments need to virtual rather than physical in order to meet the challenges of dispersed operations timely action and efficient and use of scarce combat resources. Situational awareness tools make possible the creation of common operating pictures tailored in scale from the two man fire team all the way up to the Combat Team or Combined Arms Task Group Headquarters. Bandwidth is a resource which has to husbanded efficient use of web technologies to access only the data required rather than having duplicated through the network is essential Anything that aids or speeds up the decision cycle to effect decision superiority is a force multiplier. RESTRICTED

25 Information Flows and Categories
Collaborative Planning Information Situational Awareness Information Intelligence Information Multinational Information Support information The Key information must be shared across the battles space but it must be managed and processed if it is to be exploited to effect RESTRICTED

26 Emerging Concepts and Capabilities
C4 Support Group Theatre Communications Access Node Forward Information Systems Team Network Operations Section (Including Computer Network Defence) Patrol Signaller (C4 Operator???) Network Enabled Elements Soldier Platform Command Post Key Concepts Tactical Area Networked Environment TATS ( Team, Area, Theatre Strategic) - Talk Zones Common Universal Bearer System EOIP Interoperability Touch Points These are some of the concepts and capabilities that we have or continue to explore and I will just enlarge a little more on some of these for you

27 Tactical Area Network Environment
Tactical Area Network Environment (TANE) Battlefield Communications Infrastructure Tactical Information Environment Reconnaissance and Surveillance Systems Platform Integration (Command Post, Platform, Soldier) TĀNE is the Land system of systems responsible for the delivery of network enabled services to the war fighter. TĀNE provides the means to capture data, generate information and pass this information around the battle space using a mixture of military and civilian communications bearers, networks and applications. TĀNE provides a common core for information, communication systems and services and is underpinned by strong network operations and information management capabilities.

28 Tactical Area Networked Environment
A typical graphic example of how this environmental architecture might be used is shown here From the rear we see the Theatre access note with Forward Information Support Team Nodes at NCE/NSE at the A ech at the Combat Team HQ an at the coy HQ working via the meshed bearer network to C2 the mounted and dismounted patrols forward. If we just look at some of these architectural components and what they offer

29 Theatre Communications Access Node
TCAN is the Theatre anchor node

30 Forward Information Systems Team
The FIST is the workhorse it is the local access and distribution node providing all the services to the local headquarters and the rear link to the TCAN though it could also act as a limited capacity TCAN if required

31 Common Universal Bearer System (CUBS)
A common user Bearer system is employed with an Everything over IP environment to provide a core backbone to support national and coalition networks for information sharing. It is Muliti doman multi classification

32 Network enabled elements
Now to look quickly at the discreet network elements and their main characteristics These represent the experimental platforms and prototypes that we have tested or experimented with they do not represent acquisition selection though in some cases given components are so specialised that they may well be self selecting. Network enabled elements 32

33 Network Enabled Soldier
Network-enabled soldier. Secure voice/data communications (Harris’s SPR) integrated with a rugged BMS for the dismounted soldier from Cobham (enabling Battle Lab's Blue Force Tracking (BFT) system). Augmented with Multiband Radios (117G/148)

34 Network Enabled Platforms
Network-enabled platforms. Light Armoured Vehicles (LAV) and Light Operational Vehicles (LOV) fitted with the Battle-Hawk Battle Management System (BMS) from Cobham Defence Communications, and high capacity data communications (HCDR & SPR) from Harris Corporation. LAV also Fitted with Harris 117G

DATA ACCESS BRICK CELL OPS CLK/SIG HCDR VHF NETS HF NETS DUTY OFFICER CELL DUTY OFFR COALITION TERMINAL TANE TERMINAL(S) UNIFIED VOICE SERVICES UNCLAS/RESTRICTED TERMINAL CP DUTY OFFR PRINTER We have brought into or are bringing into service a number of environmentally controlled CP shelters not for CBRN purposes but to mitigate for the greater use and reliance on COTS non ruggedised non mil spec components we find being used on these experimental platforms COTS V Milspec Cost Benefits analysis PLOTTER DC2S TERMINAL FLAT PANEL ARRAY COP ISR CP LOG RESTRICTED

36 So where does New Zealand Army Command and Control Battle Lab go from here?

37 Adopt a common information model Adopt an Architectural Approach
What We Are Doing Adopt a common information model Adopt an Architectural Approach Minimal Application Environment 60% of Something... Keep complexity at the core - Simplicity at the edge Simple things superbly We may well be transitioning some of our prototypes to interim capability as the latest forecast for the LC4ISR Capital project which has been delayed by our just published Defence Review sees capability components being delivered not before the end of 2012 and possibly later. If we do go through an interim stage we are well placed to carefully select those components that we know will provide capability enhancement and the characteristics we want them to have

38 What we need to investigate
Where are the interoperability touch points? What are the Information Exchange Requirement standards? How do we blend Business and Battle space? How do we protect? Questions still to be answered by Battle Lab

39 Way Ahead Building Blocks
Our approach to date has been to adopt a learn by doing option for introduction of capability. We have been Building People, Information and networks over time learning from previous spirals. We aim to Build the basic network infrastructure, add sensors as Army transforms. Focus on selecting open forward compatible systems as opposed to implementing legacy systems to meet only the current need. Exploit COTS and MOTS.

40 Battle lab– a glimpse of the future
As I said it has been a 4 year adventure and there are still mountains to climb I hope it has been informative and interesting. In 6 weeks time I will leave my current role in future capability development and take over as our National J6 and I fully expect to see the results of some of the things we have discovered converted into deliverable C4 enabling capability in the near and mid term future. Questions 40

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