Presentation on theme: "Seven Years’ War The French and Indian War"— Presentation transcript:
1Seven Years’ War The French and Indian War Chapter 4Seven Years’ WarThe French and Indian War
2evidence of the rivalry among the European nations the British and the American colonists fought against the French and their Indian allies
3Causes both countries claimed land both wanted access to the beaver pelt tradeboth wanted the fertile fishing grounds in CanadaProtestant British settlers felt that the French Catholics represented a threat to their religious freedomCauses
4Who wants the new land in North America? EnglandFranceSpainNetherlandsNot just wanting control of particular sections, wanting control of all.Competing for land and trade all over the globe.
5the English colonies felt most threatened by France New France included:St. Lawrence River west to Great LakesSouth to Gulf of Mexicomany fortsBuilt forts to stop English from spreading West.Wanted to keep land for the important fur trade.
6Most conflicts were over land in the Ohio River Valley. Frenchfur trapperstradersAlliesAlgonquinsHuronsEnglishfarmersAlliesIroquoisJoseph BrantWilliam JohnsonFrench – had not stripped land to farm on, had even married Indian womenEnglish – cleared land and ignored Indian rightsWilliam Johnson – one of the few English settlers with an Indian wife, respected by Indians (Molly Brant)Molly Brant- sister to Joseph Brant a Mohawk chief (Thayendanegea)
7English Leader – George Washington from Virginia was sent to build a fort where the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers meet to form the Ohio RiverFrance already had a fort there – Fort DuquesneWashington surrendered and the French released the EnglishWashington – only 22built Fort Necessity – a makeshift stockade; surrenders
8Albany Plan of Unionseven colonies gathered in Albany, New York to confirm an alliance with Iroquoiswanted to form a plan to unite the colonies in defenseproposed by Benjamin FranklinGrand Council – would have a representative from each colony with delegates elected by their colonial legislaturecreate one general government in the coloniesEnglish: This political cartoon (attributed to Benjamin Franklin) originally appeared during the French and Indian War, but was recycled to encourage the American colonies to unite against British rule.
9would make laws, raise taxes, set up defense system not one colonial assembly approved the plancolonies did not want to give up their powers to others.was rejected, but would provide a model for the later government of the United States
10British Gen. Edward Braddock led colonial troops to attack and destroy Fort Duquesnecame to the Americas with units of the regular armywould suffer a humiliating defeatBraddock – overly confident, ignored warnings from Indian scouts
11the Native Americans launched a surprise attack were picking off the British soldiers in their bright red uniformsBraddock had 5 horses shot out from under him until he was fatally woundedWashington was nearly killednearly 70% of Braddock’s troops were killed or woundedthe British feared that the Iroquois would abandon them (they didn’t)
12a military stalemate developed George II – did not want to get involved to organize and finance a sustained military campaignColonial Assemblies – did not want to offer men or money to the effortwar was declared anywayin England the French and Indian War was called the Seven Year’s War
13William Pitt most powerful minister in George’s cabinet took personal command of the army and navy and began mapping military strategywas determined to expel the French from the continentdecided that the main conflict would occur in the coloniesboth countries were struggling to control colonial markets and raw materialsWilliam Pitt
14Pitt promised large payments for military services and supplies to gain colonial support for war Britain would have to foot most of the bill, which would create an enormous national debt
15France won important victories, capturing Fort Oswego and Fort William Henry Britain - captured Louisbourg- most important fort in French Canada- under the direction of Jeffrey Amherst and James Wolfe two young, talented, and ambitious officers selected by Pittthis victory cut an important supply line for the French CanadiansNew France could no longer meet the military demands
16The French forts of the Ohio River Valley and the Great Lakes began to fall. Fort Duquesne was abandoned and renamed Fort Pitt; which would eventually become the city of Pittsburgh.
17British continue to win the Marquis de Montcalm retreated toward Quebec and Montrealthe British captured Fort Niagara, Crown Point, Fort Ticonderoga, andQuebec – the capital of New FranceThe fall of Quebecwas the end forNew France.Quebec – vital point, supplied forts farther up riverSat on a steep cliff on the edge of the Plains of Abraham.Montcalm – crept at night, crossed river, and went quietly up the steep cliff wall to surprise the French
18Battle of Quebec James Wolfe – British commander now a major general began assaulting Quebec with 9,000 troopsrealized that force of arms would not bring victory and began planning a well prepared attack
19ferried men across the Saint Lawrence River under dark they crept to a back trail and scaled a cliff to dominate a less well defended positionFrench speaking soldiers in the front boats helped to dispatch sentriesat sunup there were 3,500 troops on the Plains of Abraham, taking the French by surprise on September 13, 1759
23Treaty (Peace) of Paris of 1763 marked end of French power in North AmericaBritain gained Canada and all French lands east of the Mississippi River (except for New Orleans)France keeps two islands in Gulf of St. Lawrence and islands in West Indies
24Spain (on French side) gave up Florida to Britain Spain received all French land west of the Mississippi RiverSpain gained the port city of New Orleans
25Strained RelationsBritish thought the colonists did not provide enough support for the long and costly war that Britain fought to protect themFrench no longer held the area west of the Appalachian Mountains; so colonists saw no reason for them not to expand and prosper on their own without British helpJumonville Glen, Pennsylvania, site of the skirmish that began the French & Indian War