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Chapter 4 Seven Years’ War The French and Indian War.

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1 Chapter 4 Seven Years’ War The French and Indian War

2 evidence of the rivalry among the European nations the British and the American colonists fought against the French and their Indian allies

3 Causes both countries claimed land both wanted access to the beaver pelt trade both wanted the fertile fishing grounds in Canada Protestant British settlers felt that the French Catholics represented a threat to their religious freedom

4 Who wants the new land in North America? England France Spain Netherlands

5 the English colonies felt most threatened by France New France included: –St. Lawrence River west to Great Lakes –South to Gulf of Mexico –many forts

6 Most conflicts were over land in the Ohio River Valley. French fur trappers traders Allies Algonquins Hurons English farmers Allies Iroquois Joseph Brant William Johnson

7 English Leader – George Washington from Virginia was sent to build a fort where the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers meet to form the Ohio River France already had a fort there – Fort Duquesne Washington surrendered and the French released the English

8 Albany Plan of Union seven colonies gathered in Albany, New York to confirm an alliance with Iroquois wanted to form a plan to unite the colonies in defense –proposed by Benjamin Franklin Grand Council – would have a representative from each colony with delegates elected by their colonial legislature

9 would make laws, raise taxes, set up defense system not one colonial assembly approved the plan colonies did not want to give up their powers to others. –was rejected, but would provide a model for the later government of the United States

10 British Gen. Edward Braddock –led colonial troops to attack and destroy Fort Duquesne –came to the Americas with units of the regular army –would suffer a humiliating defeat

11 –the Native Americans launched a surprise attack were picking off the British soldiers in their bright red uniforms –Braddock had 5 horses shot out from under him until he was fatally wounded –Washington was nearly killed –nearly 70% of Braddock’s troops were killed or wounded the British feared that the Iroquois would abandon them (they didn’t)

12 a military stalemate developed George II – did not want to get involved to organize and finance a sustained military campaign Colonial Assemblies – did not want to offer men or money to the effort war was declared anyway in England the French and Indian War was called the Seven Year’s War

13 William Pitt most powerful minister in George’s cabinet took personal command of the army and navy and began mapping military strategy was determined to expel the French from the continent –decided that the main conflict would occur in the colonies –both countries were struggling to control colonial markets and raw materials

14 Pitt promised large payments for military services and supplies to gain colonial support for war Britain would have to foot most of the bill, which would create an enormous national debt

15 France won important victories, capturing Fort Oswego and Fort William Henry Britain - captured Louisbourg - most important fort in French Canada - under the direction of Jeffrey Amherst and James Wolfe two young, talented, and ambitious officers selected by Pitt -this victory cut an important supply line for the French Canadians -New France could no longer meet the military demands

16 The French forts of the Ohio River Valley and the Great Lakes began to fall. Fort Duquesne was abandoned and renamed Fort Pitt; which would eventually become the city of Pittsburgh.

17 British continue to win the Marquis de Montcalm retreated toward Quebec and Montreal the British captured Fort Niagara, Crown Point, Fort Ticonderoga, and Quebec – the capital of New France The fall of Quebec was the end for New France.

18 Battle of Quebec James Wolfe – British commander now a major general –began assaulting Quebec with 9,000 troops –realized that force of arms would not bring victory and began planning a well prepared attack

19 ferried men across the Saint Lawrence River under dark they crept to a back trail and scaled a cliff to dominate a less well defended position French speaking soldiers in the front boats helped to dispatch sentries at sunup there were 3,500 troops on the Plains of Abraham, taking the French by surprise on September 13, 1759

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21 both Wolfe and Montcalm were mortally wounded on September 8, 1760 Amherst accepted the final surrender of the French army at Montreal

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23 1.marked end of French power in North America 2.Britain gained Canada and all French lands east of the Mississippi River (except for New Orleans) 3.France keeps two islands in Gulf of St. Lawrence and islands in West Indies Treaty (Peace) of Paris of 1763

24 4.Spain (on French side) gave up Florida to Britain 5.Spain received all French land west of the Mississippi River 6.Spain gained the port city of New Orleans

25 Strained Relations British thought the colonists did not provide enough support for the long and costly war that Britain fought to protect them French no longer held the area west of the Appalachian Mountains; so colonists saw no reason for them not to expand and prosper on their own without British help


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