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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. C4-1 A Timeline of Labor History up to 1875
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. C4-2 FROM LOCAL TO NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 1866-National Labor Union: Lasted only six years Established precedent for labor movement by uniting diverse unions into single federation. Emphasized political activity to bring about legal reform. Campaigned for 8 hour workday, currency & banking reform. Women’s suffrage National labor political party
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. C4-3 A Timeline of Labor History between 1875 and 1925 INSERT BOX 4.3.
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. C4-4 THE GREAT UPRISING OF 1877 The Great Uprising of 1877 is more notable for what it represented than what it accomplished: Strikes clearly reflected pent-up grievances of workers Represented the growing struggle between industrialism, labor and capital Shared concerns of workers Laid the foundation of for future labor-management conflict, not cooperation. Social implications. With use of Federal troops, big business was more likely to confront rather than bargain with labor.
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. C4-5 UPLIFT UNIONISM Knights of Labor: Federation of local assemblies Concern for moral worth, not material wealth Emphasized education and cooperation over conflict Broadly inclusive membership Emphasized the solidarity of all producers-including African- Americans & women Replace capitalism with producer cooperatives Producers-not bankers and absentee owners-own and control End labor conflict by harmonizing interests of capital and labor
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. C4-6 “PURE AND SIMPLE” CRAFT UNIONISM American Federation of Labor (AFL): Response to failure of KoL to address everyday working issues. A federation, not a labor union. Member unions pursued primary labor relations functions, AFL provided support. Endorsed craft unionism. Openly hostile towards unskilled workers-only represented skilled workers. Guided by principle of exclusive jurisdiction.
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. C4-7 WORKERS OF THE WORLD UNITE! Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) U.S. example of revolutionary unionism: Both inclusive and radical Goal was to form “One Big Union” Skilled and unskilled, young and old Native-born and immigrant White and non-white Male and female Radicalism increased employer hostility towards unions
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. C4-8 THE OPEN SHOP MOVEMENT AND WELFARE CAPITALISM The open shop movement was concerted drive by employers and their associations to create and maintain union-free workplaces. Emphasized an ideology of individual freedom Unions were portrayed as violating individual liberties by denying workers the right to choose Equated with “liberty and independence” of the employer’s “natural and constitutional rights” Entailed well-orchestrated collective activity by business
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. C4-9 THE OPEN SHOP MOVEMENT AND WELFARE CAPITALISM Welfare capitalism- more positive approach to employer resistance to unionization: Improving supervisory practices. Offering protective insurance benefits. Implementing orderly hiring practices. Improving physical work environment and safety. Providing employee voice through nonunion employee representation plans (“company unions”).
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. C4-10 A Timeline of Labor History since 1925
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. C4-11 A NEW DEAL FOR WORKERS: LEGAL PROTECTION & INDUSTRIAL UNIONS Passage of Norris-LaGuardia Act in 1932 began new era in U.S. labor-mngt relations (see ch. 5) –“Yellow dog” contracts made unenforceable –Limited use of injunctions in labor disputes
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. C4-12 A NEW DEAL FOR WORKERS: LEGAL PROTECTION & INDUSTRIAL UNIONS In 1933 Congress passed National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA): Encouraged and emboldened workers to form unions. Employers established company unions to avoid independent unionization. In 1934, weakness of NIRA resulted in tremendous strikes where workers clashed with employers who refused to recognize independent unions. Minneapolis Teamsters Strike San Francisco General Strike East Coast Textile Strike
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. C4-13 A NEW DEAL FOR WORKERS: LEGAL PROTECTION & INDUSTRIAL UNIONS NIRA ruled unconstitutional in 1935 Same year, 1935, Congress passed the National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act). Encouraged unionization Enacted legal protections for workers Outlawed company unions Established the National Labor Relations Board By 1935, conflict between craft unionism and industrial unionism lead to the formation of the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO). By 1941, union membership tripled to about 8.4M, or 23 percent of workers.
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. C4-14 A NEW DEAL FOR WORKERS: LEGAL PROTECTION & INDUSTRIAL UNIONS General Motors Sit-Down Strike (December 1936-February 1937) was watershed event for both organized labor and the CIO. –Workers in Flint, Michigan took over two GM plants. –After the strike spread to other cities and several battles between strikers and police, General Motors finally agreed to recognize the United Auto Workers (UAW). –Industrial unionism further spread to steel and other manufacturing industries. Though not without some intense battles, such as the Memorial Day Massacre during the Little Steel Strike.
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. C4-15 WARTIME AND POSTWAR LABOR RELATIONS 1947-Taft-Hartley Act. 1955-AFL-CIO merger. 1959-Landrum-Griffin Act. Private sector union density peaked at around 35 percent. Public sector union membership dramatically increased, beginning in 1960s. 1981-Air traffic controllers fired during the illegal PATCO strike; replacement workers hired. Number of bitter strikes in the 1980s and 1990s involved management use of permanent replacement workers. Labor practices became more divergent -- some relationships became more adversarial, while others tried to create stronger union-management partnerships.
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. C4-16 WARTIME AND POSTWAR LABOR RELATIONS The labor movement at beginning of 21 st century is struggling, yet has pockets of vibrancy: Globalization continues to undermine labor’s bargaining power. Private sector union density has shrunk to <10 percent. Public sector union density stable at 35+ percent. Dunlop Commission (Clinton Administration) issued recommendations for reducing conflict and improving productivity. General unionism has largely replaced craft unionism and industrial unionism. 2005—disaffiliation of SEIU, Teamsters, UFCW, Unite Here from AFL-CIO (~1/3 of membership), formation of Change to Win Coalition (includes Laborers, UFW, Carpenters)
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