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1 GENERAL DYNAMICS C4 Systems © 2004 General Dynamics. All rights reserved GENERAL DYNAMICS C4 Systems Service Oriented Architecture Key to Net-centric Interoperability Guy Bieber Senior Systems Architect General Dynamics C4 Systems
2 GENERAL DYNAMICS C4 Systems © 2004 General Dynamics. All rights reserved
3 GENERAL DYNAMICS C4 Systems © 2004 General Dynamics. All rights reserved Transformation System-Centric -> Net-Centric ä Remove barriers for Warfighters ä Power shift from producers to consumers Point Integration -> Horizontal Fusion ä Stovepipes -> Network Services ä Open ended integration to combine capabilities in new ways. Data Centric -> Process Centric / Knowledge Centric ä Not just about moving the data. ä What does it mean? What should you do? ä Software is helping to draw conclusions from the data and participating with users in decision workflows.
4 GENERAL DYNAMICS C4 Systems © 2004 General Dynamics. All rights reserved Interoperability: How are we doing? Many improvements, but not yet enough IP networking enables process communication Wire/fiber communications are a “done deal” RF systems becoming software-configurable The “Application Layer” is the real challenge Tomorrow’s military must rely even more on information sharing and collaboration in near-real time
5 GENERAL DYNAMICS C4 Systems © 2004 General Dynamics. All rights reserved What Do Our WarFighters Need? Ease of use Reduced training load Ability to focus on fighting, not IT Rapid access to current/useful interpretation of information Flexibility Adapt to changing conditions and partnerships Collaborate with US/Allies/Coalition & even Non- Governmental Organizations Survivability Reliability/Availability
6 GENERAL DYNAMICS C4 Systems © 2004 General Dynamics. All rights reserved Problems and Constraints Software stovepipes exist, resist and persist Absent architectural change, they’ll outlive us What’s the right change? Can we effectively achieve one? Industry and Services require encouragement “Programs of Record” Today’s primary method for allocating funding PORs are inclined to fight off non-POR “invaders” Must “Do No Harm” while enabling radical change
7 GENERAL DYNAMICS C4 Systems © 2004 General Dynamics. All rights reserved Barriers to Interoperable Net-Centricity We haven’t agreed on how to connect components There are hundreds of middleware products/standards Widely-used client-server model is static and brittle Interfaces are private, leading to stovepiped systems Present systems assume static, reliable networks Tactical networks are not highly available or reliable Future networks will still be highly dynamic Much existing application software is “hard-wired” Far too much embedded context dependent information Proper adoption of SOAs can remove these barriers
8 GENERAL DYNAMICS C4 Systems © 2004 General Dynamics. All rights reserved Evolving to Revolutionary Capability Numerous challenges exist Procedural (e.g. CONOPs and TTPs) Bureaucratic (Industry/Service stakeholders) Financial (who pays and who loses?) Technical – perhaps the easiest Start the journey with a first step Commit to embracing interoperable architectures Adopt Service-Oriented Architecture principles SOA’s designed to accommodate change - allows DoD to leverage business innovation
9 GENERAL DYNAMICS C4 Systems © 2004 General Dynamics. All rights reserved ArmyAir ForceNavyMarines JOINT JC2 Network Fabric Enterprise Architectures Transformational Programs FCS DCGS-MC DCGS-AF DCGS-A DCGS-N MC2C BMC2 GIG TCS WIN-T JTRS C2C / C2ERA ForceNet LandWarNet NCES / GES DIB SOSCOE JBI Tactical Architectures AOC MAJIIC CEASAR DCGS-J Real Time and Distributed C2 Primarily C++ Supports Java And Ada95 Real Time and Distributed C2 Primarily C++ Supports Java And Ada95 Enterprise Services: J2EE, Web Portal, Web Services IA, etc. Primarily Java, C2 Focus Enterprise Services: J2EE, Web Portal, Web Services IA, etc. Primarily Java, C2 Focus J2EE and Web Services ISR Focus UOC
10 GENERAL DYNAMICS C4 Systems © 2004 General Dynamics. All rights reserved The Net-Centric Landscape Enterprise and Architectures are still evolving Existing complex and competing architectures Emergent and evolving architectures For instance: LandWarNet and C2 Constellation Warfighter applications will need isolation from changing operational environments Change will continue We will need to provide means for interoperability across enterprise networks for a long period SOAs enable interoperability across different enterprise and tactical network architectures
11 GENERAL DYNAMICS C4 Systems © 2004 General Dynamics. All rights reserved Why Service Oriented/Based Architectures? The problems we need to solve today are not necessarily yesterday’s problems Therefore systems to solve today’s problems may not be the system we had yesterday A military example: If we do not know who our enemy is tomorrow or what his approach will be, we cannot predict with precision what capabilites (read “services”) our military systems will need or how our capabilities may need to be combined in the future. Dynamic environments require dynamic systems SOA/SBA focus on dynamic distribution of services reduces system formation cost Dynamic environments require dynamic systems SOA/SBA focus on dynamic distribution of services reduces system formation cost
12 GENERAL DYNAMICS C4 Systems © 2004 General Dynamics. All rights reserved Potential Pitfalls to Implementation Leadership Someone (Joint) needs to “be in charge” Achieving “buy in” across the Community Rice Bowls Numerous redundancies exist in legacy PORs Will cooperation protect programs? Obstruction? Application vs. infrastructure services Can net proliferations be contained and concentrate on applications? Security concerns across the enterprise
13 GENERAL DYNAMICS C4 Systems © 2004 General Dynamics. All rights reserved SOAs enable dynamic formation of systems and net – critical for effective net-centric operations SOAs enable dynamic formation of systems and net – critical for effective net-centric operations What’s a Service Oriented Architecture? Built around a collection of reusable software components with well-defined interfaces Components may perform work (“service”) for others on a network, and inherently provide: Ability to “discover” the existence of services Ability to convey information necessary for usage Descriptions, including formats & protocols
14 GENERAL DYNAMICS C4 Systems © 2004 General Dynamics. All rights reserved Some Potential SOA Benefits Ease integration across heterogeneous environments and applications Facilitate reuse of existing applications Facilitate efficient integration of existing systems Reduce retraining impact of new major systems Allow evolution by facilitating deployment of “best of breed” capabilities Accelerate transition to integrated functionality Business (warfighting) processes should drive decisions on technical specifics – not the converse!
15 GENERAL DYNAMICS C4 Systems © 2004 General Dynamics. All rights reserved A Few Key SOA Principles Identify & expose specific sub-functions that existing applications can execute for others Agree to common interface standards Leverage existing tools in business world Inter-process messaging Publish and subscribe Web Services Deployable network services Objective is “loosely coupled” aggregation of services
Ad-hoc Component Integration Lookup Service Local Area Network Map Services Database Normalized Data Data Services Interface Services Map Server PL
17 GENERAL DYNAMICS C4 Systems © 2004 General Dynamics. All rights reserved System of Systems Interoperability Lookup Service Local Area Network ASAS Services AFATDS Services CGS Services AFATDSASAS CGS Systems interface with each other using published interfaces. Software that others need to access a system’s services is fielded and validated with that system.
Distributed Services CGS Visualization Service Framework UAV MTI Mobile Graphical Components COTS/GOTS Visualization Package AFATDS Targeting Interface Provided by AFATDS UAV Viewing App Provided by CGS
19 GENERAL DYNAMICS C4 Systems © 2004 General Dynamics. All rights reserved Networks Networks ( internal and external ) Operating System& Platform Platform (ISRIS Server) Operating System JVM Interoperability Packs Joint (NCES) Interop Pack Army (SOSCOE) Interop Pack Airforce (C2ERA) Interop Pack Navy (FORCENet) Interop Pack Marine (MAGTFOC) Interop Pack Architecture Portability – Contains Connector, Disocovery, and Security plug-ins Interoperability Strategy C4ISR Applications C2 ISR Mission Planning Execution Automation / Decision Aides Fusion Services Sensor Services Advanced User Interaction Targeting
20 GENERAL DYNAMICS C4 Systems © 2004 General Dynamics. All rights reserved Steps to Achieve Interoperability via SOA Implementation Begin the evolution- Publish existing services Each POR responsible for publishing key service Design for technology change Enable existing applications for network usage SBA wrappers, Web-Service access Develop strategy for services discovery Decision is key Allow for evolution of standards by isolation of applications from OE’s Begin decomposition of monolithic legacy applications Critical services first Self-contained, loosely-coupled services Modify as necessary for more robust service
21 GENERAL DYNAMICS C4 Systems © 2004 General Dynamics. All rights reserved Steps to Achieve Interoperability to via SOA Implementation Re-choreograph existing business (war fighting) processes to capitalize on deployable services Focus on applications needed by war fighters first Providing flexibility to the user is key to innovation Make services user-transparent, who uses will change …Finally….. Establish de-confliction rules among services Important to get agreement on deployment from “owners” of critical data Get serious about the security solution Security policy must address evolution of service/data usage Objective, reduce HW complexity at mobile levels Eliminate multiple LANS, Workstation complexity - MILS workstation, perhaps
22 GENERAL DYNAMICS C4 Systems © 2004 General Dynamics. All rights reserved Recommendations and Conclusions Government/industry collaboration is key Frank and open dialog, leading to quick decisions NDIA provides an excellent, unbiased forum Service “equities” and flagship programs should be incorporated wherever feasible Essential to achieve “buy in” across Government Necessary to garner prime contractor support Establish joint Govt/industry execution team Joint SOA will enable net-centric interoperability!
23 GENERAL DYNAMICS C4 Systems © 2004 General Dynamics. All rights reserved
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