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Taxation of Business Entities Copyright ©2010 Cengage Learning

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1 Taxation of Business Entities Copyright ©2010 Cengage Learning
Chapter 4 Gross Income Taxation of Business Entities Copyright ©2010 Cengage Learning

2 Gross Income (slide 1 of 3)
Definition: Gross income includes all income from whatever source derived, unless specifically excluded under the Code Concept is interpreted broadly by the courts

3 Gross Income (slide 2 of 3)
Taxability of income follows the realization principle from accounting Income is recognized (taxed) when realized Mere appreciation in wealth (economic income) is not considered realized income

4 Gross Income (slide 3 of 3)
Income is recognized whether it is in the form of cash, or “in-kind” cash equivalents (i.e., property or services) The amount of income from “in-kind” receipts is equal to the FMV of the property or services Income does not include recovery of the taxpayer’s capital investment

5 Accounting Periods Taxable year is generally a 12-month period
Taxable year for most individual taxpayers is the calendar year Fiscal year can be elected if taxpayer maintains adequate records Fiscal year is a 12-month period ending on the last day of a month other than December Example: July 1 to June 30

6 Accounting Methods (slide 1 of 2)
There are 3 primary methods of accounting for tax purposes: Cash receipts and disbursements method Accrual method Hybrid method

7 Accounting Methods (slide 2 of 2)
In addition to overall accounting methods, taxpayers may choose (elect) tax treatment for various transactions, for example Taxpayers can elect to use the installment method Certain contractors may elect to use either the percentage of completion method or the completed contract method

8 Cash Receipts Method (slide 1 of 2)
Income is recognized in the year it is actually or constructively received in cash or cash equivalent An amount is constructively received when it is set aside and made available to taxpayer without substantial restrictions

9 Cash Receipts Method (slide 2 of 2)
Example - Constructive receipt An employer issued a bonus check to an employee on December 31st but asked her to hold it for a few days until the company could make deposits to cover the check. The income was not constructively received on December 31 since the issuer did not have sufficient funds in its account to pay the debt.

10 Exceptions To Cash Receipts Method
Original Issue Discount (OID) interest is taxable when earned rather than when interest is received

11 Accrual Method (slide 1 of 2)
Income is recognized in the year that it is earned regardless of when it is collected Income is earned when: All events have occurred that fix taxpayer’s right to the income, and The amount can be determined with reasonable accuracy The accrual method is required for determining purchases and sales when inventory is an income-producing factor

12 Accrual Method (slide 2 of 2)
Claim of right doctrine Requires amounts received to be included in income even though the amount is in dispute and might be returned to the payor at a later date If payment has not been received, no income is recognized until the claim is settled

13 Exceptions to Accrual Method (slide 1 of 2)
Taxpayer can elect to defer recognition of income from advance payment for goods if same method of accounting is used for tax and financial reporting purposes

14 Exceptions to Accrual Method (slide 2 of 2)
Advance payment for services to be performed after year-end is included in income in the year following receipt The portion of the advance payment that is earned in the current year is included in income in the year of receipt Prepaid rents or interest income are always recognized in the year received rather than when earned

15 Hybrid Method A combination of cash and accrual methods
Generally, used when inventory is a material income-producing factor Use accrual method for determining sales and cost of goods sold Use cash method for other income and expenses

16 Income Sources (slide 1 of 2)
Income from personal services is taxable to the person who performs the services Fruit and tree metaphor Income from property is taxable to the owner of the property Assignment of income is not permitted

17 Income Sources (slide 2 of 2)
Interest income accrues daily If interest bearing instrument (e.g., bonds) is transferred, must allocate interest income between transferor and transferee based on the number of days during the period that each owned the property

18 Dividends (slide 1 of 4) Dividends are generally taxed to the party who is entitled to receive them Dividends on stock transferred by gift after declaration date but before record date is generally taxed to the donor

19 Dividends (slide 2 of 4) The Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of provides partial relief from double taxation of corporate dividends (extended by the Tax Increase Prevention Act of 2005) Generally, dividends received in taxable years beginning after 2002 are taxed at the same marginal rate that is applicable to a net capital gain Thus, individuals otherwise subject to the 10% or 15% marginal tax rate pay 0% tax on qualified dividends received Individuals subject to the 25, 28, 33, or 35 percent marginal tax rate pay a 15% tax on qualified dividends

20 Dividends (slide 3 of 4) The following dividends are not eligible for the reduced tax rates Dividends from certain foreign corporations, Dividends from tax-exempt entities, and Dividends that do not satisfy the holding period requirement Stock on which the dividend is paid must have been held for more than 60 days during the 121-day period beginning 60 days before the ex-dividend date to qualify for the reduced tax rates

21 Dividends (slide 4 of 4) Dividends from foreign corporations are eligible for qualified dividend status only if: The foreign corporation’s stock is traded on an established U.S. securities market, or The foreign corporation is eligible for the benefits of a comprehensive income tax treaty between its country of incorporation and the United States

22 Income Received By An Agent
Income received by the taxpayer’s agent is considered to be received by the taxpayer A cash basis principal must recognize the income at the time it is received by the agent

23 Imputed Interest on Below-Market Loans (slide 1 of 4)
Interest is imputed, using Federal government rates, when a loan does not carry a market rate of interest Imputed interest = the difference between the amount that would have been charged at the Federal rate and the amount actually charged Applies to: Gift loans Compensation-related loans Corporate-shareholder loans Tax avoidance loans

24 Imputed Interest on Below-Market Loans (slide 2 of 4)

25 Imputed Interest on Below-Market Loans (slide 3 of 4)
Gift loans Exemption for loans of ≤ $10,000 between individuals If loan proceeds are used to purchase income-producing property, the following limitation applies On loans of $100,000 or less between individuals Imputed interest is limited to borrower’s net investment income for year No imputed interest if net investment income is $1,000 or less

26 Imputed Interest on Below-Market Loans (slide 4 of 4)
$10,000 exemption also applies to compensation-related and corporation-shareholder loans No exemption if principal purpose of loan is tax avoidance Makes practically all loans of this type suspect Interest expense imputed to borrower may be deductible

27 Tax Benefit Rule If taxpayer receives a deduction for an item in one year and in a later year recovers all or a portion of the prior deduction, the recovery is included in gross income Amount included in income is limited to the amount for which a tax benefit was received

28 Interest on State and Local Government Obligations
Interest from municipal bonds is tax exempt Reduces borrowing costs of state and local governments High-income taxpayers can increase after-tax yields with municipal bonds Municipal interest is considered for Social Security benefits inclusion and may be considered for alternative minimum tax calculation

29 Improvements on Leased Property
Improvements made to leased property Excluded from landlord’s gross income unless the improvement is made to the property in lieu of rent

30 Life Insurance Proceeds (slide 1 of 3)
Exempt income to beneficiary if paid solely due to death of insured Relationship to decedent not determinative

31 Life Insurance Proceeds (slide 2 of 3)
If owner of life insurance policy cancels the policy and receives the cash surrender value Gain must be recognized to extent amount received exceeds premiums paid on policy Loss is not recognized

32 Life Insurance Proceeds (slide 3 of 3)
Transfers for valuable consideration If policy is transferred for valuable consideration, proceeds are taxable to extent they exceed amount paid for policy plus subsequent premiums paid Exceptions exist for policy transfers: To facilitate funding of buy-sell agreements, Pursuant to a tax-free exchange, and For receipt of a policy by gift

33 Discharge from Indebtedness
Income from the forgiveness of debt is taxable Certain discharge of indebtedness situations get special treatment: Creditors’ gifts Discharges in bankruptcy and when debtor is insolvent Discharge of farm debt Discharge of qualified real property business indebtedness Seller’s cancellation of buyer’s debt Shareholder’s cancellation of corporation’s debt Forgiveness of certain student loans Discharge of indebtedness on taxpayer’s principal residence that occurs between Jan. 1, 2007 and Jan. 1, 2013, and is the result of the financial condition of the debtor

34 Gains and Losses from Property Transactions (slide 1 of 3)
In order for gains (losses) to be recognized (included in gross income), they must be realized: Realized gain (loss) = amount realized – adjusted basis Amount realized = selling price – costs of disposition Adjusted basis = cost + capital additions – cost recovery

35 Gains and Losses from Property Transactions (slide 2 of 3)
All realized gains are recognized unless a specific tax provision provides otherwise (e.g., nontaxable exchanges) Realized losses may or may not be recognized depending on the circumstances Generally, losses on the sale or disposition of personal use property are not recognized

36 Gains and Losses from Property Transactions (slide 3 of 3)
Once recognized gains or losses have been determined, they must be classified as ordinary or capital Ordinary gains are fully taxable Ordinary losses are fully deductible Capital gains and losses are subject to special tax treatment

37 Gains and Losses from Capital Asset Transactions (slide 1 of 2)
Capital assets are defined as any property other than: Inventory, Accounts Receivable, and Depreciable property or real property used in a business Certain other property Most personal use assets owned by individuals are capital assets Losses on these assets are not deductible

38 Gains and Losses from Capital Asset Transactions (slide 2 of 2)
Gains and losses from capital asset transactions must be netted Net gains and losses by holding period If excess losses result, tax treatment depends on whether taxpayer is an individual or corporation

39 Max Tax Rates for Net Capital Gains of Individuals
Classification Maximum Rate Short-term gains (held ≤ one year) 35% Long-term gains (held > one year) Collectibles 28% Certain depreciable property used in a trade or business (unrecaptured § 1250 gain) 25% All other long-term capital gains 15% /5%/0%

40 Treatment of Capital Losses (slide 1 of 2)
Net capital losses of individuals are deductible for AGI up to $3,000 yearly Excess capital losses are carried over to the next tax year When carried over, capital losses retain their classification as short- or long-term

41 Treatment of Capital Losses (slide 2 of 2)
Corporations must also net capital gains and losses Net capital gains do not receive special tax treatment Capital losses can only offset capital gains Excess capital losses may not be deducted against ordinary income Unused capital losses can be carried back 3 years and then carried forward 5 years to offset capital gains in those years

42 Dr. Donald R. Trippeer, CPA
If you have any comments or suggestions concerning this PowerPoint Presentation for South-Western Federal Taxation, please contact: Dr. Donald R. Trippeer, CPA SUNY Oneonta

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