Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Www.arrisi.com Telephony Troubleshooting in the Home ARRIS/SCTE.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Www.arrisi.com Telephony Troubleshooting in the Home ARRIS/SCTE."— Presentation transcript:

1 Telephony Troubleshooting in the Home ARRIS/SCTE

2 SCTE VoIP Home Troubleshooting Seminar Objectives ▪Describe the functional role of each component necessary for operation of a PacketCable VOIP network. ▪eMTA installation ▪List common technical problems associated with a PacketCable VOIP network ▪Discuss impact of network problems on voice quality ▪Isolate and repair common VoIP problems July

3 PacketCable Definition PacketCable is a set of protocols and associated functional requirements developed to deliver Quality-of-Service (QoS) enhanced secure communications services using packetized data transmission technology to a consumer’s home over the cable television hybrid fiber coax (HFC) data network. July

4 PacketCable VoIP Network Components July

5 PacketCable VoIP Network Components The PacketCable architecture is based on many components and systems working together. ▪Embedded Multimedia Terminal Adapter (E-MTA): Single device containing a DOCSIS cable modem and a telephony device that provides one or more line interfaces ▪Cable Modem Termination System (CMTS): Provides connectivity between DOCSIS network and PacketCable devices; also performs call authorization enforcement, bandwidth allocation, and call trace functions ▪Call Management Server (CMS): Provides call control and signaling services for the MTA, CMTS, and PSTN gateways; typically performs both Call Agent (handles call state) and media gateway controller (authorization) functions as well. July

6 PacketCable VoIP Network Components ▪SYSLOG server: Optional server used to collect, store, and retrieve logging messages for devices on the network ▪DHCP Server: Provides initial boot-up networking information such as the querying device’s IP addresses, next-hop routers, server information, etc. ▪DNS Server: Provides translation between the Domain name and the IP address of a device ▪TFTP/HTTP server: Provides download capability for device configuration files July

7 PacketCable VoIP Network Components ▪Announcement Controller (ANC): Initiates and manages all announcement services that are provided by the announcement player ▪Announcement Player (ANP): Delivers the appropriate announcement(s) to the MTA under control of the announcement controller ▪Key Distribution Center (KDC): Performs security key negotiations for MTA and Provisioning Server in the PacketCable network ▪Record Keeping Server (RKS): Collection point for all PacketCable Event Messages; may also correlate Event Messages to create Call Detail Records for billing interfaces July

8 PacketCable VoIP Network Components ▪Provisioning Server (OSS): Provides provisioning information for PacketCable devices via SNMPv3 ▪Delivery Function (DF): Aggregation point for electronic surveillance; delivers reasonably available call-identifying information and call content based on the requirements of lawful authorization ▪Media Gateway Controller (MGC): Provides bearer mediation between the PSTN and the PacketCable network ▪Media Gateway (MG): Provides media (voice packets) connectivity between the PSTN and the PacketCable network ▪Signaling Gateway (SG): Provides signaling mediation between the PSTN and the PacketCable network July

9 E-MTA Installation ▪The following should be standard installation practices: -Pre Installation inspection: Check for proper RF levels. Check for damage or condition of splitters and couplers in Coax Drop Check inside wiring for continuity at all jacks Check for shorts or foreign voltages (AC or DC) Check NID for proper wiring and ensure LEC connection is physically disconnected -Post Installation validation Check for dial tone at all jacks Make test calls on all customer premise equipment Educate customer on equipment and features July 2008 Comprehensive Methods & Procedures and Thorough Training of Installation Personnel Are Key Factors for Success 9

10 E-MTA Installation ▪Customer Education -Equipment Customers need to be educated to not unplug the EMTA or connect to a switched outlet otherwise phone service can be disrupted Customers need to understand that EMTA consumes very little standby power - similar to a night light. Educate customer to not place EMTA where liquids may be spilled into it -Features Educate customer on how to use call features, provide reference literature/handbook Educate customer that certain features require compatible CPE: e.g. Call Waiting Deluxe, Caller ID, Message Waiting Indicator July

11 Troubleshooting Causes of Voice Problems ▪HFC plant condition ▪Typical inside wiring faults ▪No dial tone ▪Too much delay on calls ▪Voice breaking up ▪The caller hears voice distortion ▪Echo ▪Static on the line ▪Calls will not go through ▪Voice in only one direction July

12 TM508 Installation and Troubleshooting 12 April 18, 2015 HFC Plant Condition Downstream Signal Noise Ratio ▪The SNR reported by the CM is a rough estimation of the signal to noise ratio at the F-connector. It is based on Modulation Error Ratio (MER). ▪PHY performance beyond DOCSIS requirements is implementation dependent and some devices may be able to operate in presence of SNR values which are significantly lower than DOCSIS requirements. ▪Thus, we provide following thresholds as values for troubleshooting but some devices may be able to be functional even in yellow or red SNR indications. For 256QAM we can roughly define: SNR>30 – green 2923.5 – green 21.5

13 TM508 Installation and Troubleshooting 13 April 18, 2015 RF Receive Power Level ▪RF Receive level should have enough margin to allow for plant drift ▪Range is -15dBmV to +15dBmV ▪Recommended values: GREEN : -13dBmV to +13dBmV YELLOW: -14dBmV to -13dBmV or +13dBmV to +14dBmV RED : +14dBmV

14 TM508 Installation and Troubleshooting 14 April 18, 2015 Transmit Power Level ▪Recommended values(dBmV):

15 Typical Inside Wiring Faults July

16 Typical Inside Wiring Faults July LEC Line Phone Jacks NID Serial wiring Home run wiring Alarm Panel Line CPE Line CPE X X WRONG! Outbound call attempting to contact the monitoring station goes nowhere

17 RJ31X Plug for Security Systems Used to connect security system control panel to home telephone wiring. Ensures control panel can disconnect phone users and has priority to “seize” the line to call the alarm monitoring station. July

18 Wiring a Security System with RJ31X July RJ31X Jack Modular Plug LEC Line Phone Jacks Demarcation Alarm Control Panel Phones Telco Line R1RTT1 X X EMTA

19 Wiring a Security System with RJ31X July RJ31X Jack Modular Plug LEC Line Phone Jacks NID Alarm Control Panel Phones Telco Line R1RTT1 X X Demarcation EMTA

20 EMTA RJ-14 Connection to Inside Wiring July Line 1 Circuit Line 2 Circuit L1/L2 Jack L2 Jack EMTA Main Line 1 Jack Line 1 Jacks Line 2 Jacks Main Line 2 Jack Not used Separate 2 conductor cords to connect lines 1 and 2 Method 1: Using L1/L2 and L2 Jacks

21 EMTA RJ-14 Connection to Inside Wiring July Line 1 Circuit Line 2 Circuit L1/L2 Jack L2 Jack EMTA Main Jack Line 1 Jacks Line 2 Jacks RJ14 Feature: Facilitates distribution of 2 lines with a single 4 conductor phone cord Not used: Isolated from Main Jack and Line 1 Jacks Not used: Isolated from Main Jack and Line 2 Jacks Method 2: Using L1/L2 Jack Only

22 Typical Inside Wiring Faults July Line 1 Circuit Line 2 Circuit L1/L2 Jack L2 Jack EMTA Main Jack Line 1 Jacks Line 2 Jacks RJ14 Feature: Facilitates distribution of 2 lines with a single 4 conductor phone cord Not used: Not Isolated from Main Jack Method 2: Using L1/L2 Jack Only Not used: Isolated from Main Jack and Line 1 Jacks Fault in wiring or jack causes L1 to L2 short circuit

23 TM508 Installation and Troubleshooting 23 April 18, 2015 Dial Tone Issues - Potential Root Causes ▪EMTA Provisioning Unsuccessful ▪Line card or house wiring issue (Line Card Protection state) ▪DNS Server lookup issues (CMS or FQDN) ▪Call Signaling messaging protocol problems between EMTA and CMS ▪Slow or delayed response from CMS ▪ARP Issues ▪DHCP Lease expiration / obtaining new IP address ▪Insufficient Bandwidth on CMTS / Lack of US Grants ▪Intermittent Packet loss and packet retransmits due to RF impairment or RF noise ▪T4 timeout loss of RF connectivity

24 Troubleshooting Dial Tone Issues ▪Provisioning -Verify that the E-MTA or NIU is registered with the CMTS -Verify that the CMTS has connectivity to the VoIP Switch -Verify the VoIP Switch has connectivity to the E-MTA or NIU via ping -Verify that the E-MTA or NIU has the correct IP address for its call agent -Verify that the subscriber is entered in the VoIP Switch database and is active July

25 Troubleshooting Dial Tone Issues ▪DNS Look Up Failure -If the CMS FQDN DNS queries are unsuccessful then the MTA will not be able to send messages to the CMS ▪ARP Problems -If the MTA does not receive a response to an ARP at the beginning of the call there is no mechanism in place to retry July

26 Troubleshooting Call Delay ▪Users notice delay when the end-to-end delay exceeds 150ms. At this point, voice quality may be acceptable, but the delay is not. When this situation occurs, the processing capabilities of the E-MTA and/or MG are overwhelmed and not processing voice traffic efficiently ▪Buffering reduces jitter in the network; however, it also adds delay as the traffic is adjusted to a fixed rate July

27 Troubleshooting Voice Breaking Up ▪Congestion in the IP network causes packet loss ▪As multiple packets are lost, the listener will hear jumps in the speaker’s voice ▪As more packets are lost the distortion becomes worse and conversation is difficult July

28 Troubleshooting Echo ▪What is echo? -In a voice telephone call, an echo occurs when you hear your own voice repeated, somewhat attenuated and delayed -An echo is the audible leak-through of your own voice into your own receive (return) path. -The louder the echo, the more annoying it is. -The longer the delay, the more annoying it is. July

29 Troubleshooting Echo ▪Where does echo originate? 1. A signal is leaking from the transmit into the receive path Leaking in analog circuits only. ▪Cross-talk − electrically from one wire to another − acoustically through the air from a loudspeaker to a microphone. ▪Reflections in the hybrid part of the analogue side − Telephone set, house wiring, dect Voice traffic in the digital part of the network is highly unlikely to leak 2. The original signal and the leaked signal arrive at the subscribers ear at different times due to difference in delay between the travel path of the original and reflected signal. July

30 Troubleshooting Echo ▪The “friends” of echo -Delay 25 milliseconds (ms) or less delay is inaudible; PSTN calls typically have less delay in the network, and therefore are unlikely to have echo issues VoIP networks typically have delays well above 25ms, so enough room for the echo to become annoying ▪Over 400ms delay for a phone call is annoying even without echo -Amplification/Attenuation Echo should be 55dB below original speech to not be considered “annoying” Amplification and attenuation occur at various places in an end-to-end call, and will be different for calls to and from different networks (fixed, cell, international, different providers etc) July

31 Troubleshooting Echo ▪Avoiding echo -Reflections are a result of impedance mismatches Line card templates set the impedances Phones should be “approved for the country in which they are used -Speaker phones can easily cause acoustic echo -DECT phones are suspect as well -Remember : Echo at subscriber A is likely to originate at the remote end of a call (subscriber B), therefore it may not originate in “your” part of the network, even though your subscriber is the one hearing the echo, not the remote subscriber. July

32 Troubleshooting Echo ▪Echo in digital segments -I really said the digital portion of the network does not cause echo… but.. “we resolved echo several times by applying changes in the digital portion..” -The digital portion of the network can add delay, are amplification which makes Echo “visible” -Removing this delay / amplification may remove the annoyance level of the echo Delay changes due to: ▪Additional network elements (e.g.router) ▪Changes in jitter buffers, packetization rates Amplification changes due to ▪Different gain/loss settings in gateways / switches / trunks July

33 Troubleshooting Voice Distortion ▪Caused by tandem encoding ▪With this encoding (also called dual encodings or dual compressions), digital calls routed to a tandem (toll) office are converted to analog form for processing and then reconverted to digital form for further transmission ▪Converting and reconverting more than twice damages the signal and causes voice distortion July

34 Troubleshooting Static ▪May be caused by interference with a cordless telephone (2.4 GHz) ▪Latency ▪Jitter caused by congestion in the network July

35 Troubleshooting calls that will not go through ▪Problems with the CMS - during busy times it cannot handle another call setup. ▪PSTN-bound calls may bombard the MG and/or MGC to the point that they cannot handle any more calls. ▪The SG may not be receiving proper messages from the PSTN. ▪The call may not be set up properly through the PSTN. ▪Congestion in the network ▪The signaling information may be dropped by the network. July

36 Troubleshooting One Way Speech Path ▪Causes for one-way audio are usually IP routing or HFC issues. ▪Routing may not be enabled on the routers or there may be a problem with default gateways configured at end stations. ▪Determining the direction of the one way speech path is useful in order to isolate DS and US specific issues. July

37 Troubleshooting EMTA Power Problems ▪The E-MTA is plugged in, but the Power light is off. ▪Check all power connections. ▪Is the AC adapter plugged in firmly at both ends? ▪If you plugged the AC adapter into a power strip, make sure the strip is switched on. ▪Avoid using an outlet controlled by a wall switch, if possible. ▪Finally, check the fuse or circuit breaker panel. July

38 Troubleshooting Internet Access Issues ▪It may take up to 30 minutes to establish a connection the first time you power up the E-MTA. ▪Some E-MTA have Standby that isolate PC from the Internet. ▪Check the front panel lights: -The Power and Online lights should be on. -If the Online light is blinking, press the Standby button. -The Link light should be either on or blinking. -If the Power light blinks for more than 30 minutes, call your cable company for assistance. July

39 Troubleshooting Internet Access Issues (continued) ▪Check your cable connections. Connectors should be finger-tight. ▪The coax cable should not be pinched, kinked, or bent sharply. ▪Any of these issues can cause a break or short in the cable (you may have to replace the cable). ▪ If you have one or more splitters between the E- MTA and CATV outlet, remove the splitters and connect the E-MTA directly to the outlet. July

40 Troubleshooting Internet Access Issues (Ethernet) ▪If you are using a hub, is the hub turned on? ▪Are you using the right type of Ethernet cable? (Straight cable for direct connection to a PC, cross- over cable for connection to a hub.) ▪Press the Reset button on the back of the E-MTA. July

41 Troubleshooting Slow Internet Access ▪If the Web site you are visiting is very popular, that site may be having trouble servicing all the requests. If other sites download quickly, wait for a few minutes and try again. ▪Usage during peak hours may also affect the connection speed. ▪If your E-MTA is connected to a LAN (Local Area Network), either directly or through a firewall, other communications on the LAN may slow down your connection. July

42 Troubleshooting EMTA Alarms ▪Call Agent Loss of Communications ▪Severity: Major, service-affecting ▪Cause: One of the following conditions has occurred: ▪The MTA did not receive a response from the Call Server for an NCS message. Re-establishing communications with the Call Server clears this alarm. ▪The E-MTA received a NACK in response to the RSIP message that it sent on initial registration to the call agent, resulting in CallP functionality entering a “permanent error” state. Clearing the condition that caused the NACK clears this alarm. ▪Impact: The NIU cannot register or initiate calls. ▪Action: Check the status of the NIU and its network connection. July

43 Troubleshooting EMTA Alarms Power Supply Telemetry Severity: Major, service-affecting Cause: The NIU has lost AC power. The alarm includes one of the following battery status codes: ▪AC Fail—the NIU has detected an AC power failure. ▪AC Fail Battery Low—the NIU is operating from battery power, and has drawn down the battery to about 25 percent of its rated capacity. ▪AC Fail Battery Replace—the NIU is operating from battery power, and the battery has deteriorated to about 75 percent of its off-the-shelf capacity and should be replaced. ▪AC Fail Battery Low Replace—the NIU is operating from battery power, and has drawn down the battery to about 25 percent of its rated capacity. In addition, the battery has deteriorated to about 75 percent of its off-the-shelf capacity and should be replaced. July

44 Troubleshooting EMTA Alarms Power Supply Telemetry (continued) ▪Impact: None at time of alarm. Depending on the condition of the battery and the nature of the power failure, the NIU may exhaust the battery before AC power is restored. ▪Action: Depends on the scope of the power outage. July

45 Troubleshooting EMTA Alarms Voice Line Failure Severity: Major, service-affecting Cause: One of the following conditions has occurred: ▪An In-Service line card has detected a Line Card Protection Fault condition (an overcurrent protection state). A Line Card Protection Fault occurs when the line card detects foreign voltage between tip and ring, or there is an excessive imbalance in loop current. ▪An attempt was made to put an Out-of-Service line, in an overcurrent protection state, into service. July

46 Troubleshooting EMTA Alarms Voice Line Failure (continued) ▪Impact: The affected voice line is disabled. Look for Voice Line Protection State Change logs to determine which line is in the fault condition. ▪Action: Run the line card diagnostics on the NIU. If the NIU fails diagnostics, disconnect the house wiring from the NIU and proceed as follows: ▪If the alarm clears, correct the faulty house wiring. ▪If the alarm persists, replace the NIU. July

47 E-MTA Registration - Common Problems Power - Telephony modem is not receiving AC power. ▪Verify power cord is plugged into an unswitched outlet. ▪Verify power cord by measuring with voltmeter. Voltage should be V 50-60Hz. ▪If unit is receiving power from outlet and power cord, replace with another unit. July

48 E-MTA Registration - Common Problems ▪Downstream Scanning - Telephony modem is not able to lock onto a downstream signal. ▪Verify cabling from house splitter to unit. ▪Verify Downstream signal level at assigned frequency is within the telephony modem Rx range -15dBmV to +15dBmV. ▪If no signal, verify the drop by measuring a CATV channel level for proper level at the CPE demarcation point. ▪If CATV channel is at the proper level, contact head end to verify CMTS is transmitting. ▪If CATV channel is not present, troubleshoot drop cable from the tap. ▪If Downstream signal is at proper level, replace unit. July

49 E-MTA Registration - Common Problems Upstream Ranging – E-MTA is not able to establish upstream communications with the CMTS. ▪Verify cabling from house splitter to unit. ▪Verify upstream path by sending signal back to head end and measure for proper level. ▪Contact head end to verify CMTS RF level is set to proper level. ▪If Upstream signal loss is at proper level, replace unit. July

50 E-MTA Registration - Common Problems DHCP – E-MTA is not receiving a IP address for the data component from the DHCP server. ▪Contact head end to verify DHCP server is functional and receiving address requests from unit. ▪Head end should verify provisioning information. July

51 E-MTA Registration - Common Problems TFTP – E-MTA is not able to download the configuration file for the data component from the TFTP server. ▪Contact head end to verify TFTP server is functional and receiving configuration file requests from unit. ▪Head end should verify provisioning information. July

52 E-MTA Registration - Common Problems ▪Telephony DHCP – E-MTA is not receiving an IP address for the MTA component from the Telephony DHCP server. ▪Contact head end to verify Telephony DHCP server is functional and receiving address requests from unit ▪Head end should verify provisioning information. July

53 E-MTA Registration - Common Problems Telephony TFTP – E-MTA is not able to download the configuration file for the MTA component from the Telephony TFTP server. ▪Contact head end to verify Telephony TFTP server is functional and receiving configuration file requests from unit. ▪Head end should verify provisioning information. July


Download ppt "Www.arrisi.com Telephony Troubleshooting in the Home ARRIS/SCTE."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google