Presentation on theme: "Public Safety Regimes and Political Analysis in Criminology Adam Edwards & Gordon Hughes Centre for Crime, Law and Justice Cardiff University"— Presentation transcript:
Public Safety Regimes and Political Analysis in Criminology Adam Edwards & Gordon Hughes Centre for Crime, Law and Justice Cardiff University http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/cclj/index.html Presentation to the South West Branch of the British Society of Criminology, Plymouth University, 15 th March 2012
Overview 1.) Traditions of Political Analysis in Criminology 2.) Regime Analysis and Criminology 3.) Research Strategies 4.) Concrete research example: A Safer Cardiff? 5.) Abstract research example: Project URBIS See also, Edwards, A. and Hughes, G. (2012) ‘Public Safety Regimes: negotiated orders and political analysis in criminology’, Criminology and Criminal Justice at: http://crj.sagepub.com/content/early/2012/01/03/1748895811431850 http://crj.sagepub.com/content/early/2012/01/03/1748895811431850
1.)Traditions of Political Analysis in Criminology TraditionConcept of power; Analytical Focus; Empirical Focus Regime analysis Socially productive ‘power to’ govern; governing capacity; governing arrangements, formation, sustainability or failure of regimes coalescing around specific policy agendas. Liberal criminology Separation of powers; decision-making arenas; elections, legislative programmes and pressure groups. Structural- functionalist Marxism Repressive ‘power-over’ subjects; state functions in reproducing social structures; state formations in capitalist societies, their function in reproducing accumulation circuits. Governmental criminology Production of problems and populations for government; political rationalities that render problems and populations thinkable for the purposes of government; neo- liberal rationalities defining populations of free-willed, rationally calculating, individuals posing certain risks in need of management. Governance studies Power-dependence between state and non-state actors; pursuit of collective interests through bargaining, the particular exchange relationships involved in bargaining; interest intermediation in the policy process; governing through public-private partnerships and networks, governing through regulation, nodes of governance.
2.) Regime Analysis and Criminology The empirical focus of regime analysis has been defined as: – An agenda to address a distinct set of problems; – A governing coalition formed around the agenda, typically including both governmental and non-governmental members; – Resources for the pursuit of the agenda, brought to bear by members of the governing coalition; and – Given the absence of a system of command, a scheme of cooperation through which the members of the governing coalition align their contribution to the task of governing (Stone, 2005).
2.) Regime Analysis and Criminology Now turn these concepts into 4 key research questions regarding ‘the particulars of local governance’ (Stone, 2005): – What specific concerns generate policy agendas? (e.g. criminal justice; risk management; restorative justice and social justice) – What motivates actors to participate in governing coalitions seeking to deliver these agendas? (e.g. instrumental and expressive rationalities) – What resources are relevant for the governing capacity of coalitions? (e.g. constitutional-legal; financial; organisational; informational; political) – How are the schemes of co-operation constituted through blends of shared purpose, selective incentives and established inter-personal and inter- organizational networks? (e.g. selective incentives and large purposes)
2.) Agendas for Public Safety Agenda Concerns Criminal Justice Public safety policies augment criminal law enforcement and public order policing, through such measures as: ‘community intelligence’ about ‘prolific and priority’ offenders (PPO’s); enhanced surveillance of suspects of serious crimes and in support of counter-terrorism; monitoring of serious offenders on release from conviction; prosecution of suspects of ‘anti-social behaviour’. Risk Management Public safety policies anticipate risks, through such measures as: reducing the situational opportunities for crime; early interventions with groups ‘at risk’ of embarking on offending careers or of becoming victimised; prudential advice and inducements enabling citizens to take responsibility for their own safety.
2.) Agendas for Public Safety Agenda Concerns Restorative Justice Public safety policies facilitate the reintegration of offenders and non-state conflict resolution, through such measures as: diversion from custody; referral to youth offending panels; negotiation of reparations between victims and offenders. Social Justice Public safety policies augment policies for the social and political inclusion of all citizens, through such measures as: extending the entitlements of citizens to improved education, training, employment, housing, health, leisure, and family support; improving adult health and safety at work; targeting corporate and environmental crimes as well as street crime; facilitating citizen engagement with government and active citizenship.
3.)Research Strategies: A Realist Approach S1S1 S2S2 S3S3 SnSn M1M1 M2M2 M3M3 M4M4 M5M5 MnMn E1E1 E2E2 E3E3 E4E4 EnEn Source: Adapted from Sayer, 1992: 237 KEY Generalisation Abstraction Concrete research Synthesis M6M6 E = Effects M = Mechanisms S = Structures CONCRETE ABSTRACT
4.) Concrete Research Example: Public Safety in Cardiff
5.) Abstract Research Example: Urban Security in Europe(‘URBIS’) (Reference: 518620-LLP-1-2011-1-IT-LEONARDO-LMP) Project website: www.urbisproject.euwww.urbisproject.eu Comparing governing arrangements The Delphi method and futurology Scenarios of public safety in an austere age: – Re-moralisation; Revanchism; Abandonment; Entitlement?