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Public Safety Regimes and Political Analysis in Criminology Adam Edwards & Gordon Hughes Centre for Crime, Law and Justice Cardiff University

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Presentation on theme: "Public Safety Regimes and Political Analysis in Criminology Adam Edwards & Gordon Hughes Centre for Crime, Law and Justice Cardiff University"— Presentation transcript:

1 Public Safety Regimes and Political Analysis in Criminology Adam Edwards & Gordon Hughes Centre for Crime, Law and Justice Cardiff University Presentation to the South West Branch of the British Society of Criminology, Plymouth University, 15 th March 2012

2 Overview 1.) Traditions of Political Analysis in Criminology 2.) Regime Analysis and Criminology 3.) Research Strategies 4.) Concrete research example: A Safer Cardiff? 5.) Abstract research example: Project URBIS See also, Edwards, A. and Hughes, G. (2012) ‘Public Safety Regimes: negotiated orders and political analysis in criminology’, Criminology and Criminal Justice at:

3 1.)Traditions of Political Analysis in Criminology TraditionConcept of power; Analytical Focus; Empirical Focus Regime analysis Socially productive ‘power to’ govern; governing capacity; governing arrangements, formation, sustainability or failure of regimes coalescing around specific policy agendas. Liberal criminology Separation of powers; decision-making arenas; elections, legislative programmes and pressure groups. Structural- functionalist Marxism Repressive ‘power-over’ subjects; state functions in reproducing social structures; state formations in capitalist societies, their function in reproducing accumulation circuits. Governmental criminology Production of problems and populations for government; political rationalities that render problems and populations thinkable for the purposes of government; neo- liberal rationalities defining populations of free-willed, rationally calculating, individuals posing certain risks in need of management. Governance studies Power-dependence between state and non-state actors; pursuit of collective interests through bargaining, the particular exchange relationships involved in bargaining; interest intermediation in the policy process; governing through public-private partnerships and networks, governing through regulation, nodes of governance.

4 2.) Regime Analysis and Criminology The empirical focus of regime analysis has been defined as: – An agenda to address a distinct set of problems; – A governing coalition formed around the agenda, typically including both governmental and non-governmental members; – Resources for the pursuit of the agenda, brought to bear by members of the governing coalition; and – Given the absence of a system of command, a scheme of cooperation through which the members of the governing coalition align their contribution to the task of governing (Stone, 2005).

5 2.) Regime Analysis and Criminology Now turn these concepts into 4 key research questions regarding ‘the particulars of local governance’ (Stone, 2005): – What specific concerns generate policy agendas? (e.g. criminal justice; risk management; restorative justice and social justice) – What motivates actors to participate in governing coalitions seeking to deliver these agendas? (e.g. instrumental and expressive rationalities) – What resources are relevant for the governing capacity of coalitions? (e.g. constitutional-legal; financial; organisational; informational; political) – How are the schemes of co-operation constituted through blends of shared purpose, selective incentives and established inter-personal and inter- organizational networks? (e.g. selective incentives and large purposes)

6 2.) Agendas for Public Safety Agenda Concerns Criminal Justice Public safety policies augment criminal law enforcement and public order policing, through such measures as: ‘community intelligence’ about ‘prolific and priority’ offenders (PPO’s); enhanced surveillance of suspects of serious crimes and in support of counter-terrorism; monitoring of serious offenders on release from conviction; prosecution of suspects of ‘anti-social behaviour’. Risk Management Public safety policies anticipate risks, through such measures as: reducing the situational opportunities for crime; early interventions with groups ‘at risk’ of embarking on offending careers or of becoming victimised; prudential advice and inducements enabling citizens to take responsibility for their own safety.

7 2.) Agendas for Public Safety Agenda Concerns Restorative Justice Public safety policies facilitate the reintegration of offenders and non-state conflict resolution, through such measures as: diversion from custody; referral to youth offending panels; negotiation of reparations between victims and offenders. Social Justice Public safety policies augment policies for the social and political inclusion of all citizens, through such measures as: extending the entitlements of citizens to improved education, training, employment, housing, health, leisure, and family support; improving adult health and safety at work; targeting corporate and environmental crimes as well as street crime; facilitating citizen engagement with government and active citizenship.

8 3.)Research Strategies: A Realist Approach S1S1 S2S2 S3S3 SnSn M1M1 M2M2 M3M3 M4M4 M5M5 MnMn E1E1 E2E2 E3E3 E4E4 EnEn Source: Adapted from Sayer, 1992: 237 KEY Generalisation Abstraction Concrete research Synthesis M6M6 E = Effects M = Mechanisms S = Structures CONCRETE ABSTRACT

9 4.) Concrete Research Example: Public Safety in Cardiff

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11 5.) Abstract Research Example: Urban Security in Europe(‘URBIS’) (Reference: LLP IT-LEONARDO-LMP) Project website: Comparing governing arrangements The Delphi method and futurology Scenarios of public safety in an austere age: – Re-moralisation; Revanchism; Abandonment; Entitlement?


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