Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

VISUAL This is VISUAL - a guide to the VISUAL language SINTEF ICT January 2015 This work by the VISUAL project is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "VISUAL This is VISUAL - a guide to the VISUAL language SINTEF ICT January 2015 This work by the VISUAL project is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial."— Presentation transcript:

1 VISUAL This is VISUAL - a guide to the VISUAL language SINTEF ICT January 2015 This work by the VISUAL project is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.the VISUAL projectCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

2 VISUAL Content About VISUAL – Who can use this material? – How to make diagrams? Introduction – Perspective on service delivery – Customer journeys and main terminology Visual elements and syntax Symbols Diagrams More advanced use of VISUAL

3 VISUAL About VISUAL VISUAL is the name of a project financed by The Research Council of Norway VISUAL is also the name of a visual language that has been developed in this project The visual language supports specification and analysis of services. It consists of – terminology – graphical elements – diagrams – methods and tools The main components of the visual language have been made publicly available through these slides and the accompanying Visio stencils VISUAL is currently under development and new versions of the language will come Read more about the project and download the Visio stencils here:

4 VISUAL Who can use this material? Everyone can use this material under the following conditions: It is licensed under the Common Creative license CC-BY-NC Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License – In short, this means that you must refer to the VISUAL project if you use our material, and it is only for non-commercial use – See the above link for how to attribute correctly Please provide us with feedback – We appreciate constructive comments and suggestions – You can find our contact details here: We do not offer any support.. –.. but we will strive to assist you – Feel free to contact us through this web form:

5 VISUAL How to make diagrams? You can simply copy-paste the graphical elements from these slides and modify for your own use The current version of VISUAL is also supported by the diagramming application Visio as a set of stencils. An installer package has been prepared for simple installation of the stencils You can download the Visio package from our web site

6 VISUAL Introduction

7 VISUAL Service delivery - theory versus reality Theory: the intended service delivery can be planned and modelled often described with a blueprint may contain sub-branches, according to defined conditions Reality: the actual service delivery the execution of a service may deviate from the plan it always results in an experience the experience is subjective, context dependent, and changes over time "Services exist in two different states of being.." Lynn Shostack (1982). How to design a service. Eur. J. Marketing 16, How can we describe the real- time execution of a service? VISUAL makes a distinction between hypothetical or planned services (theory), and real-time execution of a service.

8 VISUAL About the VISUAL language VISUAL is a language for modelling and visualisation of services in terms of customer journeys VISUAL is particularly targeting standardized, electronically mediated services that are repeated in high volumes VISUAL distinguishes between three types or states of journeys 1.Generic journey ("service delivery - theory"): the set of expected customer journeys in a service, often containing decision points and branches related to specific conditions in the service 2.Expected journey ("service delivery - theory"): a specific customer journey as intended by the service provider, given the service conditions 3.Actual journey ("service delivery - reality): the real customer journey as it happened in real life (right: showing a deviation from the expected)

9 VISUAL Terminology In VISUAL, a touchpoint is an instance of communication or interaction between a service provider and a customer In VISUAL, a customer journey is modelled as a sequence of touchpoints and actions to achieve a goal This slide will be updated soon!

10 VISUAL Visual elements and syntax Customer journeys

11 VISUAL 1. Customer journey diagram, sequential view: for visualizing expected and actual customer journeys with few actors involved Overview of VISUAL diagrams These are the main diagram types in VISUAL for describing service delivery The elements of these diagrams will be explained in the next slides 2. Customer journey diagram, deviation view: for visualizing actual customer journeys 3. Swimlane diagram: for visualizing expected and actual customer journeys with many actors involved

12 VISUAL Customer journey: main diagram elements The main diagram elements of VISUAL, used to visualize customer journeys 12 start of customer journey end of customer journey touchpoint connectors actiondecision point

13 VISUAL Customer journey A customer journey is a sequence of touchpoints and actions involved for a customer to achieve a specific goal. Touchpoints and actions will be further described in the following slides. The scope of a customer journey should be defined. – What is the start of the customer journey? – What is the end of the customer journey? Touchpoints are instances of communication or interaction between a customer and a service provider Actions are non-communicative events or activities conducted by a customer or service provider as part of a customer journey

14 VISUAL Touchpoint Touchpoints are represented as circles The touchpoint boundary carries information about – the actor initiating the touchpoint – the status of the touchpoint The symbol area of the touchpoint carry information about the channel carrying the touchpoint, or the device being used touchpoint boundary symbol area service providercustomer completedmissing only used for actual journeys failing only used for actual journeys Actor Status other actor The colour of the boundary indicates the actor initiating the touchpoint green: service provider orange: customer purple: other actor The boundary style indicates the status of the touchpoint solid boundary: completed dashed boundary: missing crossed touchpoint: failing Example: service provider sends an to customer Example: customer fails to retrieve ticket

15 VISUAL Action Actions are presented as rounded squares containing text, and no symbols Actions in VISUAL do not involve direct communication, but can still be part of an expected journey For example, when a customer is to report electricity consumption, he/she reads the meter before reporting the result through a communication event (SMS) with the service provider. Example: The example describes touchpoints and actions in relation to meter reading and reporting The touchpoints involve communication with the service provider, in contrast to the actions. Lisa reads the meter Lisa receives request to report meter value Lisa reports the meter value via SMS

16 VISUAL Decision point Decision points are used for generic costumer journeys, and refer to points in time where a customer journey branches into sub-journeys

17 VISUAL Touchpoint descriptions and identifiers Touchpoint descriptions may be added to provide a contextual description of the situation – We recommend to keep the touchpoint description relatively short Touchpoint identifiers may be added for easy referral to specific touchpoints, and the first letter depend on the status of the touchpoint – For expected journeys: T1, T2, T3, … – Expected touchpoints of actual journeys : E1, E2, E3, … – Ad-hoc touchpoints of actual journeys: A1, A2, A3, … – Missing touchpoints of actual journeys: M1, M2, M2, … – Failing touchpoints of actual journeys: F1, F2, F3, … When rich descriptions are needed, the diagram can be accompanied by a table holding the explanations and a reference to the touchpoint identifier Touchpoint description Touchpoint identifier T1 T2T3T4

18 VISUAL Symbols

19 VISUAL About the VISUAL symbols The symbols of VISUAL serve different purposes. – Touchpoint symbols communicate the channel or device that carries the touchpoint. – Actor symbols represent the actors in a customer journey (customers, employees, service providers) – Health care symbols are currently a mix of both touchpoint and actor symbols related to the health domain – Customer experience symbols represents the customer's subjective experience of a touchpoint

20 VISUAL Overview of all VISUAL symbols Touchpoints Health care Employees Users Customer experience Service providers

21 VISUAL Touchpoint symbols – page 1 of 2 with context telephone conversation chat SMS social media message tablet smartphone letter call centre app on PC app on tablet app on smartphone PC/laptop shop counter internet/globe internet via PC internet via tablet internet via smartphone

22 VISUAL Touchpoint symbols – page 2 of 2 with context face-to-face conversation telephone message service self-service machine service desk payment shopping invoice store social media interaction fax bank logistics package technician (visit)

23 VISUAL Actor symbols - general users, employees, service providers employees users service providers

24 VISUAL Health care symbols patients, doctors, nurses, secretaries, institutions, systems patients doctor - general practitioner doctors nurses chief nurse health secretaries secretaries/receptionists hospitals hospital post office hospital computer system patient medical record Doctors the medical doctors carry a stethoscope, to distinguish them from nurses general practitioner has a dedicated symbol Nurses several symbols are needed, as they may have different roles/responsibilities Health secretary is a specialization, and is therefore distinct from mercantile secretaries and receptionists

25 VISUAL Customer experience symbols Smiley symbols are used to visualize the customer's experience Generally, these symbols should be used for actual journeys to indicate an individual's experience of a specific touchpoint The symbols can be used to match a 5-point or 3-point Likert scale very satisfiedsatisfiedneutralvery unsatisfiedunsatisfied

26 VISUAL Diagrams

27 VISUAL Customer journey, sequential view This type of customer journey consists of a sequence of touchpoints in chronological order The sequential view is used for visualizing expected and actual journeys Sequential view is convenient: – For expected journeys, when the temporal order of the touchpoints can be pre-determined – For actual journeys, when the expected journey is unknown, and a comparison of the two is not doable Example: A customer buying a movie ticket online, receiving confirmations by and SMS, then retrieving the ticket from a self-service machine at the movie theater and showing the ticket at the entrance Journey type: Expected order and pay via web confirmation SMS confirmation retrieve ticket ticket control at entrance T1T2T3T4T5

28 VISUAL Sequential view – Examples expected journey Expected customer journey consisting of a sequence of touchpoints in chronological order, with journey phase Expected customer journey consisting of a sequence of touchpoints in chronological order, with timeline Expected customer journey consisting of an unordered touchpoint sequence Journey type: Expected order and pay ticket via web confirmation SMS confirmation retrieve ticket ticket control at entrance T1T2T3T4T5 order and pay ticket via web confirmation SMS confirmation retrieve ticket ticket control at entrance T1T2T3T4T5 Home Movie theatre day 1day 2 order and pay ticket via web confirmation SMS confirmation retrieve ticket ticket control at entrance T1T2T3T4T5

29 VISUAL Customer journey, sequential view Actual customer journey with timeline consisting of: three completed expected touchpoints (E1-E3) one missing touchpoint (M1) one failing touchpoint (F1) one ad-hoc touchpoint (A1) Actual customer journey consisting of: four completed expected touchpoints (E1-E4) one failing touchpoint (F1) one ad-hoc touchpoint (A1) failing touchpoint ad-hoc touchpoint missing touchpoint failing touchpoint ad-hoc touchpoint Journey type: Actual order and pay ticket via web confirmation SMS confirmation retrieve ticket ticket control at entrance E1E2E3E4F1 calls to get refund A1 day 1day 2 order and pay ticket via web confirmation SMS confirmation retrieve ticket ticket control at entrance E1M1E2E3F1 calls to get refund A1 day 3

30 VISUAL Deviation view The deviation view shows the actual journey as a comparison to the expected journey The deviation view is convenient: – When the notion of an expected journey can be defined – For providing an intuitive comparison between expected and actual journey The touchpoints are identified by a unique identifier dependent of the status of the touchpoint: – Expected touchpoints: E1, E2, E3, … – Ad-hoc touchpoints: A1, A2, A3, … – Missing touchpoints: M1, M2, M2, … – Failing touchpoints : F1, F2, F3, …

31 VISUAL Customer journey, deviation view Touchpoints are shown in two different layers. See descriptions in in figure. Expected touchpoints Deviations E1 M1 E2E3 F1 A1 All the expected touchpoints are shown in the upper level All the deviations (ad-hoc, missing and failing touchpoints) are shown in the lower level Missing and failing touchpoints that are part of the expected journey appear as gray "ghost" symbols in the upper "expected touchpoints" level Missing and failing touchpoints that are part of the expected journey appear in the lower "deviations" level showing status and initiator When a deviation touchpoint follows as a direct consequence of an ad-hoc, missing, or failing touchpoint, it is displayed vertically below the touchpoint it originated from (as shown in this visualization) When an deviation touchpoint follows an ad-hoc, missing, or failing touchpoint, but is not directly connected to the previous touchpoint, it is displayed horizontally beside this touchpoint Journey type: Actual

32 VISUAL Customer journey, deviation view Customer journey consisting of a sequence of expected touchpoints (E1-E4) and with one missing touchpoint (M1) Expected touchpoints Deviations retrieve ticket E3 order and pay ticket via web SMS confirmation ticket control at entrance E1 M1 E2E4 confirmation is missing Journey type: Actual

33 VISUAL Deviation view - example Customer journey consisting of sequence of expected touchpoints (E1-E4), with one failing touchpoint (F1) that generates an ad-hoc touchpoint (A1) Expected touchpoints Deviations customer contacts service desk self-service machine out of order F1 A1 order and pay ticket via web confirmation SMS confirmation ticket control at entrance E1E2E3E4 Journey type: Actual

34 VISUAL Deviation view - example Customer journey including sequence errors and where one touchpoint fails (F1) and generates an ad-hoc touchpoint (A1) Expected touchpoints Deviations order and pay ticket via web confirmation SMS confirmation ticket control at entrance E1E2E3 F1 E4 A1 customer contacts service desk self-service machine out of order Journey type: Actual

35 VISUAL Swimlane diagram Each actor has a separate swim lane A touchpoint is represented as a "vertical pair" – the initiator/sender has a dark background – the receiver has a light background – an arrow connects the sender and receiver Time extends in the horizontal direction Touchpoint (sender) symbol areatext area Action (no sender/receiver) text area direction of time Example diagram Touchpoint (receiver) symbol areatext area

36 VISUAL Swimlane diagram – part 1 Customer Power supplier Bank- related Grid company Tele- marketing Calls the customer and offers electricity deal Receives call from telemarketing and agrees to electricity deal Sends request for agreement confirmation and meter reading Receives request for agreement confirmation and meter reading Sends agreement confirmation and meter reading Receives agreement confirmation and meter reading Sends info about the agreement being processed Receives info about the agreement being processed Customer info is sent to power supplier Receives customer info Reads the meter Example: ordering a new electricity deal from a utility company Journey type: Expected

37 VISUAL Swimlane view – Example expected journey (part 2) Customer Power supplier Bank- related Grid company Tele- marketing Calls customer for a welcome call Receives welcome call Sends notification for meter reading Receives meter reading notification Sends the meter Receives the meter reading Reads the meter Sends invoice to be forwarded to customer Receives invoice to be forwarded to customer Receives invoice Pays invoice Invoice ready for customer Receives payment Expected journey of ordering electricity from a utility company Journey type: Expected

38 VISUAL More advanced use of VISUAL

39 VISUAL Journey phase When convenient, a customer journey may be divided into journey phases The journey phases can be based on e.g. the location where the touchpoints are initiated, periods or phases of the journey, or other convenient ways of dividing the journey into phases. Example: air travel – Phase 1: Ordering ticket online and preparing for the trip – Phase 2: Traveling to the airport – Phase 3: At the airport of departure – Phase 4: During the flight – Phase 5: At the airport of arrival journey phase

40 VISUAL Unordered touchpoint sequence An unordered touchpoint sequence is a group of touchpoints that occur in an arbitrary order This notation is useful when visualizing customer journeys that include groups of touchpoints that occur with no pre- defined sequence The notation can only be used for visualizing expected journeys No connector between the unordered touchpoints Brackets that group the unordered touchpoints

41 VISUAL Concurrency In general, a customer journey may describe both sequential and concurrent touchpoints and actions. The UML fork/join notation is used for this purpose. In the example below, touchpoint T3 happens simultaneously as T4 and T5 is carried out. A typical situation is a telephone conversation (T3), where s are being sent during the conversation s (T4, T5). The second heavy bar ("join") indicates end of concurrency T3 T4 T1T2 T6 The first heavy bar ("fork") indicates start of concurrent touchpoints T5

42 VISUAL Timeline When convenient, a timeline can be introduced to the customer journey to emphasize the detailed timing of when different touchpoints occur The touchpoints are positioned according to the relevant time Timeline can be used for both expected and actual journeys day 1day 3day 8 day 2

43 VISUAL The VISUAL project SINTEFHalogen Industry partners eHealth services University of Linköping Service Design consultancy Research Project management Research Energy supplierDigital market An innovation project funded by the research council of Norway Please follow us here:


Download ppt "VISUAL This is VISUAL - a guide to the VISUAL language SINTEF ICT January 2015 This work by the VISUAL project is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google