# Formal Verification of Hardware Support For Advanced Encryption Standard Anna Slobodová Centaur Technology This work was done while at Intel.

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Formal Verification of Hardware Support For Advanced Encryption Standard Anna Slobodová Centaur Technology This work was done while at Intel

Outline of the talk  AES algorithm and instructions  sketch of the algorithm  mapping to AES instructions  operations over GF  Verification of AES instructions  Verification framework  BDD variable ordering that works FMCAD 2008Anna Slobodova 2

AES algorithm and instructions Cipher(byte in[16], byte out[16], word w[4*(N r +1)]) begin byte state[4, 4] state = in AddRoundKey(state, w[0,3] for round = 1 step 1 to N r -1 SubBytes(state) ShiftRows(state) MixColumns(state) AddRoundKey(state, w[4*round, 3*(round+1)] end for SubBytes(state) ShiftRows(state) AddRoundKey(state, w[4*N r,3*N r +1] out = state end FMCAD 2008Anna Slobodova 3 AESENC AESENCLAST AESDEC, AESDECLAST, AESKEYGENASSIST, AESIMC

AES bytes, words and state  Byte - basic unit, 8 bits - Interpreted as polynomials  State – array of bytes FMCAD 2008Anna Slobodova 4 word ≈column [w0 w1 w2 w3]

Galois Field 2 8  elements = bytes 7 th degree polynomials with binary coefficients  addition = subtraction = bit-wise XOR  multiplication = multiplication of polynomials modulo irreducible polynomial FMCAD 2008Anna Slobodova 5

Polynomials with coefficients in GF(2 8 )  words = 4 th degree polynomials with coefficients in GF(2 8 )  addition = addition in GF(2 8 ) of corresponding bytes  (modular) multiplication = multiplication of polynomials modulo polynomial x 4 +1 FMCAD 2008Anna Slobodova 6

S-box transformation FMCAD 2008Anna Slobodova 8 0123456789ABCDEF 0 637c777bf26b6fc53001672bfed7ab76 1 ca82c97dfa5947f0add4a2af9ca472c0 2 b7fd9326363ff7cc34a5e5f171d83115 3 04c723c31896059a071280e2eb27b275 4 09832c1a1b6e5aa0523bd6b329e32f84 5 53d100ed20fcb15b6acbbe394a4c58cf 6 d0efaafb434d338545f9027f503c9fa8 7 51a3408f929d38f5bcb6da2110fff3d2 8 cd0c13ec5f974417c4a77e3d645d1973 9 60814fdc222a908846eeb814de5e0bdb a e0323a0a4906245cc2d3ac629195e479 b e7c8376d8dd54ea96c56f4ea657aae08 c ba78252e1ca6b4c6e8dd741f4bbd8b8a d 703eb5664803f60e613557b986c11d9e e e1f89811698d8e949b1e87e9ce5528df f 8ca1890dbfe6426841992d0fb054bb16

Verification of AES instructions  Data-path proof  Control proof FMCAD 2008Anna Slobodova 10 Symbolic inputs Symbolic outputs Symbolic inputs Symbolic outputs weakening e 0 e 1 e 2 X X d 2 X X 0X X e 2 0 0 1 d2d2

BDD variable ordering for AES instructions FMCAD 2008Anna Slobodova 11

Conclusions  Hardware support for AES instructions can be done using BDD based simulation engine.  There is a common BDD variable ordering that can be used across all symbolic simulation runs. FMCAD 2008Anna Slobodova 12

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