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Behaviour Change Past & current theories of how to get people from thinking to doing Part 3 of 3 Corinne Hodgson Corinne S. Hodgson & Associates Inc. November,

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Presentation on theme: "Behaviour Change Past & current theories of how to get people from thinking to doing Part 3 of 3 Corinne Hodgson Corinne S. Hodgson & Associates Inc. November,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Behaviour Change Past & current theories of how to get people from thinking to doing Part 3 of 3 Corinne Hodgson Corinne S. Hodgson & Associates Inc. November, 2013

2  Part 1  Traditional theories such as Transtheoretical Model, Model of Reasoned Action/Planned Behaviour, and Social Cognitive Theory  Opportunities from other areas of psychology: achievement theory, self theory, and self-determination theory  Part 2: Health Action Process Approach and Self- Regulation  Part 3: New models from interactive health (Fogg, Eyal) CSH Associates - From thinking to doing2 Overview

3 B = mat To get a specific Behaviour you need at the same time Sufficient level of Motivation + Sufficient level of Ability + Trigger Source: CSH Associates - From thinking to doing3 Fogg Behavioural Model

4 CSH Associates - From thinking to doing4 B= MAT MOTIVATION High Motivation Low Motivation Hard to Do Easy to Do ABILITY Triggers aren’t effective Triggers ARE effective Activation Threshold BJ Fogg

5  Three basic motivators:  Sensation – pleasure vs. pain  Anticipation – hope vs. fear  Social cohesion – social rejection vs. acceptance  Notice:  Motivators can be either approach goal (e.g., pleasure) or avoidance goal (in this case, pain)  Social cohesion motivator reflects relatedness in Self- Determination Theory  How strong is the sense of motivation? CSH Associates - From thinking to doing5 Motivation in Fogg Behavior Model

6  Do you have the skills to change?  Do you have the resources to change?  Time  Money  Knowledge or skills  Physical or mental resources (think self-regulation!)  Are you asking the person to do something that is easy or hard?  “Simplicity is a function of your scarcest resource at that moment.” CSH Associates - From thinking to doing6 Ability in the Fogg Behavior Model

7  Behaviours will not happen without a trigger  Triggers can be:  External (e.g., ping on your phone)  Environmental (e.g., walking into cafeteria triggers urge to eat)  Internal  In Fogg model there are 3 types of triggers:  Facilitator: in situations of high motivation but low ability  Spark: situations of high ability but low motivation  Signal: situation of both high ability & motivation CSH Associates - From thinking to doing7 Triggers in the Fogg Behavior Model

8  15 ways behaviour can change  Cross-tabulation of 2 dimensions 1.The time frame  One-time  Limited duration  Permanent change 2.The type of behaviour change  A new, unfamiliar behaviour  A familiar behaviour  Increasing behaviour intensity or duration  Decreasing behaviour intensity or duration  Stopping a behaviour CSH Associates - From thinking to doing8 Fogg Behavior Grid

9 CSH Associates - From thinking to doing9 Fogg Behavior Grid/Behavior Wizard For more information go to

10  For each path, should match target behaviour with solutions  Examples:  For Green Dot Behaviour (to do a new behaviour one time), you need to couple the trigger with a motivational element, increase ability by explaining the novel behaviour in terms of one that is familiar, and increase motivation by highlighting benefits  For Black Path behaviour (e.g., quitting smoking forever), you need to remove the trigger, reduce the motivation to smoke, and reduce the ability to smoke.  For more information, go to CSH Associates - From thinking to doing10 Behavior Wizard

11  Basic interest is in creating habit-forming apps and products but has ramifications for behaviour change – especially when using digital resources  Habits are created when there are 4 elements: 1.Trigger 2.Action 3.Variable reward 4.Investment CSH Associates - From thinking to doing11 Hooked (Nir Eyal)

12 CSH Associates - From thinking to doing12 Hooked Model INVESTMENT ACTION TRIGGER REWARD Hooked, How to Build Habit-Forming Products, Nir Eyal with Ryan Hoover

13  External triggers:  Paid triggers such as ads  Earned triggers such as viral videos or news stories  Relationship triggers - recommendation from a friend  Owned trigger – e.g., icon on display or phone  Internal triggers:  Emotions such as boredom, loneliness, frustration or confusion  Desire to be entertained CSH Associates - From thinking to doing13 Trigger in Hooked Model

14  Whether or not person takes action depends upon several factors  Uses Self-Determination Theory (see Part 2) and Fogg Behavior Model to explain shift from inaction to action  Simplicity can help movement into action CSH Associates - From thinking to doing14 Action in Hooked Model

15  Not referring to incentives or virtual rewards such as virtual badges  Best reward is anticipation of satisfying a need  Three types of rewards:  Rewards of the tribe (think relatedness)  Rewards of the hunt - the most effective rewards may be variable so you never know when you’ll be rewarded  Rewards of the self – Self-Determination Theory’s autonomy and competence CSH Associates - From thinking to doing15 Reward in Hooked Model

16  More time and effort a person puts into an activity, product or service, they more he/she will value it  The more effort and time a person puts into something, the more likely they are to consistently do it/use it  The greater the investment, the greater the likelihood of responding to the next trigger CSH Associates - From thinking to doing16 Investment in the Hooked Model

17  Don’t ask people how they are doing in making changes (progress reports)  Why not:  Focuses on performance rather than effort (entity rather than growth mindset)  Reminding people of how good they’ve been gives them “license to sin”  Alternative: ask people to reiterate why they want to change (reinforce expectancies & motivation) 17 Curiosities of science - 1 CSH Associates - From thinking to doing

18  Both good & bad behaviours are contagious in social networks (e.g., spread of obesity – see Christakis & Fowler NEJM 2007 video; Gladstone’s The Tipping Point)  Don’t reinforce negative behaviours by suggesting they are the norm (e.g., “ over 60% of Canadians are overweight”)  Alternatives:  position target behaviour as the norm  remind people of their goals to strengthen their immune response to others’ behaviours 18 Curiosities of science - 2 CSH Associates - From thinking to doing

19  Don’t tell people to avoid thinking about a negative behaviour (e.g., high fat foods)  Why: The more you try not to think of something:  the more you will think about it & the more compelling the idea will be (ironic rebound)  the more likely you are to do the very behaviour you’re trying to suppress (e.g., food restrainers are more likely to overeat)  Alternative (acceptance therapy): don’t try to suppress thought but recognize it for what it is, remind yourself you don’t have to act on it, & use breathing and positive imagery to control your physiological reaction to it  Lavel University study found Health-At-Any-Size approach emphasizing what people can eat & do led to better long-term weight attitudes & management than standard dieting approaches (Gagnon-Girouard J Obesity 2010) 19 Curiosities of science - 3 CSH Associates - From thinking to doing

20  Bandura A. Self-Efficacy in Changing Societies. Cambridge University Press (1995)  Decci EL, Ryan RM (eds). Handbook of Self-Determination Research. University of Rochester Press (2002)  Elliot AJ, Dweck CS (eds). Handbook of Competence and Motivation. Guildford Press (2005)  Glanz K, Rimer BK, Lewis FM (eds). Health and Behavior and Health Education, Theory, Research, and Practice (3 rd ed). Jossey-Bass (2002)  Haggar MS, NLD Chatzisarantis (eds). Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Exercise and Sport. Human Kinetics (2007)  Heckhausen J, Dweck CS (eds). Motivation and Self-Regulation Across the Life Span. Cambridge University Press (1998)  Sansone C, Harackiewicz JM (eds). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation, The Search for Optimal Motivation and Performance. Academic Press (2000)  Sheldon KM, Williams G, Joiner T. Self-Determination Theory in the Clinic, Motivating Physical and Mental Health. Yale University Press (2003)  Stroebe W. Dieting, Overweight and Obesity, Self-Regulation in a Food-Rich Environment. American Psychological Association (2008) 20 Texts CSH Associates - From thinking to doing

21  Dan Bailis research:  PDF of Powerpoint  YouTube of presentation  Baumeister RF, Gaillot M, DeWall CN, Oaten M. Self-regulation and personality: how interventions increase regulatory success, and how depletion moderates the effects of traits on behavior. J of Personality 2006;74:  Sniehotta FF, Scholz U, Schwarzer R. Bridging the intention-behaviour gap: Planning, self-efficacy, and action control in the adoption and maintenance of physical exercise. Psychology & Health 2005;20:  Hofmann W, Baumeister RF, Forster G, Vohs KD. Everyday temptations: an experience sampling study of desire, conflict, and self-control. J of Personality & Social Psychology 2012;102:  Boudreax MJ, Ozer DJ. Goal conflict, goal striving, and psychological well-being. Motivation and Emotion. 2013;37:  Webb TL, Joseph J, Yardley L, Michie S. Using the internet to promote health behavior change: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of theoretical basis, use of behavior change techniques, and mode of delivery on efficacy. JMIR 2010;12(1):e4  Michie S, Prestwich A. Are interventions theory-based? Development of a theory coding scheme. Health Psychology 2010;29:1-8 CSH Associates - From thinking to doing 21 Other Key Resources

22 Corinne Hodgson Corinne S. Hodgson & Associates Inc. CSH Associates - From thinking to doing22


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