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Resources Fall 2014 Academic Language The webinar ppt will be posted here!
WHAT: More than vocabulary, terms, conventions and genres Academic Language is the language that is used in school to acquire new or deeper understanding of the content and communicate that understanding to others. WHY: “Close attention to words, sentences, and language use within the context of the text’s unfolding ideas initiates students into the academic language essential to becoming an educated person.”
Academic Language is: the language used in the classroom and workplace the language of text the language of assessments the language of academic success the language of power
Where is Academic Language supported in the Standards?
Not so much taught… but acquired through interactions with complex texts and meaningful instructional conversations in which attention is drawn to the ways in which meaning relates to words, phrases, clauses in the texts. (L. Wong Fillmore)
Three Dimensions of Academic Language Word/Phrase – Academic vocabulary, multi-meaning words, technical language Sentence – Academic language at this level is characterized by grammatical structures, conventions, mechanics, fluency Discourse – Oral and written. Could include lab reports, timelines, word problems, storytelling, sheet music
1. Word/Phrase Dimension Includes Academic Vocabulary – Tier 2 words Words in phrases are more meaningful than vocabulary in isolation Is only one aspect of Academic Language acquisition Teach word-learning strategies (roots, suffixes, prefixes) Foster word consciousness (an awareness of and interest in words and their meanings)
Figure out the meaning of new words and terms Use and clarify new words to build ideas or create products Choose and use the best words and phrases to communicate O’Hara, Zwiers, Pritchard 2013
Time and Attention More Time Abstract Words Words which are parts of semantic word families (develop, developed, developer, development) Words which represent an idea, event, concept unfamiliar to students Words likely to appear in future texts students will read Less Time Concrete Words Words not part of semantic word family and have single meanings (sofa, gregarious, indispensible) Words which are synonyms for ideas, or concepts students already know
You Try It! Which more, which less? miniscule strategy or envied majestic or sheath obstacle or
2. Sentence Dimension This dimension involves putting words and phrases together in sentences. Academic texts include compound and complex sentences with multiple ideas. Readers can be challenged to find the primary idea of a sentence and notice how it is supported by other phrases and clauses.
Sentence structure (compound/complex) and length Transitions and connectives Complex verb tenses and passive voice Pronouns and references O’Hara, Zwiers, Pritchard 2013
Craft sentences to be clear and correct Use a variety of sentence types, to clarify a message, condense information Combine ideas, phrases and clauses. O’Hara, Zwiers, Pritchard 2013
Begin with a juicy sentence! A juicy sentence: is tied closely to the Essential Question being explored is layered with academic Tier 2 vocabulary is long and embedded with main and dangling clauses, parts, and phrases is filled with figurative language that merits attention has content specific language functions Juicy Sentences Lily Wong Fillmore and Maryann Cucchiara 2012
There was nothing so very in that; nor did Alice think it so very much out of the way to hear the Rabbit say to itself, 'Oh dear! Oh dear! I shall be late!' (when she thought it over afterwards, it occurred to her that she ought to have wondered at this, ); but when the Rabbit actually took a watch out of its waistcoat-pocket, and looked at it, and then hurried on,, for it flashed across her mind that she had never before seen a rabbit with either a waistcoat-pocket, or a watch to take out of it, and, she ran across the field after it, and was just in time to see it pop down a large rabbit-hole under the hedge. remarkable fortunately but at the time it all seemed quite natural Alice started to her feet burning with curiosity
What’s next? What do I do with my juicy sentence? Read the sentence aloud (teacher or students) Copy the sentence (teacher or students) Deconstruct (chunk the sentence into parts) Discuss the meaning of the chunks Reconstruct
See juicy sentences in action! Elementary ExampleSecondary Example
3. Discourse (message) Level Academic discourse is putting words and sentences (the other two dimensions) together to clearly communicate complex ideas.
Clarity and coherence Register for participants and purposes Density of ideas and their relationships Message organization and structure (visuals, paragraphs) Organization of sentences O’Hara, Zwiers, Pritchard 2013
Create a logical flow of and connection between ideas, knowing how ideas develop and need to develop. Match language with purpose of message (Clear, complete, focused, logical, and appropriate to the discipline). Create, clarify, fortify, and negotiate ideas. O’Hara, Zwiers, Pritchard 2013
Instructional conversations work only if the conversations really are conversations. L. Wong-Fillmore
Goals for Productive Discussion Goal One: Help individual students share, expand, and clarify their own thoughts. Goal Two: Help students listen carefully to each other. Goal Three: Help students deepen their reasoning. Goal Four: Help students engage with others’ reasoning. S. Michaels and C. O’Connor
Writing and Academic Language Writing is a part of the Discourse Level. Follow close reading, juicy sentences, and conversations with a culminating task. Encourage students to use academic words and phrases in their writing. Use sentence starters. Writing should be text based.
Dimensions of Academic Language and Grade-Level Examples Dimensions of Academic Language K Word/Phrase LevelCharacters, text, titles, rhyming words Hyperlinks, stanzas, perspectives, root words Sentence LevelPrepositional phrases, connectives, sequence words Metaphors, similes, analogies, allusions Discourse LevelFolktales, blogs, rhetorical markers, storyboards Editorials, soliloquies, scripts, research reports
3-5 “Do-it, Talk-it, Read-it, Write-it” – (Wierman & Strohl, 2012) With inquiry activities, students work together to do an activity, talk about it, refer back to the text or other sources and read about it, and finally report their observations and results in written form. This strategy allows students with different proficiency levels to work together to maximize their learning. It uses reading, writing and talk in authentic ways.
3-5 “Hot Seat” - (Lewison, Leland, & Harste, 2008) – is an interactive strategy that provides a way for all students to become a character in a story or event, answering questions posed by classmates about the character’s role and motivation for behaving, acting, or participating in particular ways. Theme Wall – (Academic Language in Diverse Classrooms) - identifies the broad thematic ideas or concepts from a unit or theme. Each broad concept includes vocabulary and text features that describe, connect with, or expand understanding of the concepts. Students use this academic language in their discussions, reading and writing throughout a unit.
6-8 Coding the Text AAgree!Surprising or hard to believe FFigurative device Confirms what you thought ?Confused of question XContradicts what you think DDisagreeHmmmNew or interesting E4Evidence forCECause/effect MPMain Idea or purpose BBias *ImportantWAWeak argument VIPVery importantQQuotation to use or think about
6-8 Roundtable Write 1.Form groups of no more than five students, and provide each student with a different question or topic around a shared text. 2.Each student writes about the topic or responds to the question. 3.At the teacher’s signal, pass papers to a peer in the group. Then, students read what has been written with each adding his or her own thoughts in response to the question or topic. 4.Continue passing the responses until everyone has a chance to write on each paper, and each student ends up with his or her original paper. 5.Students write a summary synthesizing all the information on the page, including academic language found in the text on the topic or question they addressed.
Dynamically Introduce Academic Vocabulary 6-12
Write with a Transition Handout 9-12
Sentence Frames/Sentence Starters Author X contradicts herself. At the same time that she argues __________, she also implies __________. She argues __________, and I agree because __________. Her argument that __________ is supported by new research showing that __________. X insists, “__________.” As the prominent philosopher X puts it, “__________.” In her book, Book Title, X maintains that __________. X complicates matters further when she writes that __________. 9-12
K-12 Communication Starters
Resources for Academic Language
Academic Language Infographic
Cultivating Effective Reading Habits December 10, 2014 Close Analytic Reading integrates and further develops many of the elements that are needed to support each student in meeting the standards. This K-12 professional development focuses on practicing essential literacy components through close reading instruction. December 10, :00-4:00 (NC Education Building, Raleigh - Room 150) Free registration! Lunch, substitutes, and travel expenses are not covered. To register: https://www.eventbrite.com/e/cultivating-effective-literacy-habits- practicing-within-the-framework-of-close-reading-tickets (Password: instruction)
Contact Information Julie Joslin, Ed.D. Section Chief English Language Arts Anna Lea Frost, M.Ed. 6-8 English Language Arts Consultant Lisa McIntosh, MSA K-5 English Language Arts Consultant Angie Stephenson, M.Ed English Language Arts Consultant Kristi Day, M.Ed. K-5 English Language Arts Consultant