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Formulas and Functions

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Type Data Into Spreadsheet ◦Open Excel ◦Create Blank Workbook ◦Type data shown as in example ◦ To get 2 lines in a cell ◦Type Hours ◦Press Alt and Enter Key ◦Type Worked and press Enter ◦Resize columns ◦Drag between A and B or Double Click between A and B for Best Fit ◦(This is fictional – we don’t really get paid)

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Enter Gross Pay Formula Gross Pay will be Hours Worked * Hourly Rate ◦Click in cell E4 ◦Type = ◦The equals key always tells Excel that a formula is coming. Otherwise, Excel thinks it is just text ◦Click on C4 ◦Type * ◦Click on cell D4 ◦Click on check in formula bar ◦Results will display in cell E4. Formula will display in formula bar

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Order of Operations Excel follows the mathematical order of operations Do things in P arentheses First. Example: ◦6 × (5 + 3) = 6 × 8 = 48 E xponents (Powers, Roots) before Multiply, Divide, Add or Subtract. Example: ◦5 × 2 2 = 5 × 4 = 20 M ultiply or D ivide before you A dd or S ubtract. Example: ◦2 + 5 × 3 = = 17 Otherwise just go left to right. Example: ◦30 ÷ 5 × 3 = 6 × 3 = 18 You can remember by saying " P lease E xcuse M y D ear A unt S ally".

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Enter Federal Tax Formula ◦Note that this is not an actual formula that you would use. You would learn in accounting exactly how to figure federal tax based on the employee’s W-4 form. We are just going to estimate this to see how we type in formulas. ◦Formula will be.23* (Gross Pay – Dependents * 24.32). Remember that it will perform calculation inside parenthesis first. It will multiply by dependents BEFORE it subtracts from Gross Pay. Here is how we actually enter that: ◦Formula will actually be =.23*(E4-B4*24.32) ◦Here is how to do that step by step ◦With cell F4 selected, type =.23*( ◦Click cell E4 ◦Type – ◦Click cell B4 ◦Type *24.32) ◦Click check box on formula bar

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Enter FICA Formula ◦Formula will be.0765 * Gross Pay ◦Formula will actually be =.0765*E4 ◦Here is how to do that step by step ◦Click on cell G4 ◦Type =.0765* ◦Click on cell E4 ◦Click on check box in formula bar

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Enter Net Pay Formula ◦Formula will be Gross Pay – (Federal Tax + FICA) ◦Actual formula will be =E4-(F4+G4) ◦Here is how to do that step by step ◦Click on cell H4 ◦Type = ◦Click on cell E4 ◦Type – ( ◦Click on cell F4 ◦Type + ◦Click on G4 ◦Type ) ◦Click on check box on formula bar

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Copy Formulas Using Fill Handle ◦Select cells E4 through H4 ◦Fill down by clicking on the small green square in corner of H4 (fill handle) and dragging down through H7

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Determine Total for Hours Worked ◦Click on cell C8 ◦Click arrow beside AutoSum button on Home / Editing ◦Choose Sum ◦Excel automatically selects numbers it finds above that formula. If it finds no numbers above then it selects numbers to the left of that formula. If what Excel selects is not correct, then select the range of cells yourself. ◦Click on check on formula bar

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Fill Totals Across ◦Fill totals across by clicking on green square in lower corner of cell C8 and dragging across through Net Pay ◦We don’t need totals for Hourly Pay Rate, so delete that total

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Determine Highest Numbers ◦Click on C9 ◦Click on Auto Sum arrow and choose Max ◦Notice that Excel will automatically select all numbers above C9. We do not want the totals (C8) included, so use the mouse to select C4-C7 ◦Click on check in formula bar to record

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Determine Lowest Numbers ◦Click on C10 ◦Click on Auto Sum arrow and choose Min ◦Notice that Excel will automatically select all numbers above C10. We do not want the totals (C8) or Highest (C9) included, so use the mouse to select C4-C7 ◦Click on check in formula bar to record

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Determine Averages ◦Click on C11 ◦Click on Auto Sum arrow and choose Avgerage ◦Notice that Excel will automatically select all numbers above C11. We do not want the Totals (C8) or Highest (C9) or Lowest (C10) included, so use the mouse to select C4-C7 ◦Click on check in formula bar to record

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Fill Three Formulas Across ◦Select the 3 formulas (cells C9, C10, C11) ◦Fill the 3 formulas across by clicking on green square in lower corner of cell C11 and dragging across through Net Pay

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More Built-in Functions Click on the Fx on the Formula Bar to see many, many more functions that you can use like we did with the Sum, Min, Max, Average: Or – use the Formula ribbon to see them easier by category in the Function Library

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Formatting the Worksheet The worksheet has all of the formulas done now. We just need to make it look better. That is called formatting. In the following slides, we will be: ◦Choosing a workbook theme ◦Formatting the title and subtitle ◦Formatting the column titles ◦Formatting the data (dates and numbers) ◦Choosing cell styles ◦Resizing column widths and row heights

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Choosing a Theme ◦Click on the Page Layout tab ◦Click Themes button ◦Choose a theme – I have chosen Slice

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Format Title and Subtitle ◦Merge and Center Title and Subtitle ◦Select A1 – I1 ◦Click on Home tab / Merge and Center ◦Select A2 – I2 ◦Click on Home / Merge and Center ◦Apply Title cell style to both ◦Select the title and subtitle you just merged and centered ◦Click on Cell Styles button and choose Title cell style ◦Choose Background color (Fill Color) and apply Border to both ◦With the title and subtitle selected, click on the Fill Color icon (looks like a paint bucket) and choose a color. I chose light turquoise, background 2 ◦With the title and subtitle selected click on the Borders and choose Thick Box Border

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Apply Cell Styles ◦Select the column titles (cells A3 – I3) ◦Click on Styles and choose Heading 3 ◦Select the totals (cells A8 – I8) ◦Click on Styles and choose Total ◦Select Highest, Lowest, Average numbers (cells A9 – I11) ◦Click on Styles and choose 60%-Accent 1

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Format Dates and Center Dependents ◦Select the Hire Dates (cells I4 – I7) ◦Click on the Format Cells dialog box to get more detailed options ◦Choose Date. It not show your specific dates– but will show an example with different ways to display any date. It will keep your own. I chose the 03/12/12 shown on my Format Cells dialog box. Yours may be different, but will show same format. Choose OK ◦Select the Dependents (cells C4- C7). Click on the Center alignment

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Apply Number Formatting ◦Select cells D4 – H4 ◦Choose Accounting Number format (the $ icon) ◦Select cells E8 – H8 ◦Choose Accounting Number format ◦Choose D5 – H7 ◦Choose Comma format (the, icon) ◦Select D9 – H11 ◦Choose Currency format. You will have to find that from the Format Cells Dialog Box or from the drop down arrow there in that group. This will make the $ float next to the number. ◦Select the Hours Worked numbers (cells C4 – C11) ◦Click on the increase and decrease decimals icons until you have 2 decimals showing. ◦Note that you may see ### in some cells. That means the column is not wide enough to display everything. We learn on the next slide how to fix that.

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Change Column Width and Row Height ◦Notice on my example that not everything displays in all of the columns. You can drag each column a little wider or do a best fit on all by selecting them and double clicking between any two column letters ◦Change the row height for row 3 to 40. Right click on the row 3 on the left of the screen. Choose Row Height and type 40. You could also drag it to that height. ◦Change the row height for row 9 to 30.

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Conditional Formatting Let’s make Excel change the format for any cells where anyone has worked over 80 hours. Here is how to do that: ◦Select the hours worked (cells C4 – C7) ◦Click on Conditional Formatting / New Rule ◦Click on Format Only Cells That Contain ◦Choose Cell Value - greater than - 80 ◦Click on Format ◦Change the formatting to whatever you want for when that occurs. I chose Fill color with one of the dark blues and font color with white. ◦You will see Joseph’s now in white font on blue fill. If you change Sue’s to 85, her’s will change to dark blue and white also.

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Finished Worksheet

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