Presentation on theme: "In your own words describe why its better to describe the movement of electrons as an electron cloud rather than orbitals. How do you excite an electron?"— Presentation transcript:
In your own words describe why its better to describe the movement of electrons as an electron cloud rather than orbitals. How do you excite an electron?
Background Neils Bohr –Danish Physicist –Proposed a “planetary” model of the atom –Theorized that travel in orbits around the nucleus
Electrons in Orbit? Bohr suggested that electrons “jump” between energy levels (orbits) When an atom absorbs or gives off energy, the electron jumps to a higher or lower orbit. –It absorbs energy as it moves up to a higher orbit –It gives off energy as it moves down to a lower orbit This energy is given off as heat or light This energy given off travels in the form of waves Also called an emission of an photon
E5 E4 E3 E2 E1 + E – 0.85 E – 01.51 E – 3.40 E – 13.60 E – 0.54
E5 E4 E3 E2 E -0.85 E -1.51 E -3.40 E1 E -13.60 + To calculate the amount of energy between energy levels: Just subtract the initial energy state from the final. E5 to E1: _-.54______ - _-13.6___ = 13.06 E3 to E1: _-1.51__- _-13.60___= 12.09 E4 to E2: _-.85_-__-3.40__= 2.55 E5 to E2: _-0.54__-_-3.40__= 2.86 E – 0.54 434mn 410mn 656mn 486mn _________________________________ 400 500600700
E5 E4 E3 E1 E -0.85 E -1.51 E -3.40 E -13.60 + E – 0.54 434mn 410mn 656mn 486mn _________________________________ 400 500600700 E2
The Electromagnetic Spectrum You actually know more about it than you may think! The electromagnetic spectrum (EM) is just a name that scientists give all the different types of radiation when they want to talk about them as a group. Radiation is energy that travels and spreads out as it goes –v–visible light that comes from a lamp in your house –r–radio waves that come from a radio station Hotter, more energetic objects and events create higher energy radiation than cool objects.
Wavelength is the distance from crest to crest of a wave The frequency of a wave is the number of waves that pass a given point one second
Electron Energy The longer the wavelength the lower frequency The shorter the wavelength the higher the frequency
The Electromagnetic Spectrum Radio: –the same kind of energy that radio stations emit into the air –also emitted by stars and gases in space Helps astronomers learn what they are made of. Microwaves: –They will cook your popcorn in just a few minutes! –Microwaves in space are used by astronomers to learn about the structure of nearby galaxies, our own Milky Way!
Infrared: –Our skin emits infrared light –In space, Infrared light maps the dust between stars
The Electromagnetic Spectrum Visible Light: –This is the only section of the EM that can be seen by our eyes. –Visible radiation is emitted by everything from fireflies to light bulbs to stars... also by fast- moving particles hitting other particles.
The Electromagnetic Spectrum Ultraviolet: –The Sun is a source of ultraviolet (or UV) radiation –Stars and other "hot" objects in space emit UV radiation. X-rays: Your doctor uses them to look at your bones and your dentist to look at your teeth. Hot gases in the Universe also emit X-rays.
Gamma Rays: –Radioactive materials (some natural and others made by man in things like nuclear power plants) can emit gamma-rays. –Big particle accelerators that scientists use to help them understand what matter is made of can sometimes generate gamma-rays.