Figure 15-1. Temperature-moisture regimes of terrestrial biomes. Boundaries are not distinct, and can vary with soil type, maritime effects, etc. Fire can alter the boundary between woodlands and grasslands or savannah. (Based on Whittaker, 1975.) Arctic-Alpine Cold temperate Warm temperate Tropical Rainforest Tropical seasonal forest Temperate forest Temperate rainforest Woodland Savanna Thorn scrub Woodland Grassland Shrubland Desert Taiga Tundra etc. Precipitation Temperature
Figure 15-2. The three horizons of soil. ‘ C ’ Horizon: ‘ B ’ Horizon: ‘ A ’ Horizon: ‘ O ’ Horizon: High organic content High microbial colonization Low organic content Fewer microbes Low organic Virtually sterile Litter and detritus Capillary Fringe Groundwater Zone Vadose Zone Soils
Figure 15-10. Planktonic crustaceans: (a) the cladoceran Daphnia, (b) the copepod Cyclops, and (c) the ostracod Cipridopsis. (b)(a)(c)
Figure 15-11. Other invertebrates. (1) A hydrachnid, or water mite, (2) A water spider, (3) A gasterotrich, Chaetonotus, (4) A coelenterate, Hydra, (5) A tardigrade, Macrobiotus, (6) A bryozoan, Plumatella, (7), A bristle worm, Nais, (8) A sewage worm, Tubifex, (9) A leech, Clepsine, (10) A flatworm, Planaria, (11) A colonial rotifer, Conochilus, (12) A nematode worm, (13) A freshwater sponge, (14) Gommules and spicules from the sponge. [From Standard Methods 12th ed., 1965.]
Figure 15-13. Zoobenthos of the profundal zone. [from Horne & Goldman]
Figure 15-14. A typical algal succession. Based on Horne & Goldman
Figure 15-15. Energy food web for a managed lake. The values represent kilocalories per square meter per year. [Based on Horne and Goldman] WaterAir or Land Phytoplankton P H C1C1 C 1 or C 2 C3C3 C 3 or C 4 Adult insects emerge into air Chironomid larvae (partially benthic) 730,000 7400 900 1000 Trophic Level Sunfish Lepomis Chaoborus larvae (predatory insect) Adult insects emerge into air Zooplankton Humans Bass Terrestrial Insects (grasshoppers, worms) 3 200 66 6 30 24 4 3
Figure 15-16. Carbon cycle in a lake during the summer. Values indicate grams carbon per square meter per day, ignoring respiration and cannibalism. [Based on Horne and Goldman] Phytoplankton Cladocerans Rotifers Copepods Fish Dissolved Organic Carbon 508 4 Ciliates 1 17 16 168 From loop 5 54 4 7 50 6 Heterotrophic Microbial Loop Conventional Autotrophic/Heterotrophic Food Chain Flagellates 60 Bacteria
Figure 15-17.Allochthonous food web with functional groups. [Based on Horne and Goldman.] Large allochthonous input (leaves, seeds, etc.) Dissolved organic allochthonous input Light energy and nutrient input Micro- and macrophyte autochthonous input Bacteria and fungi Predators Bacteria and fungi Shredders (crayfish, stoneflies) Filter feeders (midge larvae, clams) Scrapers and Grazers (snails, caddisflies) Coarse Particulate Organic Matter (CPOM) Fine Particulate Organic Matter (FPOM)
River Order Concept Mouth 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 1 2 River Order = Number of branches Counting from the headwaters Incrementing whenever a tributary of equal count is encountered Headwaters
Figure. 15-18. The river continuum concept. [Based on Horne and Goldman] Shredders Grazers Predators Collectors Leaves, twigs Fragments Refractory particles & dissolved organics 1.5m 10m 60m (River width) 700m
Figure 15-20. Changes in algal and cyanobacter distribution in terms of volume of cells per liter, as a function of trophic state of the lake. [Based on Connell and Miller] Various Cyanobacter Chrysophyceae Chlorophyceae (green algae) Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) Cryptophyceae Dinoflagellates ULTRAOLIGOTROPHIC (mm 3 /L biomass) HYPEREUTROPHIC 84 3 21 76 51110 9 RELATIVE ABUNDANCE (%)
O2O2 Lake turnover Stratification Fe(III)PO 4 Fe +2 PO 4 3- Fe +3 Epilimnion Hypolimnion PO 4 3- Fe(II)S SO 4 2- Fe +2 + + PO 4 3- + Fe +2 S 2- + Fe(II)S Oxic sediment Anoxic sediment Figure 15-19. Phosphorus interaction with sulfur and iron in lakes. (Based on Horne and Goldman) PO 4 3-
Figure 15-21. Changes downstream from a point of organic loading such as a sewage discharge. From Connell & Miller
Figure 15-22. Zonation of vegetation in a freshwater marsh. [From M&G]
Figure 15-23. Zones of a southeastern U.S. riparian wetland. [From M&G] I Open water Continuously flooded 100 II Swamp Intermittently exposed ~100 III Lower hardwood wetlands Semipermanently flooded 51-100 >25 IV Medium hard- wood wetlands Seasonally flooded 51-100 12.5-25 V Higher hard- wood wetlands Temporarily flooded 11-50 2-12.5 VI Transition to uplands Intermittently flooded 1-10 <2 Aquatic ecosystem Bottomland hardwood ecosystem Floodplain Zone Name Flood frequency (% of years) Flood duration (% of growing season)
Figure 15-24. The "typical tropical structure" of the water column. [Based on Mann & Lazier]
Figure 15-25. Productivity and respiration versus depth, as would be measured using light-bottle / dark-bottle method. [Based on Garrison] Depth (m) 0 50 100 Respiration rate Compensation point (marks bottom of euphotic zone) Net productivity Maximum productivity Productivity inhibited by intense light at surface Photosynthesis rate
Figure 15-26. Light-bottle/dark-bottle method of measuring primary and net productivity versus depth. At the compensation point the dissolved oxygen concentration in the light bottle will not change. Above that point photosynthesis exceeds respiration and D.O. will increase. Below, it will decrease. [Based on Garrison] Oxygen consumption in light (transparent) bottles includes the sum of respiration and photosynthesis. Oxygen consumption in dark (opaque) bottles includes the respiration only. Photosynthesis can be computed as the difference between the two.
Figure 15-27. Global distribution of primary productivity in the world's oceans. [From Barnes & Mann]
Figure 15-28. Adaptation of two species of the copepod genus Oithona to viscosity differences due to temperature. (a) a warm-water species; (b) a cold-water species. [From Garrison]
Figure 15-29. Food web of a 1200 km 2 coral reef with a biomass budget. B is average annual biomass in kg/km2 P is the production in kg/m2/yr. [Based on Barnes & Mann, which is based on Grigg, R.W., Polovina, J.J. & Atkinson, M.J.] Seabirds B = 15 P = 81 Benthic heterotrophs B = 1.7e5 P = 5.1e5 Zooplankton B = 899 P = 3.6e6 Small pelagics B = 1836 P = 2020 Lobsters and Crabs B = 1348 P = 701 Bottom fish B = 94 P = 30 Monk seals B = 63 P = 189 Reef fish B = 13966 P = 20949 Sharks, jacks, scombrids B = 536P = 192 Phytoplankton B = 3.3e3 P = 2.3e5 Benthic algae B = 2.0e5 P = 2.5e6 Green turtles B = 15 P = 12 47 2.3e52.3e42.4e63.3e4 1.3e4 2.3e4 1.1e46.1e487 2 1.6e4 826 191432 243 847 2500 219 150 57 4.3e5
Figure 15-30. Competition between P. aurelia and P. caudatum. Data from Gause, G.F. 1934. Solid diamonds show growth of each paramecium species in the absence of the other. Open circles show growth in mixed culture. The curves are for equation [14-28] fitted to the data by eye. For P.a. r = 1.5 d-1, K=100 volume units, and b=1.5. For P.c. r=1.0 d-1, K=60, and b=0.8.
Figure 15-31. Effect of substrate concentration on competition. m for species A and B are 0.2 and 0.12 d -1, respectively, and K S for species A and B are 50 and 5.0 mg/L, respectively.
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