# Music-Inspired Optimization Algorithm Harmony Search

## Presentation on theme: "Music-Inspired Optimization Algorithm Harmony Search"— Presentation transcript:

Music-Inspired Optimization Algorithm Harmony Search
Zong Woo Geem

What is Optimization? Procedure to make a system or design as effective, especially the mathematical techniques involved. ( Meta-Heuristics) Finding Best Solution Minimal Cost (Design) Minimal Error (Parameter Calibration) Maximal Profit (Management) Maximal Utility (Economics)

Types of Optimization Algorithms
Mathematical Algorithms Simplex (LP), BFGS (NLP), B&B (DP) Drawbacks of Mathematical Algorithms LP: Too Ideal (All Linear Functions) NLP: Not for Discrete Var. or Complex Fn., Feasible Initial Vector, Local Optima DP: Exhaustive Enumeration, Wrong Direction Meta-Heuristic Algorithms GA, SA, TS, ACO, PSO, …

Existing Nature-Inspired Algorithms

Existing Meta-Heuristic Algorithms
Definition & Synonym Evolutionary, Soft computing, Stochastic Evolutionary Algorithm (Evolution) Simulated Annealing (Metal Annealing) Tabu Search (Animal’s Brain) Ant Algorithm (Ant’s Behavior) Particle Swarm (Flock Migration) Mimicking Natural or Behavioral Phenomena → Music Performance

Algorithm from Music Phenomenon

Algorithm from Jazz Improvisation

Analogy = Do = Mi = Sol = 100mm = 300mm = 500mm f (100, 300, 500)
Mi, Fa, Sol Do, Re, Mi Sol, La, Si = Do = Mi = Sol 100mm 200mm 300mm 300mm 400mm 500mm 500mm 600mm 700mm f (100, 300, 500) = 100mm = 300mm = 500mm

Comparison Factors Musical Inst. → Decision Var.
Pitch Range → Value Range Harmony → Solution Vector Aesthetics → Objective Function Practice → Iteration Experience → Memory Matrix

An Algorithm which Keeps Better Harmonies!

Procedures of Harmony Search
Step 0. Prepare a Harmony Memory. Step 1. Improvise a new Harmony with Experience (HM) or Randomness (rather than Gradient). Step 2. If the new Harmony is better, include it in Harmony Memory. Step 3. Repeat Step 1 and Step 2.

HS Operators Random Playing Memory Considering Pitch Adjusting
Ensemble Considering Dissonance Considering

Random Playing x ∈ Playable Range = {E3, F3, G3, A3, B3, C4, D4, E4, F4, G4, A4, B4, C5, D6, E6, F6, G6, A6, B6, C7}

Memory Considering x ∈ Preferred Note = {C4, E4, C4, G4, C4}

Pitch Adjusting x+ or x-, x ∈ Preferred Note

Ensemble Considering

Rule Violation (Parallel 5th)

Stochastic Partial Derivative of HS

Parameter-Setting-Free HS
Overcoming Existing Drawbacks Suitable for Discrete Variables; No need for Gradient Information or Feasible Initial Vector; Better Chance to Find Global Optimum Drawbacks of Meta-Heuristic Algorithms Requirement of Algorithm Parameters

HS Applications for Benchmark Problems

Six-Hump Camel Back Function
f*( , ) = (Exact) f ( , ) = (HS)

Multi-Modal Function

Artificial Neural Network - XOR
T F Bias Sum of Errors in BP = 0.010 Sum of Errors in HS = 0.003

HS Applications for Real-World Problems

Truss Structure Design
GA = , HS =

School Bus Routing Problem
Depot School 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20 Min C1 (# of Buses) + C2 (Travel Time) s.t. Time Window & Bus Capacity GA = \$409,597, HS = \$399,870

Water Distribution Network Design
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 15 14 11 18 12 13 17 10 19 16 20 21 MP: \$78.09M GA: \$38.64M (800,000) SA: \$38.80M (Unknown) TS: \$37.13M (Unknown) Ant: \$38.64M (7,014) SFLA: \$38.80M (21,569) CE: \$38.64M (70,000) HS: \$38.64M (3,373) 5 times out of 20 runs

Large-Scale Water Network Design
Huge Variables (454 Pipes) GA = 2.3M Euro HS = 1.9M Euro

Multiple Dam Operation
Max. Benefit (Power, Irrigation) GA = 400.5, HS = (GO)

Hydrologic Parameter Calibration
Wedge Storage = K x (I - O) Prism Storage = K O O I Mathematical = , GA = 38.23, HS = 36.78

Ecological Conservation
With 24 Sites, SA = 425, HS = 426

Heat Exchanger Design

Satellite Heat Pipe Design

Satellite Heat Pipe Design
BFGS HS Minimize Mass Maximize Conductance BFGS: Mass =25.9 kg, Conductance = W/K HS: Mass = 25.8 kg, Conductance = W/K

Oceanic Oil Structure Mooring

Internet Routing

Music Composition – Medieval Organum
Interval Rank Fourth 1 Fifth 2 Unison 3 Octave Third 4 Sixth Second 5 Seventh

Sudoku Puzzle 6 1 4 2 5 3 8 7 9

Web-Based Parameter Calibration
RMSE: (Powell), (GA), (HS)

All that Jazz Robotics Internet Searching Visual Tracking
Management Science Project Scheduling Medical Physics Bioinformatics Et Cetera

Wikipedia (Web Encyclopedia)

Books on Harmony Search

Visitor Clustering (As of Mar. 2009)

Growth in Major Literature in tantum ut si priora tua fuerint parva, et novissima tua multiplicentur nimis. Iob 8:7

Question for Harmony Search?
Contact to Zong Woo Geem