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EMERGY & ENERGY SYSTEMS Session 3 Short Course for ECO Interns, EPA and Partners.

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Presentation on theme: "EMERGY & ENERGY SYSTEMS Session 3 Short Course for ECO Interns, EPA and Partners."— Presentation transcript:

1 EMERGY & ENERGY SYSTEMS Session 3 Short Course for ECO Interns, EPA and Partners

2 Introduction to Emergy Emergy definitions and concepts Fundamental emergy budgets and human interfaces

3 Emergy Definitions Emergy –Available energy of one kind previously required directly or indirectly to make a product or service (emjoule) Solar emergy –All energy beginning with solar inputs to the environment (solar emjoule or sej)

4 Review: Concentration 1E10 5E5 5E5 1E6 1E6 1E6 2E6 5E5 5E5 2E6 1E6 J/t 5E4 3E4 2E4 1E3 9.99E99.9E69.9E4 1E10 sej/t Emergy Energy transformed within system Energy dispersed from system

5 Review: Concentration Energy Transfers 1E101E71E51E3 1E10 sej/t J/t Sun 1E10 1E7 1E5 1E3 1 1E3 1E5 1E7 Energy Transfers Joules/time Transformity Solar emJoules/Joule

6 Emergy Definitions: Unit Emergy Transformity –Emergy per unit available energy, solar emjoules per joule (sej/J) Specific emergy –Emergy per unit material, solar emjoules per gram (sej/g) Emergy values for specific items 100 sej 10J 100 sej 1g T = 10 sej/J SE = 100 sej/g

7 Emergy Definitions Empower –Emergy flow per unit time –Solar emjoules per year (sej/yr)

8 Emergy Concepts No loss along paths –Emergy is cumulative Maintenance –Accumulation stops when entity is made Different uses for different data –Input/output vs. internal processes Internal Input/output 500 sej 50J 100 sej 50J 800 sej 20J 1420 sej 15J 120 sej 5J 300 sej 10J 500 sej 10J 20 sej 5J 620 sej 800 sej 1420 sej

9 Emergy Calculations Energy versus emergy Multiply energy by unit emergy ratios Unit emergy ratios used here –Environmental average: 2.61E4 sej/J –Purchased average: 5E5 sej/J 4.20E16 sej

10 Emergy Calculations Transformity –Use known unit emergy ratios for inputs –Divide total emergy inputs by output energy or mass 4.2E16 sej = 9.25 E5 sej/J 4.54E10 J 4.2E16 sej

11 Main Energy Sources Solar, deep planet heat, tides Biosphere Air SolarInsolation DeepEarthHeat Ocean Crust Tide Global emergy flow E24 sej/yr E24 solar emjoules/year

12 Calculating other earth budgets Unit Emergy Ratios of Coupled Global Energy Flows Item Solar Emergy Sej/yr Energy or Material Flux per year Unit Emergy Ratio Total global flow15.83 E24 sej/yr Latent heat1.26 E24 J 1.3 E1sej/J Wind circulation6.45 E21 J 2.45 E3 sej/J Geo. Pot. Precipitation (land)1.09 E20 g 1.5 E5 sej/g Chem. Pot. Precipitation (land)5.19 E20 J 3.1 E4 sej/J Average river flow3.96 E19 g 4.0 E5 sej/g Average river geopotential3.40 E20 J 4.7 E4 sej/J Average river chemical potential1.96 E20 J 8.1 E4 sej/J Average waves at shore3.10 E20 J 5.1 E4 sej/J Average ocean current8.60 E17 J 1.8 E7 sej/J

13 Coupled Sources Avoid double counting PlanetEarth Ocean & Atmosphere LandArea DeepHeat Tide LocalAnalysis Sun Sun Wind Wind Sun Rain Rain Earth cycle

14 Environment-Economic Interface Sun,Tide,EarthHeat Environment Reserves Recycle Environment EconomicUse Main Economy, Consumers GNP Interface Global System

15 Important Input Categories Sun Wind River Rain Soil Goods & Services Fuel Fertilizer Coal Renewable Non-renewable Purchased

16 3-Arm Diagram Renewable + Non-renewable Purchased Yield = Sum of all SystemName Variation Renewable Non-renewable Purchased

17 Services versus Goods Inherent value in an item, not money paid Paying for services to retrieve that item Sun Wind River Rain Soil Forest Harvest Fuel Fertilizer Services Market

18 Evaluating Materials Industrial concentration Goods Furniture Sun Wind River Rain Soil Forest Harvest Fuel Fertilizer Services Market Electricity

19 Emergy and $$ Value for Nature Emergy to dollar ratio: emdollars National economic productivity tied to total emergy consumption and flow Sources EnvironmentalProduction Non-renewables EconomicProduction Macroeconomic Overview Assets Imports GNP Fuels Goods & Services Exports $ $

20 Emdollars Changes all the time Different for every nation Sources EnvironmentalProduction Non-renewables EconomicProduction Macroeconomic Overview Assets Imports GNP Fuels Goods & Services Exports $ $

21 Exercise

22 One way to answer

23

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