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1 Chairs: Rolf Frischknecht, Olivier Jolliet, Bruce Vigon
SETAC Glasgow 2013 Scoping workshop May 2013, SETAC-Glasgow Global guidance on environmental life cycle impact assessment indicators Flagship project of the 3rd phase of the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative Chairs: Rolf Frischknecht, Olivier Jolliet, Bruce Vigon

2 Presentation content 1. Flagship project and workshop objectives
2. Evaluation of impact categories (a,b,c,d,e,f) 3. Outcome of the plenary discussion 4. Key consensus issues & preliminary workplans Selection criteria Global impact categories Human health emission related impact categories Biodiversity emission related impact categories Resource related impacts categories Cross-cutting, normalisation and weighting

3 Schedule 16 May

4 Schedule 17 May

5 Rolf Frischknecht, Olivier Jolliet
SETAC Glasgow 2013 1. Presentation of flagship project and of scoping workshop objectives Flagship project of the 3rd phase of the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative Rolf Frischknecht, Olivier Jolliet

6 Phase 3: Mission, Vision, Objectives and Programmes
Vision: A world where life cycle approaches are mainstreamed Mission: Enable the global use of credible life cycle knowledge for more sustainable societies. 5. Communication & stakeholder outreach Methodologies Objective 1: Enhance the global consensus and relevance of existing and emerging life cycle methodologies and data management Objective 2: Expand capability worldwide to apply and to improve life cycle approaches; making them operational for organisations 3. Product sustainability information 4. Capability Development & implementation 2. Data Objective 3: Be the global voice of the Life Cycle community to influence and partner with stakeholders through broad communication of current life cycle knowledge

7 Focus on Phase 3 Flagship Projects: Urgency & Relevance
1. Methodologies 4. Capability Development & implementation Integrating LCC, S-LCA, E-LCA and linking with CSR Key environmental LCIA indicators based on mature environmental approaches LCA in organizations Global capability development 2. Data 5. Communication & stakeholder outreach Global database management network & training a. Communication strategy b. LC Platform: clearing house and social media 3. Product sustainability information Product sustainability information meta guidance Knowledge mining See Annex 3 for the complete projects list All projects in bold are flagship ones

8 Motivation Global supply chains of products and multinational companies ask for consensual set of environmental indicators Life Cycle Initiative has long-term experience with consensus-finding processes USETox: toxicity related indicators Global guidance on LCA database development

9 Goal of the flagship project
Establish a consensual set of environmental impact category indicators For use in Environmental product information schemes Corporate reporting of multinational companies International and/or national environmental policies Common LCA work commissioned by governments and companies

10 General outline Task 1: Scoping phase (2012-2013)
Task 2: Consensus finding, part 1 ( ) Task 3: Consensus finding, part 2 ( ) Task 4: Dissemination (2018)

11 Task 1: Scoping phase Establish short list of 3 to 4 impact category indicators and themes of first and of second priority LCIA workshop «Towards development of a global scale LCIA method», Nov. 23, 2012, Yokohama, Japan LCIA workshop «LCIA methods», May 16-17, 2013, Glasgow

12 Scoping phase, outcome 2 sets of 3 to 4 indicators suited for consensus, to be worked on in 1st and 2nd phase of consensus finding Specific workplan for each individual indicator List of experts to be involved Selection criteria of indicators within each topic selected

13 Tasks 2&3: Consensus finding
Two subsequent phases Consensus finding activities covering 3 to 4 indicators/themes per phase Pellston type workshop at the end of each two years period

14 Task 4: Dissemination Establish training material
Organise and hold 5 workshops worldwide

15 2. Evaluation of impact categories
SETAC Glasgow 2013 2. Evaluation of impact categories Olivier Jolliet, Rolf Frischknecht, Brad Ridoutt, Bruce Vigon, Jane Bare, Thomas McKone, Manuele Margni, Cecile Bulle

16 2a. Criteria for pre-selecting impact categories to start with
SETAC Glasgow 2013 2a. Criteria for pre-selecting impact categories to start with

17 Cross-cutting Criteria to pre-select impact categories to start from
Environmental relevance Importance to overall environmental impacts Scientific validity (how mature is the science; peer reviewed publications) Potential for consensus Stakeholder needs Applicability

18 2b. Global impact categories
SETAC Glasgow 2013 2b. Global impact categories Global warming Ozone depletion Ocean acidification

19 Environmental relevance: Global impact categories
Global warming high relevance Ozone depletion medium relevance since Montreal protocol successful N2O may also be relevant now Ocean acidification One of the 5 main drivers for biodiversity loss set in MEA. drop of pH of 0.1/decade due to CO2 Rockström et al., 2009 Nature Ridoutt and Pfister 2010 ES&T

20 Scientific validity: Impact category Publications and reliability
Accuracy Global warming High level work from IPCC Endpoint work in progress in LCIA field high at midpoint low at endpoint Ozone depletion Intensive research New factors for N2O Ocean acidification Dependent on CO2 only, may have a strong correlation medium

21 Potential for consensus & applicability: Human health emission related categories
Impact category Level of consensus Applicability Global warming GWP 100 widely use Carbon storage & Dynamic assessment high at midpoint lower at endpoint Ozone depletion ODP High New factors for N2O? Ocean acidification Still in progress highly correlated High kg CO2

22 Global impact categories
Start with global warming, addressing carbon storage Perhaps also Ozone depletion, less of a priority Ocean acidification highly relevant but may be in a second stage?

23 2c. Human health emission related impact categories
SETAC Glasgow 2013 2c. Human health emission related impact categories Respiratory inorganics Human toxicity Indoor air Photochemical ozone Ionizing radiation Noise

24 Environmental relevance: Human health Environmental burden of disease (Lim et al., 2013,Lancet)

25 Scientific validity: Human health emission related categories
Impact category Publications and reliability Accuracy Respiratory inorganics Hofstetter, 1998, Van Zelm et al (Atm Env), ES&T: Humbert et al., 2011, Apte et al, 2012 ES&T Multiple publications, well defined framework and intake fractions epidemiology based dose-response for CVD and lung cancer and severities Factor 10 Human toxicity Rosenbaum 2008&2011, Huijbregts et al, Henderson 2011, special edition Int J LCAPennington et al, Multiple publications, well defined framework, multiple pathways. Screening purposes Factor 100 to 1000 compared to 1012 Indoor air Hellweg et al, 2009, Wenger et al, 2012, Weschler and Nazaroff, 2008, Bennett et al, 20xx Several publications, indoor iF for homes and offices can be combined with exisitng consensus-based USEtox effect factors <factor 10 on iF Photochemical ozone Highly non linear, difficult to reflect in the LCA framework high relative VOC impacts Occupational health and risk of injury injury statistics available at industry sector level, punctual work on occupational health TBD Ionizing radiation Well defined human impacts, multiple pathways Factor 10 to 50 Noise Several methods for traffic related impacts + emerging method on general noise

26 Potential for consensus & applicability: Human health emission related categories
Impact category Consensus efforts Level of concordan. Applic-ability Respiratory inorganics Humbert et al,2011 Consensus on framework and intake fractions (TF4 phase I working group) High Good invent-ory data availability Human toxicity USEtox publications Multiple publications, well defined framework, multiple pathways. Screening purposes about 1500 substances Indoor air Hellweg et al, 2009 SETAC & Life Cycle Initiative working group with framework in ES&T - compatible / being integrated in USEtox Little inventory data Photochemical ozone Two approaches commonly used at midpoint POCPs and MIRR most VOCs Occupational & injury risks Only few methods based on injury statistics or concentrations at workplace TBD Ionizing radiation Frischknecht ,2000 Same method use across LCIA approaches Single method 26 radionu-clides (air, water, Sea) Noise No consensus efforts so far in LCIA Factors differ easy to link to Vehicle-km

27 Preliminary evaluation Human health related impact categories

28 Human health emission related categories: start with:
Respiratory inorganics (including indoor emissions) is a good candidate category for 1st phase, both in term of relevance and reliability/consensus and as a reference category for damage on human health Human toxicity, (including indoor emissions + ionizing radiation) potentially for 2nd phase building on USEtox

29 Additional points Human health related impact categories
Further work is needed on noise, risk of injuries, occupational health and effect of diet and physical activity for the LCI & LCIA context Water related impacts on human health: eventually in interaction with water footprint work

30 2d. Biodiversity emission related impact categories
SETAC Glasgow 2013 2d. Biodiversity emission related impact categories Acidification Eutrophication Ecotoxicity Ionizing radiation - ecotox impacts Invasive species

31 Environmental relevance: biodiversity
Acidification One of the 5 main drivers for biodiversity loss set in MEA. Terrestrial acidification relevant for temperate zone Aquatic very region specific Eutrophication Major relevance for agriculture related processes Ecotoxicity Impacts are limited in case of good practice . May be highly relevant in dev, countries Invasive species One of the 5 main drivers for biodiversity loss set in MEA Rockström et al., 2009 Nature Ridoutt and Pfister 2010 ES&T

32 Scientific validity: Biodiversity emission related categories
Impact category Publications and reliability Accuracy Acidification Terrestrial: Seppala et al 2006, Posch et al 2008; Aquatic: Struijs et al 2010, 2011 Multiple publications, Well defined framework for terrestrial acidification with complete pathway modeled up to endpoint. Aquatic acidification in progress. Good for temperate, less for tropical Freshwater Eutrophication Seppala et al 2006, Posch et al 2008, Van Zelm et al 2007, Roy et al 2012, Azevedo et al. 2013 Multiple publications, framework is well developed for freshwater eutrophication. New effect factors still to be tested. Medium Marine Eutrophication Framed, Generic Fate factor available + at country level. Effect factor in progress Measured data on hypoxia area TBD Ecotoxicity Rosenbaum 2008, Hauschild 2008, special edition of Int J of LCA, Huijbregts et al Aquatic ecotoxicity - data and methods well defined for fate and effect Terrestrial and marine much less developed Factor 100 to 1000 compared to 1012 Invasive species Still to be explored how to make the link to a functional unit, e.g. for shipping, ballast water, etc. Not ready

33 Potential for consensus & applicability: Biodiversity emission related categories
Impact category Consensus efforts Level of agreem. Applic-ability Acidification Multiple papers Consensus effort and method comparison (TF4) especially for terrestrial acidification. "True midpoint" with increase in H+ / pH Critical load vs increase in pH Good for terrestrial Medium/low aquatic Good Freshwater Eutrophication Relatively low number of methods available. No comparison performed recently. Freshwater fate of P relatively simple. Medium Midpoint yes Marine Eutrophication N-fate + marine eutrophication available, relatively good concordance. Effect factor in progress Good for fate not yet ready for effect yes when fully defined Ecotoxicity Henderson 2011 SETAC & Life Cycle Initiative working group with framework in ES&T - compatible / integrated in USEtox Limited inventory data Invasive species - not yet

34 Preliminary evaluation of impact categories Biodiversity related impact categories

35 Preliminary evaluation of biodiversity related impact categories
Terrestrial acidification is potentially a good candidate category for 1st phase, especially in term of potential for reliability/consensus. Contribute to frame other biodiversity related categories. Freshwater (mostly P-related) and Marine (mostly N-related) are very relevant, especially for agricultural related processes and WWTP emissions. May benefit from ongoing research may be more mature in two years  perhaps more adequate in a second stage

36 Additional points Ecotoxicity: in a second stage for aquatic ecotox building on USEtox consensus process. Further progress needed on terrestrial and marine ecotox Invasive species: to be framed for LCA

37 2e. Resource impact categories
SETAC Glasgow 2013 2e. Resource impact categories Biotic depletion Water use Land use Mineral resource Energy resources (Radioactive waste)

38 Environmental relevance Resource related impact categories
Biotic depletion Marine ecosystems: overfishing Water use Freshwater biodiversity loss Global water crisis/food security Land use Habitat change the major driver of terrestrial biodiversity loss Link to invasive species Minerals Planetary boundaries hard to quantify Energy resources Renewal rate vastly exceeded Rockström et al., 2009 Nature Ridoutt and Pfister 2010 ES&T

39 Scientific validity: Resource related impact categories
Impact category Publications and reliability Accuracy Biotic depletion Emanuelsson et al (overfishing) Impacts from biotic resource depletion generally excluded. Further research development needed. low Water use Kounina et al 2012 latest methods review. Focal point WULCA Impact pathways are well described in the broad sense (in terms of concepts), but gaps exist for some environmental mechanisms. Potential overlaps with other categories. Uncertainty is poorly understood. Regional and temporal factors of high importance Land use Initially Kollner 2007, ecological footprint, Mila i Canals 2007, Baitz Focal point today is UNEP/SETAC LCI project group: de Baan et al 2012; Mila i Canals et al. 2012, Brandao and Mila I Canals 2012, Saad et al. 2012, etc Various approaches relating to resource competition, biodiversity impacts, individual ecosystem services, soil quality impacts. Understanding of impact pathways increasing. Land occupation and transformation and iLUC considerations Mineral resources There are different approaches derived from very different concepts, such as decreased availability, future availability and effort needed, exergy/entropy Variable depending on concept Energy resources Boustead and Hancock 1978, Frischknecht et al 2007 Most approaches based on energy content in one way or the other high

40 Potential for consensus & applicability: Resource related categories
Impact category Consensus efforts Level of concordan. Applic-ability Biotic depletion Important environmental issue with regard to overfishing. Topic is very specific and LCIA approaches possibly too rare for harmonisation process Very low Mainly fisheries Water use WULCA Substantial use of WULCA framework. At the midpoint, most methods utilise a water scarcity index of some sort Moderate at midpoint Spatial and temporal dimensions important Land use Diversity of used frameworks Low Varies Mineral resources Concepts differ, frameworks differ, but significant correlations Energy resources Similar overall concepts used but major differences in some key aspects. Possible candidate for harmonisation Moderate General applicability

41 Preliminary evaluation of resource related impact categories

42 Resource related categories: Start with:
Energy resources: simple resource indicator might be a good candidate for next phase harmonization discuss whether water use at the midpoint is suitable (water availability/stress/scarcity indicator) might also be a candidate due to high level of stakeholder demand demonstrated by unique ISO standard.

43 Resource related categories - Additional points
Further work is needed on biotic depletion (re overfishing). Lots of ongoing development in water and land use (UNEP/SETAC project groups) Water and land use impacts overlap to a degree with each other and with other impact categories. Mineral resources require further framing of the issue to proceed harmonisation

44 2f. Cross-cutting issues and LCIA framework
SETAC Glasgow 2013 2f. Cross-cutting issues and LCIA framework Guidance on footprint The SETAC-UNEP LCIA framework

45 So many footprints…what do they mean?
Work environmental footprint Emission footprint Food to energy footprint Economic footprint Social footprint ecological footprint Grazing land footprint Job footprint Corruption footprint Environmental footprint Climate footprint water footprint CO2 footprint Online social footprint GHG footprint Financial footprint carbon footprint Forest footprint GWP footprint Water pollution footprint nitrogen footprint Land use footprint Water availability footprint Waste footprint Methane footprint Chemical footprint Water scarcity footprint Exergy footprint Biodiversity footprint Human rights footprint Water stress footprint Blue water footprint Human footprint Phosphorus footprint Energy footprint Green water footprint Fishing grounds footprint Wind energy footprint Nuclear energy footprint Crop land footprint Grey water footprint Renewable energy footprint Solar energy footprint Built-up land footprint Agricultural land footprint Fossil energy footprint Health footprint Land footprint Poverty footprint Water supply footprint

46 …guidance on defining and developing LCA-based footprints is needed
If our vision is “A world where life cycle approaches are mainstreamed”… …guidance on defining and developing LCA-based footprints is needed Footprints are the means of communicating LCA information to the mainstream: i.e. remote and non-technical audience Footprints not grounded in LCA are problematic: Environmental relevance? Double counting How to make sense of multiple footprints Results may contradict LCA Footprints are not just new names for existing impact category indicators Proposal: UNEP/SETAC LCI take a leading role in creating global guidance on LCA-based footprints: Universal footprint definition Differentiation from ordinary life cycle impact category indicators Guidance to support evolution of coherent footprint indicators in support of our vision Risks of not acting Reference: Ridoutt and Pfister 2013 Towards an integrated family of footprint indicators. Journal of Industrial Ecology DOI: /jiec.12026

47 Achieved: framework both at midpoint and damage
Midpoint categories Human toxicity Accidents Noise Oxidant creation Ozone depletion Global warming Acidification Nutrification Ecotoxicity Land use&habitat losses Species & organism dispersal Natural resources: - minerals energy water soil soil erosion soil salinisation & dessic. biotic resource use Damage categories Human health Morbidity Mortality Biotic natural environment Species and ecosystems Natural resources Man made abiotic & biotic Buildings & crops Abiotic natural Landscape LCI Results 1. LCI to midpoint characterization Higher precision lower relevance 3. Normalization and weighting Comparison to references Societal values 2. Midpoint - to damage Lower precision, but higher relevance Natural science with higher uncertainty

48 UNEP-SETAC LCIA framework Jolliet et al., 2003

49 ReCiPe – Human health area of protection

50 IMPACT World+ – Ecosystem quality area of protection

51 3. Outcomes of the plenary discussion
SETAC Glasgow 2013 3. Outcomes of the plenary discussion

52 Selection of impact categories
Category of high relevance such as global warming, respiratory inorganics, land use and water use are to be addressed in priority, to cover several of the main environmental effects Consensus on these can be reached by focusing first on selected pathways for which there is higher consensus, e.g. biodiversity impacts due to land occupation. Earlier consensus work in the initiative such as USEtox should be used as a starting point to also address human toxicity, ecotoxicity. Table 1 summarizes an initial working set of impact categories to address. The selected indicators are not meant to be exhaustive and could be possibly complemented in the future. The effort is complementary to a comprehensive assessment.

53 Resources / ecosystem services
Tentative list of selected impact categories and their relationship/relevance to endpoints (high***,intermediate**,lower* relevance. In red:endpoints to be represented in priority) Priority Impact category Human health Biodiversity Resources / ecosystem services 1 Global warming *** * Respiratory inorganics (incl. PM indoors) Land use (Focus on land occupation impacts on biodiversity) Water use (Starting with midpoint proxy) 2 Human toxicity (incl. indoor) ** Acidification, eutrophication and ecotoxicity starting with terrestrial acid. and freshwater eutr. Energy resources

54 Cross cutting issues Focus is to reach consensus in priority for midpoint indicators, positioning and relating these indicators within a consistent midpoint-endpoint framework, building on earlier LCIA consensus work in the Life Cycle Initiative. Working group in specific categories are therefore invited to also describe how midpoint indicators qualitatively or quantitatively relate to common and as far as possible consistent endpoints across categories as useful complementary information (integration). Interface between inventory and impact assessment indicators need to be analyzed, identifying possible short term solution and rules to link LCIA indicators to current main LCI databases and longer term data requirements Mitigation of impacts in one impact category can lead to impact reduction to several area of protection and co-benefits in other impact categories. It is intended to establish a guidance document on how to reach consensus, ensuring consistency across categories It is supported that the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative take a leading role in creating global guidance on LCA-based footprints. Footprint could also possibly be used to communicate results on indicators or groups of indicators

55 Work process The tentative list of impact categories and the rationales behind it will be validated with a larger stakeholder audience taking advantage of existing events or by teleconferences. Work on the second priority categories can start now, but the first Pellston workshop will be dedicated in priority to category 1. The WULCA group will serve as the core group to lead the work on water use, and therefore be also accountable to the flagship project as all working groups. The group is encouraged to produce proxy and partial indicators. Work on terrestrial acidification and freshwater & marine eutrophication can also start, even if it may be addressed in a second Pellston workshop. Integration cross cutting task will be carried out after intermediary review of year 1. A cross-cutting common case study will be set-up and used by each workgroup to test consistency across all impact categories

56 Main deliverable The working groups are expected to draft a white paper which is the main input to the Pellston workshops in 2015 and 2017 A midterm review will take place in 2014, probably on Thursday-Friday May 2014, in conjunction with the Basel SETAC-Europe congress.

57 Process and governance
Workgroup chairs are proposed to participate to meetings of the flagship steering committee An open process will be designed to enable working group participants to volunteer. All stakeholders are invited to suggest names of experts to involve in the work on selected categories. Domain experts to be identified and included early in the process and for midterm review The steering committee of the flagship project is approved by and reports to the International Life Cycle Board of the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative

58 Minority statements Consensus work on climate change is not needed because already established (ISO, WRI-WBCSD, IPCC). We will indeed build on these and concentrate on application to LCA From a Brazilian point of view radioactive wastes are missing in the list of priority issues Users are more applying POCP (summer smog) indicators compared to respiratory inorganics although scientifically, the latter are more important regarding health effects In Japan, effects of ionizing radiation are considered very important The reversibility of environmental impacts should be a selection criterion as well Abiotic resources and radioactive waste are highly important in the French context

59 SETAC Glasgow 2013 4. Key consensus issues and preliminary work plans Work in progress: Preliminary outcomes of breakout groups

60 4a. Evaluation criteria for selecting indicator approaches
SETAC Glasgow 2013 4a. Evaluation criteria for selecting indicator approaches Rolf Frischknecht, Olivier Jolliet

61 Criteria for indicator selection
Criteria are based on “true and fair view” principles applied in economy Environmental relevance Extent to which all relevant information related to environmental impacts is covered by the indicator Focus on the overall picture Extent to which the indicator is capable to represent the actual situation

62 Criteria (cont.) Reliability Transparency
Indicator relies on scientific knowledge or international agreements/treaties Relevant uncertain information and error risks are communicated Verified by reknown organisations or experts Transparency models, calculations and information are re producible and verifiable

63 Criteria (cont.) Communicability Coherence and comparability
Information is intelligible to all and easily understandable Coherence and comparability concepts, definitions, classifications and methods used are comparable (across indicators, along time, across regions) indicator is continuous (along time) scalable and extendable

64 Criteria (cont.) Data availability and quality Timeliness
Data, information and models are readily available and affordable Timeliness Data and models are actual, using most recent information possible Ease of the implementation Indicator can easily be implemented in current life cycle inventory databases

65 4b. Global impact categories
SETAC Glasgow 2013 4b. Global impact categories Climate change Global warming Greenhouse effect

66 Current practice in LCIA
Midpoint using GWP100 In Japan use of endpoint is widespread (if weighting is used) Global Temperature Potential (GTP)? Midpoint-endpoint modelling: which pathways are important to include?... and possible to model?

67 Scientific questions Urgency issues, critical thresholds not addressed by time-integrated GWP How to deal with emission timing Temporary carbon storage Biogenic vs. fossil carbon Need for complementary indicators addressing intensity and shortterm impacts? Cut-off after a given timeframe Discounting which is normally not used in the other impact categories What is the meaning of it at midpoint At endpoint Additional inventory flows not covered by IPCC – what to do? Water vapour as contributor to climate change depending on altitude of emission? Ozone and NOx, SOx, aerosols,…? CO2 formed as degradation product (Muñoz et al)? Coupling to ozone depletion

68 Harmonization/consensus potential
Consensus nearly already exists around integrated indicator provided by IPCC at midpoint level – GWP100 Latest factors should be applied Need to check consistence with other reporting systems for climate change (EPD, PCR, carbon footprint etc.) – important for stakeholder acceptance Potential for consensus about approaches addressing urgency needs to be examined Potential for consensus about endpoint characterisation needs to be examined

69 Expert and working group members
Manuele Margni/Annie Levasseur (CAN) Norihiro Itsubo (JPN) Abdelhadi Sahnoune (US) Michael Hauschild (DK) An de Schryver (NL)? Experts Miko Kirschbaum (NZ) Glen Peters (NO) Keith Shine (UK)

70 Working plan (to be detailed)
Building of working group Kick-off Identification of approaches Application to case studies, comparison Analysis of methods applying criteria Presentation of results

71 4c. Human health emission related impact categories
SETAC Glasgow 2013 4c. Human health emission related impact categories

72 Human Health Current use in LCIA: How far is human health framed:
Often not used by practitioners, Most methods have human health incorporated How far is human health framed: Framework is clear and framed by Humbert et al. (2011), ES&T 45: 4808 Framing workshop in ISEE Conference in Basel, 2013: Respiratory effects of criteria pollutants Involve health experts: William Nazaroff, Julian Marschall, Charles Weschler, Marie O‘Neill, Carina Gronlund, John Balmes, John Levy, John Evans, Douglas Dockeri, Michael Jerrett, Deborah Bennett, Kirk Smith, Nino Kuenzli, Tomas McKone, Olivier Jolliet, Peter Fantke, Matti Jantunen, Jouni Toumisto, Mario Tainio, Joshua Apte, Philipp Preiss, Joseph Spadaro

73 Human Health Scientific questions & main challenges: General aspects:
Intake fraction either to be addressed locally (spatial effects) or with archetypes Way how background mortality rate is used (local vs. originally used location) Particulates: High stack emissions in urban areas Seconday particles Indoor air: emission data from combustion highly variable  impact modelling ok Poor dose-response data for asthma and related respiratory effects How to link emission inventory data to stack height Emission data quality Human toxicity: Dose-response for morbidity effects (e.g. endocrine effects) Metal toxicity (example zink)  non-monotonic dose-response curves, metal speciation, bioavailability in humans and environment Fate in groundwater

74 Human Health Existing LCIA approaches/methods/models: Particulates:
Humber et al. (2011), ES&T Gronlund et al., submitted (recalculation of dose-response and severity factors) Levy, Grecco, Wolf, Evans, et al. (several publications) Apte et al. RECIPE (van Zelm et al.) LC-IMPACT work based on EXTERNE TRACI NEEDS (factors) EcoSense model GREET emission model  integration with LCIA models Japanese efforts (CFs at global scale  to be published) Other chemicals:

75 Human Health Previous consensus effort: Selection criteria:
Life Cycle Initiative TF4 effort  Humbert et al. (2011), ES&T EBODE 2011 project report (environmental burden of disease) NEEDS project outcome (based on EXTERNE) Selection criteria: Emission/stack height Population density (spatial differentiation) Secondary particulates considered incl. NH3 Urban area considered separately and resolution fine enough to capture significant differences in exposure Significant fate processes considered (coagulation, nucleation, diffusion, dispersion, deposition, intermittent rain) Size differentiation of particulates (UFP, PM2.5, PM10) Particle composition (affects dose-response)  cannot be addressed so far

76 Human Health Procedure until Basel:
Invite experts and reserve room at ISEE in Basel Meet with Josh Apte and ask about state of the art Prepare short description of framing workshop (objectives, background, goal, role of contributors) Framing workshop: Tuesday, 20-Aug-2013, 6-8pm Catch contributing experts: start from TF4 members regarding PM: write inviting Agree on date for teleconference: 14th, 17th, 21st June 2013, 4-5:30pm 2nd framing workshop probably end of June/early July

77 4d. Biodiversity emission related impact categories
SETAC Glasgow 2013 4d. Biodiversity emission related impact categories

78 Potentially Relevant Indicators
Started IMPACT World + framework From “Ecosystem Quality” to midpoints Freshwater Marine Terrestrial There are extra stressors to these, but (message) is that it is not complete (ionizing, toxicity, global warming, Water use, Terrestrial and aquatic acidification (fresh and marine), Eurtification (fresh, marine, coastal), Land use, 11 in total. Three levels: 1= consensus-ready, 2=in e.g. IMPACT world (mentioned, design is there) and 3: novel (forgotten and new) ones.Check with e.g. expert elicitaion, e.g. marine debris…..etc. Dimension and unit: Potentially Disappeared Fraction, and unit is m2 (land) or m3 (define issue) integrated over time. Time issue is something to think about, e.g. for metals.

79 Emission-based midpoints (vs. Resource-based)
Aq + Terr Ecotoxicity Aq + Terr Acidification Aq + Terr Eutrophication Here we need link carbon dioxide to the issue of global warming as well as ocean acidification. Note that methane also becomes CO2, not yet accounted for.Inventory,fate and effect models need be developed/linked. Because of resource-based impacts we need to liaise to resource-based impacts. Categories too immature to reach concensus: ionizing (low anyway), Eco-impacts of metals and organics are principally different (metals remain infinte and always pop up as major) -- > suggestion to split things up

80 Ordered and ranked Ionizing Tox Acid Eutro Fresh Marine Terr (Aerial)
All a 3 M=1 via PDF; E=2 Marine ,, M=2 E=3 M=3 Terr M=1 (Aerial) 1=mature, 2=not yet mature, 3=impact pathway identifiable and important, not yet model M=midpoint, E=Endpoint;

81 Process For all categories labeled “1”
Allocate consensus aim to consensus flagship priority Identify existing models and experts Comparison of models based on criteria, fast-tracked for pre-existing consensus results (e.g. USEtox) Select models or model elements to represent the consensus Formulate recommendation on use, interpretation, and limits Also discuss categories labeled “2” and “3”, so that practitioners do not ignore them and to stimulate research

82 Selection criteria Selection criteria: „reviewed“ ILCD+ criteria including global coverage and possibility for regional-specific assessment (e.g. tropical soils, …) Toxicity: For now we believe that USEtox is a good basis, but the process is open for further suggestions and inputs. Region-specific recommandations on application should be developed in the flagship. Work group setup: identify and actively inivite experts, plus open invitation for participation

83 Acidification/Eutrophication
Domain experts LCA/LCIA experts Max Posch, Netherlands Jean-Paul Hetterlingh, Netherlands Hayashi, Japan Mark Huijbregt Bengt Steen José Potting, Sweden Jiri Seppälä, Finland Rosalie van Zelm, Netherlands Liggia Pierre-Olivier Roy, Canada Francesca Verones

84 Biodiversity related impact categories
Ionizing radiation Toxicity Acidification Eutrophication midpoint endpoint freshwater 3 1 2 marine 1-2 terrestrial 1 mature enough for global recommendation 2 immature for recommendation, but models exist and are usable in LCA (may evolve into "1" during flagship duration) 3 no models are established yet in LCA, but impact pathway is identifiable "1" does not automatically imply that a consensus will be attempted, nor does a "2" imply that no consensus building will be attempted

85 Workplan 2013 Iterative points
Characterize harmonisation/consensus potential: how do the experts judge the possibility to reach a consensus? Might such a consensus cover LCI-midpoint and/or LCI-endpoint? Defining work process Building up of the working group List of category specific domain experts (name, affiliation, ) who could provide useful insights in the development of a consensus List of LCA/LCIA specialist who would be useful to involve in the process and working group Open invitation Selection criteria to be applied for indicator selection within an environmental impact (based on the enclosed draft list of criteria). Looking at the cause-effect chain and specific need in the prioritized impact category, what are your suggestion for additional criteria or specific criteria? Develop milestones of a working plan towards a recommendation in maximum two years Definition of mode of work suggested for the working group method comparisons (regular conf calls, etc.) Kick-off of the working group

86 Workplan 2014 Establishing state of the art
Establishing state of the art 4-2014 What is the current practice in LCIA for this category? How far is the assessment framework and cause-effect chain already framed for this impact category? Identify the different existing method/models within and outside LCIA that may be considered in a comparison process Identify the previous consensus efforts/method comparison exercise/review work that has been led and their main outcomes 1st workshop (comparison, analysis of methods) 5-2014 Analysis 5-2015 What are the scientific questions and the main challenges that need to be addressed in the consensus process for this impact category towards arriving to a recommendation Describe the common understanding of the different approaches, their potentially different purposes and their relation to cause-effect pathways. Identify agreement or disagreement on appropriate midpoint indicator Identify similarities/differences within the underlying models up to the midpoint; this covers data sources used, model parameters, temporal and geographical scope Identify similarities/differences within the underlying models from mid- to endpoint Select models or model elements to represent the consensus

87 4e. Resources related impact categories
SETAC Glasgow 2013 4e. Resources related impact categories

88 General points Links with ISO outcomes : we don’t need to link up. The idea is to give a guidance, ISO could use the result of this group. Clarification about the main objective of WULCA : best available or consensual ? The consensus is the priority with emphasis on parcimony. Develop a new model and published model are both to be considered in the process. For both water and land-use we don’t have a lot of history but given the relevance of these impacts we don’t want to focus only on consensual and published work. A method may be endorsed and recommended even if it is not published yet. (Ex : USEtox was recommended and the recommendatin was the publication, it was not applied before).

89 General points For abiotic resources there is a high relevance in industry but it is questionable if it is « environmental relevance ». It should be explained why we left this out. It is not that it is not important and should be incorporated. The fact that we have already active group working on land and water use is one of the reasons for choosing land and water use and to hope reaching partial consensus within two years. If we do not reach a consensus we may be able at least to report what we agree on and what we do not agree on.

90 General comments Regionality has to be considered in term of applicability within inventory and archetypes approach should be considered as well as the integration of uncertainty and spatial variability should be implemented. We should strive toward having a globaly applicable method (with potentially continental settings) Stakeholders from the different regions of the world should also be implied.

91 Water use The points on which to agree are already identified, there is still to reach a consensus on those identified modeling choices. Deliverable asked to Wulca : One indicator for HH One indicator for ecosystem One indicator that could be used alone by stakeholders

92 Water use The question of what is most environmentaly relevent is important needs to be identified for both impact pathways (HH and EQ) : most HH issues related to water come from water pollution (mainly microbial pollution) and this should be stated transparently (what is covered by LCA methods and what is not).

93 Water use Scarcity indicators are used for HH and for EQ even if not correlated. Almost nothing for resources which we decided not to cover. Issue of fiding a common midpoint : it may be very close to the endpoints, meaning using several indicator which may be an issue.

94 Finalisation of selection criteria– Water use
Based on WULCA work (already done for Human health impact pathway)

95 Milestone– Water use First milestones are imminent (within one year) :
Analyse the gaps and overlaps between the methodologies for scarcity indexes and human health impact pathway; (already done, comparative paper) Circulate the comparative assessment of models paper within WULCA; Discuss the mid-point / end-point issue versus single score indicator in water use impact assessment in group. mainstreaming presentation on what are the implications of both choices (relevance versus robustness, different results at mid versus end-point results;)

96 Milestones – Water use Next milestones (within two year) :
Try to reach a preliminary concensus or identify the points on which concensus has to be reached for human health impact pathway before the Pellston workshop; Analyse the gaps and overlaps between the methodologies for ecosystem impact pathway;

97 Experts and working group members – Water use
WULCA group, with the aim to include in WULCA non LCA experts : Water footprint network Hydrogeologists Petra Doll Aquaduct

98 Land use It was decided to narrow the scope on land occupation impacts on biodiversity. Key questions : Land transformations Stakeholders acceptance : who should be included ?

99 Land use Two main topics on which a consensus is needed :
Choice of indicator (biodiversity based on species richness more mature but other options to consider) Choice of reference state (Issue of the reference state are the main key issue on which to agree in a consensual work. Are we avoiding the land of becoming a constructed area or a pristine area : this choice is driving the impact.)

100 Land use LULCIA workgroup is closed but the job should continue. Maybe it would be worth having a working group under the aegis of the flagship project. Thomas Koelner good candidate to lead such a group.

101 Land use Complementarity with other indicators outside LCA should be considered and how far it is possible to agregate should be considered Identify hotspot more than encouraging good practices ?

102 Finalisation of selection criteria – Land use
to discuss further in initial meetings

103 Experts and working group members – Land use
Approach: list of interested people, filtering later on. How to approach the composition of the group? Do we –today’s group- make recommendations on who would be best placed? One of us takes leadership? Or do we appoint a leader already?

104 Experts and working group members – Land use
Thomas Koellner. + provide contacts in biodiversity assessment field Laura de Baan. + provide contacts in biodiversity assessment field Llorenç Milà i Canals Antonin Vergez (French ministry, user) Cassia Ugaya Bárbara Civit Sébastien Humbert (initially interested, possibly as agenda member / user) Montse Núnez (between land and WULCA?) Assumpció Anton Ottar Michelsen Shabbir Gheewala Jannick Schmidt, Miguel Brandao Jonathan Foley. To check: familiar with LC perspective? Kier (publication from Olson’s biomes, and biodiversity related to those). To check: familiar with LC perspective? Navin Ramankutty. To check: familiar with LC perspective? Lian Pin Koh / Ghazoul (ETH). To check: familiar with LC perspective?

105 Work Plan 2013– Land use June-July: establish working group. Led by whom? Establish ways of working in group: time commitment; consensus-building… (based on / same as Shonan guidance principles) Gathering feedback from stakeholders in additional events: are we hitting the right spot with land occupation – biodiversity? September: kick off working group. Initial questions to be addressed: LCI vs. initial CF. If inventory (m2year), then we imply more land use = always worse (not accepted by many stakeholders). If CF: then which one? Reference situation; other issues to decide on? (e.g. if we add LUC: accept full recovery? Modelling period?) Is biodiversity the key safeguard subject we want to protect? Do we want to bring other indicators? Is it possible? Listing of all indicators for the chose pathways that should be in the initial comparison Q4’13: seek more views on whether focus on biodiversity is OK; quantitative comparison of indicators

106 Work Plan 2014– Land use May 2014 (Basel): initial workshop presenting comparison of indicators. Decision on 1 indicator H2’14: prepare additional decisions on reference state: implications of different reference states with the chose indicator? Pellston workshop: Decide on whole framework: reference state, possibly other modelling aspects (e.g. reversibility of impacts; modelling period length…)

107 4f. Normalisation and weighting Breakout group, in Cincinatti, USA
SETAC Glasgow 2013 4f. Normalisation and weighting Breakout group, in Cincinatti, USA

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