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Monte Carlo Simulation of Prompt Neutron Emission During Acceleration in Fission T. Ohsawa Kinki University Japanese Nuclear Data Committee IAEA/CRP on PFNS, Vienna, Dec , 2011 ε

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Overall agreement between Madland-Nix (MN) model calculation and experiments is good. Apparent discrepancy in the low-energy region (E<0.5 MeV). Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum U-235(n th,f)

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Possibilities: 1.Uncertainties in the experimental data in the low-energy region. 2. Possible existence of scission neutrons. 3. Angular anisotropy in neutron emission in the CM-system of FF. 4. Possible effect of “yrast levels”. 5. Neutron emission during acceleration (NEDA), instead of after full acceleration. What are the reasons for the discrepancy in the region E n < 0.5 MeV? We should examine the possibilities from physics point of view.

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1. Uncertainties in experimental data in the low- energy region (after F.-J.Hambsch) Uncertainties coming from ◆ Scatted neutrons ◆ Low detection efficiency, …

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2. Possible existence of scission neutrons. [N. Cârjan, P. Talou and O. Serot, Nucl. Phys. 792, 102 (2007)] R. W. Fuller (1962) ： “volcano erupting” in the Fermi sea Recent work: N. Cârjan, P. Talou & O. Serot (2007) ： Time-dep. Potential + 2D-Time-dep. Schrödinger eq. ◆ The probability of occurrence and energy transfer in SCN emission should be treated on the physics ground, and not to be used as convenient tool for fitting to PFNS data.

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3. Angular anisotropy of emitted neutrons in the CM-system of FF. b=W(θ)/W(90º) – 1 >0 = [T. Ohsawa, INDC(NDS)-0541, p.71 (2009)] More neutrons in the forward and backward directions ↓ ↓ Enhancement of High-energy and Low-energy wings Correlation between angle and energy Experimental evidences:

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4. Possible effect of “yrast levels” Lower limit of energy after neutron evaporation Soften the PFNS, the degree depending on Transition to energy levels lower than yrast levels are prohibited. Another effect of high angular momentum of FF:

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5. Neutron Emission During Acceleration (NEDA) Neutron emission after full acceleration Neutron emission during acceleration [B] Neutron emission [stochastic process] In order to examine the NEDA effect, we have to analyze the competition: [A] Coulomb acceleration [deterministic process] Scission Interest from Physics as well as Application point of view

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[A] Coulomb acceleration χ = KE / KE final v final =[2{(M-m)Mm} ・ 1.44(Z- z)z/l] 1/2 Relation between relative acceleration χ and the time t after scission is described unambiguously by Eismont’s equation, once the FF charges and charge-center distance l are given. l By treating the charge-center distance as a random variable, we can simulate the variance in TKE.

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Monte Carlo approach is a suitable and effective method to treat the stochastic processes. In order to simulate the competition accurately, it is important to evaluate the neutron emission time τ exactly. τ is not a constant; rather it varies over a wide range, as will be shown later, depending on the excitation energy, level density and inverse reaction cross section. [T. Ericson, Adv. Phys. 9, 425 (1960)] Optical Model Level Density Formula [B] Neutron emission [stochastic process] τ were evaluated for four isobars with every mass number A of FF.

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Initial Conditions for Monte Carlo Simulation (1) 1. Multimodal Random Neck-Rupture Model was used to generate the mass, charge, TKE distributions of the primary fission fragments. S1 S2 SL Superposition of the modal distributions gives the total distribution. Scission shape parameters were taken from H.-H. Knitter et al.(1987) for U-235 [K. Nishio] 235 U(n,f): 3 fission modes

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TXE =E R (Z H,A H,Z L,A L ) + B n + E n – TKE Given the TKE distribution for a fission mode, the distribution of the charge-center distance is obtained. 2. TKE distribution was converted into the TXE distribution Initial Conditions for Monte Carlo Simulation (2) The TXE distribution is calculated from energy-conservation relation.

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3. Partition of the TXE between the two fragments Three working hypotheses in accordance with P. Talou et al. (2007) Initial Conditions for Monte Carlo Simulation (3) H0 Equipartition of Energy H1 Equitemperature assumption H2 Partition according to ν(A L,H )

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Monte Carlo Code “NEDAEMON” Select fission mode (S1, S2, SL, …) Sampling of (A L, Z L, TKE, I ) Calculation of E R, TXE, etc. Cascade Process Accumulation of calculated data (Total of 10 9 events) Condition for Neutron Emission Transformation into L-system Excitation Energy of the Residual Nucleus Random sampling Neutron Spectrum in the CM-system Mass formula TEX Partition (H0, H1, H2) Neutron Emission Time τ FF Acceleration Time t NEDA Probability P(X), … PFNS calc. [NEDAPEK] ε l

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Results (1) The agreement with measured data as well as with other MC calculations is rather good, irrespective of the hypothesis H0, H1, H2. → Estimation of TXE in the present analysis is adequate. Frequency Distribution of the Number of Emitted Neutrons

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Results (2) The Average Number of Neutrons Emitted from FF of Mass A The saw-tooth structure is reproduced, without ad hoc adjustment. Among the 3 hypotheses, H2 gives the best representation. → The following calculations were done with H2.

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Results (3) The Neutron Emission Time as a Function of Mass for 235 U Our findings are: The neutron emission time τ varies over a wide range from fragment to fragment. The gross structure is caused by the shell effects on the LDP and S n. Fluctuations between neighboring FF is due to even-odd effect. H2 Under different hypothesisFor different fission modes

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S1 HFS1 LFS2 HFS2 LFSL ~ 90%8.6%2.2%10.0%11.9%18.1% ~ 95%14.9%3.9%16.7%19.1%27.5% ~ 99%42.6%13.4%42.9%43.6%53.2% 235 U(n th,f) Integral NEDA probability NEDA probability as a function of χ χ NEDA probability is high at the final stage of accele- ration. The average value for 252 Cf(sf) is ~16%, due to higher Q- value. Results (4) A certain fraction of neutrons are certainly emitted before full acceleration. 235 U(n th,f)

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PFNS with Consideration of NEDA Effect (Code NEDAPEK) ◆ Modal neutron spectrum for mode i ◆ Total neutron spectrum (summed over possible modes) Results (5) ◆ Single-fragment neutron spectrum

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PFNS with and without consideration of NEDA NEDA enhances the low-energy wing Results (6)

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Angular anisotropy of emitted neutrons in the CM-system of FF [T. Ohsawa, INDC(NDS)-0541, p.71 (2009)] Two possibilities: b=0.05 C. Budtz-Jørgensen et al., INDC(NDS)-220, 181 (1989) b=0.1 V.F. Gerasimenko et al., INDC(NDS)-220, 283 (1989) Results (7) Result ： → Next page

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NEDA + Anisotropy Taking into account the CM-anisotropy of neutron emission, in addition to NEDA-effect, in the multimodal Madland-Nix model, significantly enhances the low-energy component and improves the agreement with experimental data in the region less than 0.5 MeV.

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Conclusions 1.Monte Carlo simulation of competition of Coulomb acceleration and neutron emission was made to examine the possibility of NEDA. 2. The initial condition for starting the Monte Carlo calculation was sampled from Multimodal Random Neck-Rupture model. 3. The simulation showed that ~10% of neutrons were emitted before 90%-acceleration for 235 U(n th,f); and ~16% for 252 Cf(sf). 4. Existence of NEDA-neutrons enhances the low-energy wing of the PFNS. Consideration of CM-angular anisotropy of neutron emission, in addition to NEDA, further increases the low-energy component of the spectra and improves the agreement with experimental data in the region <0.5 MeV..

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That’s it. Thanks!

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