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Energy (TKK-2129) 13/14 Spring Semester Instructor: Rama Oktavian Office Hr.: M.13-15, Tu. 13-15, W. 13-15, Th. 13-15,

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Presentation on theme: "Energy (TKK-2129) 13/14 Spring Semester Instructor: Rama Oktavian Office Hr.: M.13-15, Tu. 13-15, W. 13-15, Th. 13-15,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Energy (TKK-2129) 13/14 Spring Semester Instructor: Rama Oktavian Office Hr.: M.13-15, Tu , W , Th , F

2 Outlines 1. Biomass gasification recent update 2. Biomass pyrolysis recent update 3. Biodiesel production recent update 4. Second generation biofuel

3 Biomass to energy technology Biomass conversion into energy Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

4 Biomass to energy technology Biomass gasification recent update Hydrogen production from steam gasification of biomass

5 Biomass to energy technology Hydrogen production from steam gasification of biomass Introduction 1.Hydrogen is considered as clean energy and the most promising energy source that can be used in internal combustion engines as well as fuel cells with less pollution on the environment, especially without CO 2 emission 2.To meet the renewable and sustainable hydrogen production, biomass is considered as the ideal primary energy source 3.Thermo-chemical routes is economically viable to produce hydrogen energy from biomass

6 Biomass to energy technology Hydrogen production from steam gasification of biomass Introduction 4.Gasification is favorable process to convert biomass into hydrogen 5.Steam gasification is recommended to be the most favorable option for enhancing both hydrogen concentration and yield in the syngas produced 6.Steam gasification still has problem with undesirable CO2 and tar formed during the process. 7.CaO is gaining interest in H2-rich gas production as catalyst and sorbent for capturing CO2 and tar.

7 Biomass to energy technology Hydrogen production from steam gasification of biomass Routes

8 Biomass to energy technology Hydrogen production from steam gasification of biomass Reaction

9 Biomass to energy technology Hydrogen production from steam gasification of biomass Comparison result of gasifying agent

10 Biomass to energy technology Biomass gasification recent update Comparison result of gasifying agent

11 Biomass to energy technology Hydrogen production from steam gasification of biomass Comparison of hydrogen production cost

12 Biomass to energy technology Hydrogen production from steam gasification of biomass Problems, challenges, and prospects Undesirable CO 2 generation due to water-gas shift reaction The formation of unwanted tar – condensable organic compounds could be produced during gasification and become entrained in the syngas - Use of the syngas contaminated with tars can cause fouling and blocking of downstream pipelines and equipments

13 Biomass to energy technology Hydrogen production from steam gasification of biomass Problems, challenges, and prospects The use of CaO has emerged- CO2 and tar produced during steam gasification of biomass can be simultaneously captured and cracked The presence of CaO in steam gasification process can provide a good option in sustainable H2-rich gas production

14 Biomass to energy technology Hydrogen production from steam gasification of biomass The use of CaO study

15 Biomass to energy technology Hydrogen production from steam gasification of biomass CaO chemical looping gasifcation

16 Biomass to energy technology Biomass pyrolysis

17 Biomass to energy technology Biomass pyrolysis recent update Biomass fast pyrolysis process using microwave

18 Biomass to energy technology Biomass fast pyrolysis process using microwave Pyrolysis is a well-recognized thermochemical platform for production of bio-oil, combustible gases and char from organics in biomass Currently, fluidized bed and fixed bed (downdraft or updraft) are the dominant reactor types for biomass pyrolysis, in which the heating is provided by heated surfaces Microwave irradiation is an alternative heating method

19 Biomass to energy technology Biomass fast pyrolysis process using microwave Advantages of microwave heating in pyrolysis: uniform internal heating - no need for agitation of fluidization and hence fewer particles (ashes) in the bio-oil easy-to-implement technology studies suggest that this is a highly scalable technology suitable for distributed conversion of bulky biomasses

20 Biomass to energy technology Biomass fast pyrolysis process using microwave

21 Biomass to energy technology Biomass fast pyrolysis process using microwave Recently, a novel concept of pyrolysis utilizing microwave absorbents is being developed, in which the use of these absorbents could significantly improve the heating rate – the temperature of reactor will become steady Some studies suggest this new heating mechanism can achieve higher product yield

22 Biomass to energy technology Biomass fast pyrolysis process using microwave

23 Biomass to energy technology Biomass fast pyrolysis process using microwave

24 Biomass to energy technology Biomass fast pyrolysis process using microwave

25 Biomass to energy technology Biomass conversion into energy Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

26 Biomass to energy technology Biodiesel production recent update Lipid extraction method: 1.Solvent extraction method 2.Soxhelt extraction method 3.Bligh and Dyer's method 4.Ionic Liquids 5.Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction

27 Biomass to energy technology Biodiesel production recent update Biodiesel sources: Food industry involving fish

28 Biomass to energy technology Biodiesel production recent update Biodiesel sources: Sludge from municipal waste

29 Biomass to energy technology Biodiesel production recent update Biodiesel sources: Microalgae Challenges: Finding new non-edible plant which contains much oil – will not give food competition issue

30 Biomass to energy technology Biodiesel production recent update Biodiesel production basic technology

31 Biomass to energy technology Biodiesel production recent update Different between esterification and trans-esterification Eserification Trans-Eserification

32 Biomass to energy technology Biodiesel production recent update Production routes for biodiesel Transesterification of vegetable oil using homogeneous catalysts: 1.Acid catalyzed esterification process - sulphuric, hydrochloric, sulfonic and phosphoric acids. 2.Alkali-catalyzed transesterification process - alkaline metal hydroxides and alkoxides, sodium or potassium carbonates 3.Two-step transesterification process - feedstocks containing high free fatty acids (FFAs) - the first step is an acid catalyzed process followed by a second step, alkalicatalyzed transesterification

33 Biomass to energy technology Biodiesel production recent update Production routes for biodiesel Supercritical fluid method : Enzyme-catalyzed transesterification process Ultrasound assisted transesterification

34 Biomass to energy technology Biodiesel production recent update Production routes for biodiesel Membrane technology of biodiesel production Reactive distillation technology of biodiesel production

35 Biomass to energy technology Biomass fermentation Process scheme

36 Recent update 2 nd generation biofuel Why?? First-generation biofuels are extracted from agricultural products: beetroot, rape seed, etc. They compete with foodstuffs. Concerns and constraints: 1.Compete with food crops 2.Expensive total production cost 3.Accelerating deforestation 4.The biomass feedstock may not be produced sustainably 5.Potentially has a negative impact on biodiversity R. Sims, M. Taylor, J. Saddler, W. Mabee From 1 st to 2 nd generation biofuel technologies, IEA

37 Recent update 2 nd generation biofuel Second-generation biofuels are produced using the inedible part of plants (straw, wood, plant waste). Unlike first-generation biofuels, they do not compete with the use of raw materials as food. They can be used directly by traditional vehicles and considerably reduce CO 2 emissions. Second-generation biofuels produced from ‘plant biomass’ refers largely to lignocellulosic materials, as this makes up the majority of the cheap and abundant nonfood materials available from plants The examples of 2nd generation biofuels are cellulosic ethanol and Fischer– Tropsch fuels

38 Recent update 2 nd generation biofuel Air Liquide is developing Bioliq®, a process that produces second- generation biofuels using straw in three successive stages: 1.The first step in the process consists of high-temperature pyrolysis of the straw to convert it into synthetic crude: bioliqSynCrude®. 2.The second step consists of gasification, i.e. the transformation of the synthetic crude into synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. 3.Through several chemical reactions, the Bioliq® process then converts the synthesis gas into methanol or directly into biofuels. The Bioliq® process can produce 1 liter of diesel from 7 kg of straw.

39 Recent update 2 nd generation biofuel Second-generation biofuels present an energy and environmental advantage: they have a much better carbon footprint than other fuels: up to 90% reduction in CO 2 emissions compared to mineral fuels and about 50% compared to first-generation biofuels. could significantly reduce CO 2 production, do not compete with food crops and some types can offer better engine performance

40 Recent update 2 nd generation biofuel comparison

41 Recent update 2 nd generation biofuel comparison

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