Presentation on theme: "Drugs for Bowel Disorders and other GI Conditions"— Presentation transcript:
1Drugs for Bowel Disorders and other GI Conditions Chapters 40 & 41
2Nausea Definitions of nausea on the Web: the state that precedes vomitingdisgust so strong it makes you feel sick wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwncomes from the Greek word for ship, naus, which currently can be defined as a queasy or upset stomach.
3Emesis (Vomit)Emesis : the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth wordnetweb.princeton.edFrom the Indo-European root wem- (to vomit), the source of the words such as emetic and wamble (to feel nauseated).The body’s protective mechanism to eject harmful/toxic materials or substancesAdams, P., Holland, L., Urban, C., 2011
4PathophysiologyVomit Center located in Medulla of Brain. Receives sensory input from G.I., inner ear & Chemoreceptor Trigger Zone (CTZ) in cerebral cortex. Noxious stimuli (dizziness, spoiled food/infection, drugs/anesthesia, pain or trauma, pregnancy) signals the Vomit Center which in turn stimulates the stomach resulting in nausea &/or vomiting.
5Antiemetics 1st Group: Serotonin (5-HT3) Receptor Antagonist Odansetron (Zofran) 4 mg PO/IV Q 4-8 hrs PRN n/vAction: Blocks Serotonin Receptors in CTZ and Vagal Nerve terminals in G.I. Tract.Indications: Post General Anesthesia & ChemotherapyAdverse EffectsH/A, drowsiness, fatigue, constipation, diarrheaSerious: dysrhythmias, extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS)Pearson Education, Inc. 2008, 2011.Wilson B., Shannon, M., Shields, K., 2009
6Anti-Emetics2nd Group: Phenothiazines (primary use as an antipsychotic)Action: affects CTZ to inhibit n/v. Larger dosesinhibit signals to Vomit Center by blocking dopamine receptors.Prochlorperazine (Compazine) (prototype drug)5-10 mg PO TID or QID: mg IV (no more than 5 mg/min), serious adverse effect includes extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS): akathisia or restlessness, dystonia, parkinsonism.Metoclopramide (Reglan) (action unknown)10mg PO/IV Q6-8h, aids gastric emptying
7Phenothiazines Continued Promethazine (Phenergan)mg PO, PR or IM Q 4-8h PRN(prevents histamine-mediated response)Adverse EffectsCommon: dry mouth & eyes, blurry vision, constipation, drowsiness, photosensitivitySerious: neuroleptic malignant syndrome, EPS, agranulocytosisPearson Education, Inc. 2008Nursing Drug Handbook 2008Davis Drug Guide 2011
8Antiemetics Scopalamine (Hyoscine, Transderm-Scop) 3rd Group: Anticholinergics/ AntihistiminesScopalamine (Hyoscine, Transderm-Scop)Transdermal 0.5 mg q 72hrs (usually placed behind the ear)Action: Blocks acetylcholine on postganglionic cholinergic nerves resulting in CNS depression, marked sedation and tranquilizing effects, controls oropharyngeal secretionsAdverse Effects:Common: drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision,Serious: hypersensitivity reaction, sedation, tremors, seizures, hallucinations, paradoxical excitation (mostly in children), hypotensionPearson Education, Inc. 2008Wilson B., Shannon, M., Shields, K., 2009
9Diarrheafrequent and watery bowel movements; can be a symptom of infection, food poisoning, colitis or a gastrointestinal tumor wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwnDiarrhea (from the Greek, διὰρροια meaning "a flowing through"), also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having three or more loose or liquid bowel movements per day. It is a common cause of death in developing countries and the second most common cause of infant deaths worldwide. ... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diarrhea
10DiarrheaPrimary Goal: assess and treat the underlying cause of the diarrhea. Recent travel? Immunocompromised? Antibiotic treatment? Dietary Habits? Over the Counter (OTC) Medications? Toxins?/Infections?/Disease?
11Anti-Diarrheal: Opioids Diphenoxylate 2.5mg & Atropine 0.025mg (Lomotil), is a prototype drug. 1-2 tabs or 5-10 ml tid-qidAction: slows peristalsis, allowing water to be reabsorbed from the colon, promoting a more solid stool. Atropine is added to discourage abuse (causes drowsiness, dry mouth, tachycardia).Adverse Effects: no analgesic effect, dry mouth, nausea, constipation, occasional dizziness or drowsiness. Serious:Paralytic ileus with toxic megacolon, respiratory & CNS depression.Pharmacology for Nurses, Adams, Holland & Bostwick Pearson/Prentice Hall 2nd Ed. 2008Davis Drug Guide 2011
12Anti-Diarrheal: Opioids loperamide (Imodium): 4 mg PO initially, then 2 mg after each diarrhea episodeAction: inhibits peristalsis, reduces fecal volume and loss of fluid and electrolytesAdverse Effects: dry mouth, abd pain, n/v, constipation, dizziness or drowsiness.Davis Drug Guide 2011
13Anti-Diarrheal-Miscellaneous Bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol)Action: antisecretory, anti-inflammatory, binds and/or absorbs bacterial and viral enteropathogens.Dosage: Mild nonspecific diarrhea: 30ml or 2 tabs POq 30 min-1 hr. Max 8 doses for no longer than 2 days.Adverse effects: temporary darkening of tongue & stools, salicylism with high dosesNursing 2008 Drug BookPearson Education, Inc. 2008
14Anti-Diarrheals Contraindications: Should not be used when patient has a suspicion of or is diagnosed with pseudo-membranous colitis (Toxic Megacolon) or severe ulcerative colitis. Anti-Diarrheals may worsen or mask these conditions. Toxic Megacolon has occurred with patients who have ulcerative colitis who have taken loperamide (Imodium), an opioid anti-diarrheal.
15Constipation Constipation: a common GI complaint 4+ million Americans/yr2.5 million Dr.’s office visits a year, most oftenbeing female adults 65 yrs & older, also a common problem following childbirth or surgery.Self-treatment of constipation with over-the-counter (OTC) laxatives is the most common aid. Around $725 million/yr spent on laxative products in U.S. digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/constipation/ - Cached - Similar
16Laxatives: Bulk Forming Psyllium Mucilloid (Metamucil, etc.) 1-2 tsp in 8 oz water followed by 2nd glass daily prnAction and Use: This Prototype Drug is derived from the seed of the plantain plant. It is an insoluble, indigestible fiber, when taken with enough water, swells to increase the size of the fecal mass, stimulating the defecation reflex.Adverse Effects: rare, produces less cramps than stimulants. If insufficient water is taken, can cause esophageal or intestinal obstruction.Pharmacology for Nurses, Adams, Holland & Bostwick Pearson/Prentice Hall 2nd Ed. 2008
17Laxatives: Stimulant Bisacodyl (Dulcolax) 10-15 mg PO daily Action: Unknown. Increases peristalsis probably by direct effect on smooth muscle, either by irritation or stimulation of the colonic intramural plexis. Also promotes fluid accumulation in colon and small bowl.Adverse Effects: GI-cramps, n/v/d with high dose, rectal burning with suppository, dependence and/or protein-losing enteropathy with long term or excessive useNursing 2008 Drug Book
18Laxatives: Saline and Osmotic Magnesium hydroxide (Milk of Magnesia -MOM) ml daily PRNPolyethylene glycol (Miralax) sodium 17gm daily in 8 oz liquid x 2-4 daysSodium biphosphate (Fleet Phospho-Soda)15-30 cc mixed in H2O daily PRNAdverse Effects:Common: Diarrhea, abd. CrampingSerious: Hypermagnesemia with MOM (dysrhythmias, respiratory failure)
19Laxatives: Stool Softener/Surfactant docusate (Surfak, Colace, Dialose, etc.)50-500mg PO dailyAdverse Effects:Abd. Cramping, diarrheaNo serious adverse effectsPearson Education, Inc. 2008
20Laxatives: Miscellaneous Mineral Oil ml PO BIDAdverse Effects:Diarrhea, nauseaSerious: nutritional deficiencies, aspiration pneumoniaPearson Education, Inc. 2008
21Laxatives: Herbal Agent Senna, large genus of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senna_(genus) - Cached – SimilarAction: irritates the wall of the bowl and increases peristalsisAdverse Effects: abdominal cramping and diarrhea, no serious effects.
22Laxatives Contraindications: Absence of Peristalsis Sudden, unexplained change in bowl patternesophageal obstructionintestinal obstructionfecal impactionundiagnosed abdominal pain
23Case StudyMrs. P. is an 86 y.o. female admitted to the Medical Unit with the diagnosis of Dehydration and Diarrhea. She has a history of constipation for which she takes OTC laxatives. Admitting VSS: Temp BP 102/55, HR 104 & thready, RR 18, O2Sat 94 on RA. Weight 40 kg. Ht. 5’ 1”. She complains of feeling weak, tired and has mild abdominal cramping. She states she thinks she had 3 loose BM’s today and can not remember how many yesterday. Prior admit to the hospital 3 weeks ago for a Urinary Tract Infection (UTI).
24Neuman ModelWhat level of Mrs. P.’s Lines of Defense/Resistance are penetrated?What Psychological Variable(s) do you think might be involved?
25Admission Orders IV D 5 1/2 NS at 75 cc/hr Soft low fiber Diet Up with assistanceLabs: CBC and Lytes in the amUrinalysis, Culture and Sensitivity if indicatedStool for Clostridium difficileI & OTylenol 325 mg PO, 1 for mild pain, 2 for moderate pain
26Clostridium difficile C. difficile toxin, also known as pseudo-membranous colitis, is a spore-forming gram+ anaerobic bacteria producing toxins A & B, damaging the large intestine, causing diarrhea. Commonly seen in clients following chemotherapy, antibiotic treatment, invasive procedures, or who use stool softeners or laxatives. Most cases reported in clients older than 65. Most common cause of nosocomial infection for hospitalized clients.Black J., & Hawks J., Medical-Surgical Nursing 8th Ed. 2009CDC 2010
27Nursing ProcessWhat Potential/Actual Nursing Diagnosis would apply to Mrs. P?What Goal or Outcome would you expect?
28Nursing Process Focus: Clients Receiving Antidiarrheal Therapy Potential Nursing DiagnosisFluid Volume, Imbalanced, Risk for : Less than Body Requirements, related to loss secondary to diarrheaInjury (falls), Risk for, related to weakness, drowsiness secondary to drug therapy/electrolyte depletionInfection, Risk for, related to bacterial, viral, or other infestation in the bowelDeficient Knowledge (drug therapy)
29Planning: Client Goals and Expected Outcomes The client will:Report relief of diarrheaVSS and Laboratory values WNLDemonstrate an understanding of the drug’s action by accurately describing side effects and precautions.Report persistent diarrhea, constipation, abd. pain, blood in stool, confusion, dizziness, altered body temperature.
30Implementation (Interventions/Rationales & Client Education/ Discharge Planning Minimize risk of dehydration and electrolyte imbalance (secondary to diarrhea)Encourage PO fluidsInstruct client about foods/fluids rich in electrolytesMonitor frequency, character and amount of stool, Perform routine and PRN abdominal assessmentsClient to report abd. cramping, fevers, increased fatigue and or lethergy
31Implementation Monitor for dry mouth (side effect of medicine) Hard candy, ice chips, chewing gumPrevent over dosage of medication (can cause constipation).Instruct client/significant other use of dropper/medicine cup, etc.
32Implementation Fall Prevention Instruct client to get up with assistance onlycall bell in reach, client to use when need to get out of bedAvoid driving/hazardous activities until effects of drugs are knownAvoid ETOH and other CNS depressants
33ImplementationMonitor Electrolyte Levels (Imbalances may occur with diarrhea)Monitor lab resultsClient keep all laboratory appointmentsReport any unusual muscle cramping or weakness
34Evaluation of Outcome Criteria Confirm that client goals and outcomes have been metClient reports relief of diarrheaClient demonstrates understanding of drug’s action by accurately describing proper use, side effects and precautionsClient verbalizes signs and symptoms to report to health care providerPearson Education, Inc. 2008
35Mrs. P.On the second hospital day, Mrs. P. reports she has no abdominal cramping and that her last loose BM was yesterday evening (which you confirmed in your chart review). Her VSS are WNL, she is taking adequate PO fluids, has no N/V, and is making adequate urine. Her IV has been slowed to 50 cc’s/hr. Both stool for C. difficile & urinalysis to rule out infection resulted negative. New orders: Lomitil 5 mg PO PRN loose stool, max 20 mg/daily.
36Appetite Suppressants/Anorexiants Drugs used to induce weight loss by suppressing appetite and hungerObesity defined as 20% above ideal body weight determined by BMI (kg Wt/meters Ht)In the U.S. >$33 Billion/yr spent on weight-reduction products & services; >1 Million adults using these products are not overweight.Pearson Education, Inc. 2008, 2011.
37Appetite Reduction1970’s-amphetamines/dextramphetamines (Dexadrine): highly addictive—Rarely prescribed now1990’s-fenfluramine & phentermine(fen-phen): heart valve defects from fenfluramine—removed from market
38Appetite Suppressants 2000: phenylpropanolamine (OTC) removed from market due to increased incidence of CVA’s and cardiac events2004: ephedra alkaloids, OTC weight loss products, removed from market – increased adverse cardiac eventsPearson Education, Inc. 2008, 2011.
40Rx for Weight Loss Sibutramine (Meridia) Action: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) appetite suppressant for short term control (1 year) when combined with reduced calorie diet and exercise; results in 5-10% weight loss. Obesity (BMI >29 or BMI >26 for pt. with hx of HTN, DM, ↑Lipids).
41Sibutramine (Meridia) Initial Dose: 10 mg dailyAdverse Effects: H/A, insomnia, dry mouth. May have weight gain after drug discontinued.Contraindications: Eating disorders, taking Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) Inhibitors.Caution: patients with cardiac history, can cause tachycardia and elevate BP.(other SSRI’s: Prozac and Zoloft)Pearson Education, Inc. 2008, 2011.Nursing 2008 Drug BookDavis Drug Guide 2011
42Pancreatic EnzymesPancrelipase (Pancrease) contains lipase, protease and amylase, of pork origin, to break down lipids, starches and proteins in the gut. Used as replacement therapy for clients with deficient pancreatic exocrine secretions (due to pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis).Dose: 1-3 capsules before/with mealsAdverse Effects: uncommon but can cause N/V/D, hyperuricosuria.Contraindications: allergy to the drug or pork productsPearson Education, Inc. 2008Davis Drug Guide 2011
43Mrs. P.Mrs. P. asks the Nurse to bring her two Dulcolax tablets. “Oh, I take them every day. It is the only way I stay comfortable!” The nurse asks Mrs. P. how long she has been taking Dulcolax and when was her last dose. As they are speaking, Mrs. P.’s son, John, walks into her room. “I’ve taken my Dulcolax for years, they help keep me regular. I think I took my last dose yesterday morning like always.” It becomes evident Mrs. P. had continued to take the Dulcolax after her episodes of diarrhea had occurred, exacerbating her condition.
44Mrs. P. had not been thinking clearly, was forgetful and or did not understand the drug action. John had not been aware of his mothers habits. The nurse instructs and educates the patient and her son that a diet high in fiber (fresh fruits and vegetables, bran), adequate water, and moderate activity, or exercise, as tolerated, can minimize dependence upon laxatives. The nurse instructed them that the use of a laxative should not be taken when diarrhea occurs and that bowel stimulants are for a period of 1 week use only, not every day.
45Mrs. P.In addition, the nurse explains chronic use of the various bowel stimulants can effect the body’s salt balance, causing increased phosphate and Na+, and/ or decreased Ca++, Mg++, and K+. These conditions can cause confusion and disorientation, as well as heart and muscular dysfunction. Mrs. P. and her son John were grateful for the information. John stated he will now be more involved with his mother’s care and monitor her more closely now that he better understands her health habits and behaviors.
47Proton Pump Inhibitors Reduces gastric acid secretion by binding to H+, K+ ATPase and prevents acid from being secreted.Omeprazole (Prilosec). PO 20-60mg 1-2X daily for 4-8 weeks. Onset of action up to 2 hours after taking, duration up to 72 hours.Pantoprazole (Protonix): 40mg PO/IV dailyAdverse Effects: H/A, n/d, rash, dizziness; rare serious effects.Adams, P., Holland, L., Urban, C., 2011
48H2-Receptor Antagonists Activation of Histamine2 (H2) results in the secretion of stomach acid. H2-Receptor Antagonists suppress the release of acid by the parietal cells thereby raising the pH of the secretions in the stomach.famotidine (Pepcid): 20 mg PO/IV BID or40 mg PO QHSAdverse Effects: H/A, nausea, dry mouth.Rare: musculoskeletal pain, tachycardia, blood dyscrasias, blurred vision.Adams, P., Holland, L., Urban, C., 2011