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Developing a Web Site: Links Using a link is a quicker way to access information at the bottom of a Web page than scrolling down A user can select a link.

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Presentation on theme: "Developing a Web Site: Links Using a link is a quicker way to access information at the bottom of a Web page than scrolling down A user can select a link."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developing a Web Site: Links Using a link is a quicker way to access information at the bottom of a Web page than scrolling down A user can select a link in a Web page, usually by clicking it with a mouse, to view another topic or document, often called the link’s destination 1

2 Creating Links Within a Document 2

3 Creating Element Ids One way to identify elements in an HTML document is to use the id attribute Id names must be unique Id names are not case sensitive Example: Chemistry Classes 3

4 Creating Links Within a Document To create a link within a document, you enclose the content that you want to format as a link in an tag, and use the href attribute to identify the link target Example: Classes A link’s content is not limited to just text. You can create a hyperlink using an image too. Generally, a link should not contain any block-level elements: May Not Work: Heading This Is Better: Heading 4

5 Working with Web Site Structures A storyboard is a diagram of a Web site’s structure, showing all the pages in the site and indicating how they are linked together It is important to storyboard your Web site before you start creating your pages in order to determine which structure works best for the type of information the site contains A well-designed structure can ensure that users will be able to navigate the site without getting lost or missing important information 5

6 Linear Structures 6 A linear structure An augmented linear structure

7 Hierarchical Structures 7

8 Mixed Structures 8

9 9 Protected Structures Sections of most commercial Web sites are off-limits except to subscribers and registered customers

10 Navigation Lists in HTML 5 A navigation list is a list of links (e.g., a menu) to the topics in a website. The tag in HTML 5 accomplishes this: Home Tips Glossary 10

11 Creating Links Between Documents on the Same Website To link to a page, you specify the name of the file using the href attribute of the tag Example: Contact Info Filenames are case sensitive on some operating systems, including UNIX and Mac OS, but not on others The current standard is to use lowercase filenames for all files on a Website and to avoid special characters such as blanks and slashes You should also keep filenames short to avoid typing errors 11

12 Linking to a Specific Location Within Another Document When linking to a location within another document, you must use the id name of the location within the document and the filename content Example: Classes 12

13 Linking to Documents in Other Folders To create a link to a file located in a different folder than the current document, you must specify the file’s location, or path, so that browsers can find it HTML supports two kinds of paths: relative and absolute An absolute path specifies a file’s precise location within a computer’s entire folder structure Example: Help 13

14 Relative Paths A relative path specifies a file’s location in relation to the location of the current document If the file is in the same location as the current document, you do not have to specify the folder name Example: More Info If the file is in a subfolder of the current document, you have to include the name of the subfolder Example: Help 14

15 Relative Paths (continued) If you want to go one level up the folder tree, you start the relative path with a double period (..) then provide the name of the file Example: Faculty To specify a different folder on the same level, known as a sibling folder, you move up the folder tree using the double period (..) and then down the tree using the name of the sibling folder Example: Student Info You should almost always use relative paths in your links 15

16 A Sample Folder Tree 16

17 Understanding URLs A Uniform Resource Locator (URL) specifies the precise location of a resource on the Internet To create a link to a resource on the Internet, you need to know its URL A protocol is a set of rules defining how information is exchanged between two resources Your Web browser communicates with Web servers using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) The URLs for all Web pages must start with the scheme “http” Other Internet resources use different protocols and have different scheme names e.g., ftp, mailto 17

18 The Form of a URL 18 A sample URL for a Web page If you leave off the protocol, http is assumed. If you leave off the filename/id, index.html is assumed.

19 Linking to E- mail Many Web sites use to allow users to communicate with a site’s owner, or with the staff of the organization that runs the site You can turn an address into a link, so that when a user clicks on an address, the browser starts an program and automatically inserts the address into the “To” field of the new outgoing message Example: Send Mail to Rick 19

20 Hypertext Attributes: Target You can force a document to appear in a new window by adding the target attribute to the tag Examples: CNN (opens in a new browser called “window2”) CNN (opens in a new unnamed browser) CNN (opens in the current browser) 20

21 Hypertext Attributes: Title (Tool Tips) 21 A popup title or tool tip is a descriptive text that appears whenever a user positions the mouse pointer over a link. Since only some browsers support popup titles, you should not place crucial information in them. The title attribute produces the popup title. Home Page

22 Graphical Links on a Web Page: Image Maps To use a single image to access multiple hyperlinks, you must set up hotspots within the image A hotspot is a defined area of the image that acts as a hypertext link When a user clicks within a hotspot, the hyperlink is activated Hotspots are defined through the use of image maps, which list the positions of all hotspots within an image There are two types of image maps: server-side image maps and client-side image maps 22

23 Example Image and Image Map 23

24 Client-Side Image Maps A client-side image map is inserted in an image map into the HTML file The browser locally processes the image map - faster Because all of the processing is done locally, you can easily test Web pages list of hotspots 24

25 Defining Image Map Hotspots Define a hotspot using two properties: – Its location in the image – Its shape Syntax of the hotspot element: Shape and coordinates are: – rect ulx, uly, lrx, lry – circle x, y, radius – polygon x1, y1, x2, y2, x3, y3, … 25

26 Sample Set of Hotspots A sample rectangular hotspot is: A sample circular hotspot is: A sample polygonal hotspot is: 26

27 Putting It All Together 27


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