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Body paragraphs and citations. Essay Question Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the.

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Presentation on theme: "Body paragraphs and citations. Essay Question Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Body paragraphs and citations

2 Essay Question Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task below and a conclusion Theme: Geography Geographic features have affected the development of nations and regions. These factors have also promoted or hindered cultural diffusion Task: Select two different geographic factors and for each Explain how the geographic factor affected the development of a specific nation/region Discuss how that geographic feature promoted or hindered cultural diffusion

3 Step 1: Decide on two topics Examples: Step 2: Come up with a thesis Geographic features have affected the development of nations and regions. These factors have also promoted or hindered cultural diffusion.

4 Step 3: Writing a Body Paragraph T opic sentence I ntroduce evidence E vidence D escribe and analyze evidence (I) (E) (D) S ummarize

5 T- Topic Sentence Mini-thesis for your paragraph- let it guide you. It can change during the writing process. Examples: One of the major costs of the Neolithic Revolution was the decline in health.

6 I- Introduce the Evidence Give the reader some context to the topic and provide a home for your piece of evidence. Do not assume that your reader knows everything about the topic. Use your voice as an author. Example: One of the major costs of the Neolithic Revolution was the decline in health. When pre-historic humans made the switch from hunting and gathering to agriculture they were able to produce more food for more people. Instead of moving around from place to place and relying on wild vegetation and wild animals, they began to rely on cereal crops such as wheat, corn and rice.

7 E- Evidence When writing with sources, this should be a quote from a respectable source- NO WIKIPEDIA and no textbook. If you use someone’s words and you don’t cite, it’s PLAGARISM so err on the side of caution The Quote: Use quotations at strategically selected moments 1.Discussing specific arguments or ideas, challenging or supporting a historian’s ideas – "At the beginning of World War Two, almost all Americans assumed the war would end quickly.” – Historian John Doe has argued that in 1941 "almost all Americans assumed the war would end quickly" (Doe 223). Yet during the first six months of U.S. involvement, the wives and mothers of soldiers often noted in their diaries their fear that the war would drag on for years. – Source http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/quotations.html

8 E- Evidence 2. Using primary sources to emphasize your topic- firsthand perspectives make good quotes – It it’s a long quote, decide what can stay and what can go without losing the impact – If you add words to the quote or change the tense, use brackets ex: [the] reasons, walk[ed] – Use [sic] to denote that you did not make a typo but recognize you are not using standard language (like with the case of British words or slang) 3. Paraphrasing- putting someone else’s ideas into your own words.

9 The original passage: Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47. A legitimate paraphrase: In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47). An acceptable summary: Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources to help minimize the amount of quoted material in a research paper (Lester 46-47). A plagiarized version: Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/02/

10 D- Describe the evidence In your own words, describe or analyze the evidence Evidence is there to support YOUR voice and writing Provides the bookend for “I” Example: One of the major costs of the Neolithic Revolution was the decline in health. When pre-historic humans made the switch from hunting and gathering to agriculture they were able to produce more food for more people. Instead of moving around from place to place and relying on wild vegetation and wild animals, they began to rely on cereal crops such as wheat, corn and rice. For example, “…hunter-gatherers enjoyed a varied diet, while early farmers obtained most of their food from one or a few starchy crops. The farmers gained cheap calories at the cost of poor nutrition (Diamond 65). Even though these farms had a reliable source of food, there were unforeseen consequences of increasing rates of disease and vitamin deficiencies. How could I add to this paragraph to strengthen my argument?

11 S- Summarize In 1-2 sentences summarize the paragraph AND transition to the next paragraph Example: One of the major costs of the Neolithic Revolution was the decline in health. When pre-historic humans made the switch from hunting and gathering to agriculture they were able to produce more food for more people. Instead of moving around from place to place and relying on wild vegetation and wild animals, they began to rely on cereal crops such as wheat, corn and rice. For example, “…hunter-gatherers enjoyed a varied diet, while early farmers obtained most of their food from one or a few starchy crops. The farmers gained cheap calories at the cost of poor nutrition” (Diamond 65). Even though these farms had a reliable source of food, there were unforeseen consequences of increasing rates of disease and vitamin deficiencies. Therefore, even though there were some benefits with the switch to agriculture impact on health had a major impact on the quality of life. Similarly, the Neolithic Revolution also had a major impact on the quality of life for women.

12 MLA Citations- Works Cited Arrange in alphabetical order according to last name or title. Article print format Diamond, Jared.”The Worst Mistake In The History Of The Human Race.” Discover. May 1987: 64-66. Electronic Source Name of Site. Date of Posting/Revision. Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sometimes found in copyright statements). Date you accessed the site [electronic address]. See http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/ for a guidehttp://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/ WIKIPEDIA IS NOT AN ACCEPTABLE SOURCE!

13 "Beginner Tip: Presenting Your Page with Style." Webmaster Tips Newsletter. July 2000. NetMechanic. 13 Oct. 2002 . Begley, Sharon, et al. "Mapping the Brain." Newsweek 20 Apr. 1992: 66-70. Berger, Bob. "Mapping the Mindfields." Omni Jan. 1992: 56-58. Damasio, Antonio R. "Aphasia." The New England Journal of Medicine 326 (1992): 531-39. "Nurturing Development of the Brain." Editorial. New York Times 28 Apr. 1997, late ed.: A14. Works Cited

14 Thesis: Charlemagne is often considered a ‘light’ in the Dark Ages. Task: Write 1 body paragraph that supports this thesis using at LEAST ONE quote. If you finish, either add a paraphrase or write a new paragraph using paraphrase instead of a quote. Ideally, your body paragraphs will be a mix of methods- quotes, paraphrase, and data Now it’s your turn!


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