5Fuel Cell Powered Glider Electric GliderFuel Cell Powered Glider
6Piloted Fuel Cell Aircraft 2-place Electric DynAero
7Benefits of Electric Aircraft Increased Reliability – 1 moving part!Improved SafetyQUIET - only propeller noiseImproved Comfort and Easy MaintenanceNo VibrationReduced life-cycle costsNO EMISSIONS !
8Why Fuel Cells High Efficiency – 2.5 X Gasoline Engines (60% vs. 23%) Zero Emissions – Only Water VaporNo odors or fumesHydrogen Fuel – Sustainable and RenewableHigh Energy Density – WH/kg2-3 X battery density
9The Energy Challenge ! Airplane needs 25kW Power @ 100 mph 300 Mi. flight requires 75 kWh of EnergyEnergy system Weight for 75kWh:- Lead Acid Batteries = 3000 kg- NiMH Batteries = 1500 kg- LiIon Batteries = kgFuel Cell system (+ 3 kg H2) = 165 kg(Gasoline Equivalent = 100 kg !)
10The Challenge – Matching the energy density of Gasoline and IC Engines? Gasoline =13,200 WH/kg@ 20% effic. Net = 2600 WH/kgBest LiIon Batts = 200 WH/kgStill a 13:1 advantage for Gas!!(H2 = 30,000 WH/kg)Issues – Weight, Volume, HEAT, (+$$)
11Hurdles & Issues System Weight – Power Density/Effic. Support Components – Power & WeightHydrogen Storage/Generation SystemHeat Transfer methods & HEX SystemSafety Issues – FAA + OngoingCustomer AcceptanceCostly Technology
12Hydrogen Sources H2 Gas - High Pressure Tank – 5000 psi Liquid Hydrogen – Cryo issuesReformed Gasoline – CO, CO2Methanol/Ethanol – Direct or reformateAmmonia (dissociated) – high yieldSodium borohydride – safe, costlyMagnesium HydrideOther ??
14Selected Aircraft for Conversion AGA Lafayette IIIAll Carbon Kit - 28’ WingWe/Wo = .3180 hp. Rotax 912< 12 kW to CruiseVne of 180+ kts
15Aircraft Modeling for Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Motor Conversion NASA GRC MCR01 ULM Kit PlaneAirbreathing Systems Analysis Office (NASA GRC)Systems Analysis Branch (NASA LaRC)
16MCR01 ULM Fuel Cell Conversion Power Density Technology Sensitivity: PDPMAD = 1.06 kW/kg MCR01/Rotax 912> 800 nm Range800Advanced TechnologyFuel Cell Stack Power Density: kW/kgElectric Motor Power Density: kW/kgPMAD Power Density: kW/kgRange = 336 nm2.3Gross weight constant at 992 lb limit2.52.02.31.18.104.22.168PDStack (kW/kg)PDMotor (kW/kg)22.214.171.124.3Applied State-of-the-Art TechnologyFuel Cell Stack Power Density: kW/kgElectric Motor Power Density: kW/kgPMAD Power Density: kW/kgRange = 58 nmFurther performance gains possible only if PMAD weight is reduced!
17MCR01 ULM Fuel Cell Conversion Power Density Technology Sensitivity: PDPMAD = 2.60 kW/kg Advanced TechnologyFuel Cell Stack Power Density: kW/kgElectric Motor Power Density: kW/kgPMAD Power Density: kW/kgRange = 644 nm126.96.36.199.02.11.81.91.71.71.5PDStack (kW/kg)1.51.3PDMotor (kW/kg)Gross weight constant at 992 lb limitDiminishing returns on range – The heavy compressed hydrogen tank limits further gains.
18Program ObjectivesDemonstrate viability of Fuel Cell powered electric propelled aircraftDetermine the optimum energy sourceAnalyze performance parameters & rangeDesign/develop High efficiency H2 PEM fuel cellIntegrate all components into Airframe and TestProvide educational vehicle for students
22Battery + Fuel Cell System Rqmts. Max Power - Batteries + Fuel Cell kwBus voltage DCNet Stack power - cont kwNo. of CellsEfficiency %Fuel Cell sys. Wt. (w/sgl.H2 tank) 80 kgBattery + Master Power Xtrol Wt kgTotal Energy System Weight 130 kg
23Fuel Cell System target weight Stack (10-18kW) 25 kgBlower (Compressor)+ duct 5 kgMisc. BOP, plumbing, sensors 4 kgHEX System w/Radiators 9 kgDC-DC Up-convertor 7 kgFuel Cell Controller/mon. 5 kgDynatech Tank/Reg kgMounting + Misc kgTOTAL fuel Cell System Weight 78 kg
24New Lynntech Stack Design Ultrahigh Efficiency(60%)LightWeight – Metal (NoGraphite) Bipolar PlatesAmbient Air OpsNo CompressorNo Hydrators
26Specific Energy Equivalent Total Fuel Cell System Sgl. Tank - 78 kg System - 1 kg H2 = 24 kWHNet Energy Density = 24/78 = 307 WH/kgDbl. Tank – 96 kg system – 2 kg H2 = 48 kWHNet Energy Density = 48/96 = 500 WH/kg
27Boeing Fuel Cell Glider Activities System IntegrationHydrogen storageLiquid to air heat exchangerBatteriesHydrogen delivery/regulationFuel Cell StackPower Conditioner, Regulation, Battery chargerMotor ControllerMotorFuel Cell ControllerElectric controlled propellerLegendFuelElectricityLiquid CoolantControlProp Control“Throttle”Outside AirSystem Lay – out DesignMotor and DriveFuel Cell SystemsCompressorHeat exchangerPumpsControllerBatteryControllers and ConvertersH2 System
29Safety and Flight Testing Major concern on all new AircraftPilot and Airframe issues
30Safety and Flight Testing (Whoops – wrong button !)
31Energy System Challenges Energy DensityThermal ManagementRecharge or RefuelIntegration of Solar PVCostLifeReliability
32Technology Evolution Area Today Future (2020) Motor/Xtrol 2kw/kg kw/kgFuel Cell Sys. 2kw/kg 5-6 kw/kgFuel/H2 Storage 7% H2 – Wt %Energy Storage 200 WH/kg WH/kgEnergy Produced 150 kWH kWHRange Mi mi.
33Emerging Energy Solutions Advanced Batteries – Lithium Ion +High Density UltraCaps – EEStor – OtherNanoStructured Electrodes – WH/kgHigh Temp Fuel Cells – Higher power densityAdvanced H2 Storage – New mat’ls + tanksNew Energy Gen. Sources - Many
34Future Technology Options Airframe Weight reductionImproved Airframe/Propulsion EfficiencyEnergy/Fuel Storage optionsHigher Energy Density Storage TechsNew Designs with integrated storageImproved Solar PV Design - Integration