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Fuel Cell Electric Aircraft Energy Challenge New Era of Aviation James Dunn Advanced Technology Products Worcester, MA Electric Aircraft Symposium San.

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Presentation on theme: "Fuel Cell Electric Aircraft Energy Challenge New Era of Aviation James Dunn Advanced Technology Products Worcester, MA Electric Aircraft Symposium San."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fuel Cell Electric Aircraft Energy Challenge New Era of Aviation James Dunn Advanced Technology Products Worcester, MA Electric Aircraft Symposium San Fran – May 2007

2 Fuel cells in Aviation  Electric UAV’s – Helios-NASA- Aerovironment  Auxiliary Power – Boeing APU – Madrid +  Electric Airships – HAA – Lockheed Martin  Electric Propulsion - Manned aircraft - E-Plane

3 Aerovironment “HELIOS” UAV Regenerative fuel cell system

4 High Altitude Airship Solar PV and Fuel Cells

5 Electric Glider Fuel Cell Powered Glider

6 Piloted Fuel Cell Aircraft 2-place Electric DynAero

7 Benefits of Electric Aircraft  Increased Reliability – 1 moving part!  Improved Safety  QUIET - only propeller noise  Improved Comfort and Easy Maintenance  No Vibration  Reduced life-cycle costs  NO EMISSIONS !

8 Why Fuel Cells  High Efficiency – 2.5 X Gasoline Engines (60% vs. 23%)  Zero Emissions – Only Water Vapor No odors or fumes No odors or fumes  Hydrogen Fuel – Sustainable and Renewable  High Energy Density – 300 - 600 WH/kg 2-3 X battery density 2-3 X battery density

9 The Energy Challenge !  Airplane needs 25kW Power @ 100 mph  300 Mi. flight requires 75 kWh of Energy  Energy system Weight for 75kWh: - Lead Acid Batteries = 3000 kg - Lead Acid Batteries = 3000 kg - NiMH Batteries = 1500 kg - NiMH Batteries = 1500 kg - LiIon Batteries = 600 kg - LiIon Batteries = 600 kg Fuel Cell system (+ 3 kg H2) = 165 kg (Gasoline Equivalent = 100 kg !) (Gasoline Equivalent = 100 kg !)

10 The Challenge – Matching the energy density of Gasoline and IC Engines? Gasoline =13,200 WH/kg @ 20% effic. Net = 2600 WH/kg @ 20% effic. Net = 2600 WH/kg Best LiIon Batts = 200 WH/kg Still a 13:1 advantage for Gas!! (H 2 = 30,000 WH/kg) Issues – Weight, Volume, HEAT, (+$$)

11 Hurdles & Issues  System Weight – Power Density/Effic.  Support Components – Power & Weight  Hydrogen Storage/Generation System  Heat Transfer methods & HEX System  Safety Issues – FAA + Ongoing  Customer Acceptance  Costly Technology

12 Hydrogen Sources  H2 Gas - High Pressure Tank – 5000 psi  Liquid Hydrogen – Cryo issues  Reformed Gasoline – CO, CO2  Methanol/Ethanol – Direct or reformate  Ammonia (dissociated) – high yield  Sodium borohydride – safe, costly  Magnesium Hydride  Other ??

13 NASA Fuel Cell Study Elements:

14 Selected Aircraft for Conversion  AGA Lafayette III  All Carbon Kit - 28’ Wing  W e /W o =.31 80 hp. Rotax 912 < 12 kW to Cruise Vne of 180+ kts

15 Aircraft Modeling for Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Motor Conversion NASA GRC MCR01 ULM Kit Plane Airbreathing Systems Analysis Office (NASA GRC) Systems Analysis Branch (NASA LaRC)

16 MCR01 ULM Fuel Cell Conversion Power Density Technology Sensitivity: PD PMAD = 1.06 kW/kg 800 Further performance gains possible only if PMAD weight is reduced! Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Stack Power Density: 2.50 kW/kg Electric Motor Power Density: 2.30 kW/kg PMAD Power Density: 1.06 kW/kg Range = 336 nm Applied State-of-the-Art Technology Fuel Cell Stack Power Density: 1.57 kW/kg Electric Motor Power Density: 1.35 kW/kg PMAD Power Density: 1.06 kW/kg Range = 58 nm MCR01/Rotax 912 > 800 nm Range 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.8 2.0 2.3 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.5 PD Motor (kW/kg) PD Stack (kW/kg) Gross weight constant at 992 lb limit

17 MCR01 ULM Fuel Cell Conversion Power Density Technology Sensitivity: PD PMAD = 2.60 kW/kg 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.8 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.5 2.0 2.3 PD Motor (kW/kg) PD Stack (kW/kg) Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Stack Power Density: 2.50 kW/kg Electric Motor Power Density: 2.30 kW/kg PMAD Power Density: 2.60 kW/kg Range = 644 nm Diminishing returns on range – The heavy compressed hydrogen tank limits further gains. Gross weight constant at 992 lb limit

18 Program Objectives  Demonstrate viability of Fuel Cell powered electric propelled aircraft  Determine the optimum energy source  Analyze performance parameters & range  Design/develop High efficiency H 2 PEM fuel cell  Integrate all components into Airframe and Test  Provide educational vehicle for students

19 Basic Schematic of Components

20 Students at Oshkosh

21 Energy Distribution

22 Battery + Fuel Cell System Rqmts. Max Power - Batteries + Fuel Cell 75 kw Bus voltage270 DC Net Stack power - cont. 17 kw No. of Cells 180 Efficiency 60 % Fuel Cell sys. Wt. (w/sgl.H2 tank) 80 kg Battery + Master Power Xtrol Wt. 50 kg Total Energy System Weight130 kg

23 Fuel Cell System target weight  Stack (10-18kW)25 kg  Blower (Compressor)+ duct 5 kg  Misc. BOP, plumbing, sensors 4 kg  HEX System w/Radiators 9 kg  DC-DC Up-convertor 7 kg  Fuel Cell Controller/mon. 5 kg  Dynatech Tank/Reg.18 kg  Mounting + Misc. 5 kg  TOTAL fuel Cell System Weight78 kg

24 New Lynntech Stack Design  Ultrahigh Efficiency (60%) (60%)  LightWeight – Metal (No Graphite) Bipolar Plates Graphite) Bipolar Plates  Ambient Air Ops No Compressor No Compressor No Hydrators No Hydrators

25 10 kW Fuel Cell Stack DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS  180 cells  300 cm 2 active area  Generation 3 endplates  10.25 kW @ 16 psia  137 V  75 A  50 ˚C  25 kg (hydrated)  400 W/kg (@ 250 mA/cm 2 )  720 W/kg (@500 mA/cm 2 ) 18KW

26 Specific Energy Equivalent Total Fuel Cell System  Sgl. Tank - 78 kg System - 1 kg H2 = 24 kWH Net Energy Density = 24/78 = 307 WH/kg  Dbl. Tank – 96 kg system – 2 kg H2 = 48 kWH Net Energy Density = 48/96 = 500 WH/kg

27 Boeing Fuel Cell Glider Activities System Integration  System Lay – out Design Motor and Drive Fuel Cell Systems Compressor Heat exchanger Pumps Controller Battery Controllers and Converters H2 System Hydrogen storage Liquid to air heat exchanger Batteries Hydrogen delivery/regulat ion Fuel Cell Stack Power Conditioner, Regulation, Battery charger Motor Controller Motor Fuel Cell Controller Electric controlled propeller Legend Fuel Electricity Liquid Coolant Control Prop Control “Throttle” Outside Air

28 Boeing Activities Electrical Subsystem  Electrical Subsystem Configuration  Power Balance Power Demand Motor & Drive Controllers Converters Power Generation Fuel Cells Battery Ground Auxiliary Power

29 Safety and Flight Testing  Major concern on all new Aircraft  Pilot and Airframe issues

30 Safety and Flight Testing (Whoops – wrong button !)

31 Energy System Challenges  Energy Density  Thermal Management  Recharge or Refuel  Integration of Solar PV  Cost  Life  Reliability

32 Technology Evolution AreaTodayFuture (2020)  Motor/Xtrol 2kw/kg8-10 kw/kg  Fuel Cell Sys.2kw/kg5-6 kw/kg  Fuel/H2 Storage7% H2 – Wt.12-15 %  Energy Storage200 WH/kg5-800 WH/kg  Energy Produced150 kWH1000 kWH  Range100 Mi1000 mi.

33 Emerging Energy Solutions  Advanced Batteries – Lithium Ion +  High Density UltraCaps – EEStor – Other NanoStructured Electrodes – 500-2000 WH/kg  High Temp Fuel Cells – Higher power density  Advanced H2 Storage – New mat’ls + tanks  New Energy Gen. Sources - Many

34 Future Technology Options  Airframe Weight reduction  Improved Airframe/Propulsion Efficiency  Energy/Fuel Storage options  Higher Energy Density Storage Techs  New Designs with integrated storage  Improved Solar PV Design - Integration

35 Future Electric PAV ?

36 CarterCopter Hi-Speed Electric GyroCopter

37


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