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Audio 2 Arienne M. Dwyer University of Kansas Toshi Nakayama Tokyo University of Foreign Studies Yoshi Ono University of Alberta, Canada.

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Presentation on theme: "Audio 2 Arienne M. Dwyer University of Kansas Toshi Nakayama Tokyo University of Foreign Studies Yoshi Ono University of Alberta, Canada."— Presentation transcript:

1 Audio 2 Arienne M. Dwyer University of Kansas Toshi Nakayama Tokyo University of Foreign Studies Yoshi Ono University of Alberta, Canada

2 Topics Recorders (stand-alone recorders and computer-based recording devices) Microphones Accessories (memory cards, cables, adaptors, mic stands, batteries, bags) Digital transfer/archiving Signal processing (noise removal, concealing identity, etc. by Carlos) Shopping consultation

3 Goals What do you know/want to learn? – to: – We don’t know everything but we will try We want to make it a forum to talk about recording Activities – way to make you an independent recordist

4 Recording Aim: to make the highest possible quality recordings, but consider: Limits of budget, equipment, and training Whatever your budget, get the best you can possibly buy and operate. Comfort of speaker/singers – keeping a crowd quiet may stop a storyteller’s flow – large or multiple microphones may be threatening Naturalness of linguistic/cultural setting – in situ – often includes crowd noise, interruptions, doors slamming, chickens, drumming, etc.

5 (Relatively) low priced recommended recorders Edirol R09HR ($250) Olympus LS10; 11 ($300; $400) Marantz PMD620 ($400)

6 (Relatively) low priced recommended recorders Zoom H2 ($140) Zoom H4n ($300; XLR) Tascam (probably very good; no track record)

7 middle priced/larger recommended recorders Marantz PMD661 ($600; XLR) Fostex FR2 LE ($600; XLR; compact flash card) For phonetics: – Marantz 661 or Foxtex FR2 LE with Oade modification (advanced mod)

8 Bartlomiej Plichta’s site (recommendations and detailed equipment reviews; technical) – Avisoft (animal sound measuring; their equipment measurements are fantastic/technical) – – –

9 Microphones Price varies ($5 - $10,000; spend minimally $100) Internal vs. External – Internal: avoid them (all pick up handling noise) – Check to see if the recorder has a mic input Zoom H2? Mono vs. Stereo – Mono - one channel – stereo - two; from stereo mic or two mono mics

10 Cables XLR - most common in professional audio For balanced audio cables; the 3-pin versions are most often used Bulky! Mini-plug (3.5 mm) It can create noise (play ex)

11 Microphones Dynamic vs. Condenser – Dynamic - durable, need no extra power; avoid them for the recommended recorders – Condenser – need power, more sensitive but more fragile, batteries, plug-in power (mini-plug), or phantom power (XLR) Zoom H2? Wired vs.Wireless – Wireless: unconnected, signal via radio frequency – Wireless mikes can have dropouts, or signal obstruction, but allow freedom of movement and are therefore a good choice with e.g. children

12 Microphones Directionality: Omni vs. Unidirectional – Omnidirectional: operates equally well in all directions (Uni)directional: receives signal more efficiently from a specific direction than from all other direction

13 Microphones Cardioid (heart-shaped pickup) – very useful overall functionality; Also Hypercardioid, Supercardioid Shotgun – a highly-directional microphone with a narrow oval/ tubular pattern and extremely reduced pickup from the sides and rear.

14 Microphones Lavalier/lapel (clip-on) – normally omnidirectional A miniature microphone that is usually worn fastened to clothing; often used in pairs to record conversation between two speakers Headset – normally directional Advantages: Makes excellent quality recordings, as it follows the speaker's movements Disadvantages: invasive for speakers

15 Microphones Boundary - noninvasive, good for multiple speakers; normally omni directional (e.g. talk around a table)

16 Specs: – Shure 58 SM58 – Beyerdynamic MCE58 Use a directional mic if possible and appropriate (e.g. sole speaker) Keep mics close to speaker/singer Use foam filter to prevent pops from mouth close to mic

17 uments/webcontent/us_pro_sm58_specsheet.pdf america.beyerdynamic.com/shop/media//dat enblaetter/MCE58_DB_E.pdf

18 Day 2 Recording practice Accessories/auxiliaries Direct-to-computer recording

19 Let’s record Take a recording device and a mic and try making a recording in the way by which the mic is intended to be used Study all the specs of and the buttons on the recorder/mic before you leave the room Take headphones with you Go out and record Listen to the recordings together

20 Planning/preparing/practicing Make plans – What microphones and devices would be most appropriate? – Site survey – Check out local stores to see what they carry Test equipment and practice using it! – Test in the comfort of your home – Before you leave home/the night before, re-test it. – Emptied memory cards, cables, adaptors, stand, headphone, fresh batteries…. – Don’t forget metadata forms! – Your goal is to make good recording in “naturalistic” environments

21 Horrible stories to share Talk about tough situations where you had to record and/or will be recording

22 Electricity National power supplies: 220v, 110v, or something else? Wall AC Outlets: bring adaptors Availability: 24 hrs? Certain times of day? Quality: “brown”? (irregular, surging power, lots of spikes) Power and your hosts: – excessive burden on electrical grid? – compensate if excessive (e.g. if using video lights)

23 Batteries Single use – Alkaline (carry them as backups) – Lithium (much longer-lasting; expensive) Rechageable (environment friendly) – Nickel-Cadmium (Ni-Cad) Memory effect – Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) – Sanyo Eneloop (very reliable!)

24 Memory cards Get two minimally Compact Flash (CF) card: better but more expensive;will probably die out relatively soon Secure Digital (SD) card: cheaper; will be good for some time Check the size of memory your recorder can deal with (Edirol R09HR can take 8GB SD card) – Zoom H2? Edirol R09HR? Sometimes upgrading firmware ups the size Get a card reader

25 Other things Cables Adaptors – Y adaptor for stereo recording – Hosa (cable/connector manufacturer) – The Soundprofessionals – B&H – Radio Shack (get two) Stands Equipment bags K&M 231/1 – Kata, Lowpro, Porta-Brace, Crumpler, Tamrac….

26 Day 3 Direct-to-computer recording Digital transfer/archiving Signal processing (noise removal, concealing identity, etc. by Carlos)

27 Direct to computer recording Cakewalk UA-1G ($100; okay quality; also for analog/DAT cassette to digital transfer) – Make sample recording Centrance MicPort Pro ($150; high quality) – Make sample recording Sound Devices USBPre ($550; for phonetics; also for analog/DAT cassette to digital transfer)

28 Digital transfer/archiving Ask around (libraries, university tech services, research consortiums/units, music depts) Professional services (they are costly) Canaan Media (media transfer (e.g., tapes to CDs)) – If you want to do it on your own, you need an audio interface – Cakewalk UA-1G – Sound Devices USBPre

29 Digital transfer/archiving Reel to reel (talk to pros) Audio cassette – Tascam deck Tascam 202mkV Combination deck For a portable, have to go to – Sony Walkman WM-D6C, Marantz PMD430, Sony TC-D5M, etc.

30 Digital transfer/archiving You have to go to ebay for DAT decks/walkman – Check sampling rate 32 kHz, 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz DAT walkman needs a very special cable – blurb/1.php

31 Digital transfer/archiving MD – You need a deck Portable MD players lack digital output connectors Tascam MD-02B – Or you need to get a H-MD portable recorder Sony MZM200 (through Sony’s transfering software) H-MD – Sony MZM200 (through Sony’s transfering software)

32 Digital transfer/archiving Sampling rate etc. – 44.1 kHz/16 bit ? You need to digitize the same material pretty regularly (every 5 years?) – Technological advance in digital technology – Costly Server with automatic backup (Portable) harddisk “Archival quality” DVDs

33 Signal processing Converstion wav to mp3 Amplifying Noise removal Concealing identity

34 Reviews Find and read two reviews for H2 – Reviews for regular consumers – Reviews for recodists/musicians – Reviews for linguists


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