Presentation on theme: "Audio 2 Arienne M. Dwyer University of Kansas Toshi Nakayama Tokyo University of Foreign Studies Yoshi Ono University of Alberta, Canada."— Presentation transcript:
Audio 2 Arienne M. Dwyer University of Kansas Toshi Nakayama Tokyo University of Foreign Studies Yoshi Ono University of Alberta, Canada
Topics Recorders (stand-alone recorders and computer-based recording devices) Microphones Accessories (memory cards, cables, adaptors, mic stands, batteries, bags) Digital transfer/archiving Signal processing (noise removal, concealing identity, etc. by Carlos) Shopping consultation
Goals What do you know/want to learn? – Email to: firstname.lastname@example.org – We don’t know everything but we will try We want to make it a forum to talk about recording Activities – way to make you an independent recordist
Recording Aim: to make the highest possible quality recordings, but consider: Limits of budget, equipment, and training Whatever your budget, get the best you can possibly buy and operate. Comfort of speaker/singers – keeping a crowd quiet may stop a storyteller’s flow – large or multiple microphones may be threatening Naturalness of linguistic/cultural setting – in situ – often includes crowd noise, interruptions, doors slamming, chickens, drumming, etc.
(Relatively) low priced recommended recorders Zoom H2 ($140) Zoom H4n ($300; XLR) Tascam (probably very good; no track record)
middle priced/larger recommended recorders Marantz PMD661 ($600; XLR) Fostex FR2 LE ($600; XLR; compact flash card) For phonetics: – Marantz 661 or Foxtex FR2 LE with Oade modification (advanced mod) http://www.oade.com/
Bartlomiej Plichta’s site (recommendations and detailed equipment reviews; technical) – http://bartus.org/akustyk/ Avisoft (animal sound measuring; their equipment measurements are fantastic/technical) – http://www.avisoft.com/tutorial.htm – http://www.avisoft.com/tutorial_field_recording.htm – http://www.avisoft.com/recordertests.htm
Microphones Price varies ($5 - $10,000; spend minimally $100) Internal vs. External – Internal: avoid them (all pick up handling noise) – Check to see if the recorder has a mic input Zoom H2? Mono vs. Stereo – Mono - one channel – stereo - two; from stereo mic or two mono mics
Cables XLR - most common in professional audio For balanced audio cables; the 3-pin versions are most often used Bulky! Mini-plug (3.5 mm) It can create noise (play ex)
Microphones Dynamic vs. Condenser – Dynamic - durable, need no extra power; avoid them for the recommended recorders – Condenser – need power, more sensitive but more fragile, batteries, plug-in power (mini-plug), or phantom power (XLR) Zoom H2? Wired vs.Wireless – Wireless: unconnected, signal via radio frequency – Wireless mikes can have dropouts, or signal obstruction, but allow freedom of movement and are therefore a good choice with e.g. children
Microphones Directionality: Omni vs. Unidirectional – Omnidirectional: operates equally well in all directions (Uni)directional: receives signal more efficiently from a specific direction than from all other direction
Microphones Cardioid (heart-shaped pickup) – very useful overall functionality; Also Hypercardioid, Supercardioid Shotgun – a highly-directional microphone with a narrow oval/ tubular pattern and extremely reduced pickup from the sides and rear.
Microphones Lavalier/lapel (clip-on) – normally omnidirectional A miniature microphone that is usually worn fastened to clothing; often used in pairs to record conversation between two speakers Headset – normally directional Advantages: Makes excellent quality recordings, as it follows the speaker's movements Disadvantages: invasive for speakers
Microphones Boundary - noninvasive, good for multiple speakers; normally omni directional (e.g. talk around a table)
Specs: – Shure 58 SM58 – Beyerdynamic MCE58 Use a directional mic if possible and appropriate (e.g. sole speaker) Keep mics close to speaker/singer Use foam filter to prevent pops from mouth close to mic
Day 2 Recording practice Accessories/auxiliaries Direct-to-computer recording
Let’s record Take a recording device and a mic and try making a recording in the way by which the mic is intended to be used Study all the specs of and the buttons on the recorder/mic before you leave the room Take headphones with you Go out and record Listen to the recordings together
Planning/preparing/practicing Make plans – What microphones and devices would be most appropriate? – Site survey – Check out local stores to see what they carry Test equipment and practice using it! – Test in the comfort of your home – Before you leave home/the night before, re-test it. – Emptied memory cards, cables, adaptors, stand, headphone, fresh batteries…. – Don’t forget metadata forms! – Your goal is to make good recording in “naturalistic” environments
Horrible stories to share Talk about tough situations where you had to record and/or will be recording
Electricity National power supplies: 220v, 110v, or something else? Wall AC Outlets: bring adaptors Availability: 24 hrs? Certain times of day? Quality: “brown”? (irregular, surging power, lots of spikes) Power and your hosts: – excessive burden on electrical grid? – compensate if excessive (e.g. if using video lights)
Batteries Single use – Alkaline (carry them as backups) – Lithium (much longer-lasting; expensive) Rechageable (environment friendly) – Nickel-Cadmium (Ni-Cad) Memory effect – Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) – Sanyo Eneloop (very reliable!) http://sanyo.com/eneloop/concept_u/index.html
Memory cards Get two minimally Compact Flash (CF) card: better but more expensive;will probably die out relatively soon Secure Digital (SD) card: cheaper; will be good for some time Check the size of memory your recorder can deal with (Edirol R09HR can take 8GB SD card) – Zoom H2? Edirol R09HR? Sometimes upgrading firmware ups the size Get a card reader
Other things Cables Adaptors – Y adaptor for stereo recording – Hosa (cable/connector manufacturer) – The Soundprofessionals – B&H – Radio Shack (get two) Stands Equipment bags K&M 231/1 – Kata, Lowpro, Porta-Brace, Crumpler, Tamrac….
Day 3 Direct-to-computer recording Digital transfer/archiving Signal processing (noise removal, concealing identity, etc. by Carlos)
Direct to computer recording Cakewalk UA-1G ($100; okay quality; also for analog/DAT cassette to digital transfer) – Make sample recording Centrance MicPort Pro ($150; high quality) – Make sample recording Sound Devices USBPre ($550; for phonetics; also for analog/DAT cassette to digital transfer)
Digital transfer/archiving Ask around (libraries, university tech services, research consortiums/units, music depts) Professional services (they are costly) Canaan Media (media transfer (e.g., tapes to CDs)) – http://canaanmedia.com/index.htm If you want to do it on your own, you need an audio interface – Cakewalk UA-1G – Sound Devices USBPre
Digital transfer/archiving Reel to reel (talk to pros) Audio cassette – Tascam deck Tascam 202mkV Combination deck For a portable, have to go to – Sony Walkman WM-D6C, Marantz PMD430, Sony TC-D5M, etc.
Digital transfer/archiving You have to go to ebay for DAT decks/walkman – Check sampling rate 32 kHz, 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz DAT walkman needs a very special cable – http://www.core-sound.com/7-pin-coax- blurb/1.php
Digital transfer/archiving MD – You need a deck Portable MD players lack digital output connectors Tascam MD-02B – Or you need to get a H-MD portable recorder Sony MZM200 (through Sony’s transfering software) H-MD – Sony MZM200 (through Sony’s transfering software)
Digital transfer/archiving Sampling rate etc. – 44.1 kHz/16 bit ? You need to digitize the same material pretty regularly (every 5 years?) – Technological advance in digital technology – Costly Server with automatic backup (Portable) harddisk “Archival quality” DVDs
Signal processing Converstion wav to mp3 Amplifying Noise removal Concealing identity
Reviews Find and read two reviews for H2 – Reviews for regular consumers – Reviews for recodists/musicians – Reviews for linguists