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Power Electronics in Hybrid Energy Networks Johan Enslin David Elizondo KEMA Inc. T&D Consulting Raleigh, NC USA.

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Presentation on theme: "Power Electronics in Hybrid Energy Networks Johan Enslin David Elizondo KEMA Inc. T&D Consulting Raleigh, NC USA."— Presentation transcript:

1 Power Electronics in Hybrid Energy Networks Johan Enslin David Elizondo KEMA Inc. T&D Consulting Raleigh, NC USA

2 2 Outline n The Future of Energy  Hydrogen Economy  Hybrid Hydrogen Economy  Energy Web Concept and Distributed Power n Power Electronics’ role in the Future of Energy  Interconnection of Large-scale PV  Interconnection of Wind Energy n Energy Storage’s and FACTS role in the Future of Energy

3 3 Hydrogen Hope and Gamble

4 4 Grid-less Hydrogen Society?

5 5 Electrolyzer - Water purification - Regulators - Gas dryer - Integrated Heating - CHP Hydrogen Storage Hybrid AC/DC Networks H 2 Gas + - V Water Supply H 2 Trucking H 2 Pipeline O 2 Gas Peak Shaving Fuel Cell Power Electronics - Grid Interconnection - STATCOM / APF - Max Power Tracker - Electricity Storage - Transfer Switch Control, Protection Comms Local H 2 Use DP - Network - Hydrogen Hybrid System Concept Electrical Interconnection Transport

6 6 Energy Web Concept Residence Factory CHP Wind Microturbine Commercial CHP Central Generation Fuel Cell Flywheel Substation Photovoltaic Storage Power & Communications Links Gas Turbines Fuel Cell Car Flow Batteries Pumped Storage Decentralized DER Dispatch Data Centers

7 7 Energy Web Concepts n Characteristics of Energy Supply in 2010  Nuclear Generation: Upgrade and Replace Centralized Nuclear Generation and Small Scale Pebble Bed Modular Nuclear Reactors  Gas & Electrical Networks merge – Move to Hydrogen  Renewable Energy Generation: Targets 10 - 20% (Environmental)  High premium on Network Reliability and Security  Shift from power supply to service orientated culture

8 8 Energy Web Concepts--Cont n Technology  Higher Efficiency for Distributed Generation  Flexible and lower cost power electronic interfaces  Less NO x and CO 2 generation  Low-cost, flexible energy storage n Interconnections and Regulations  Standardization of Power and Communication Interfaces  Simplified regulations for small DP  Safety considerations in island operation  Formation of self-sustained islanding mini grids

9 9 Energy Web Concepts--Cont n Distributed Power has to Offer:  “Plug & Play” Functionality with enforced standards  Intelligent Communicating Components – Extra services  Network Reliability, Quality, Stability and Security built-in Power Electronics  Multi-fuel driven micro-turbine technologies  High efficiency technologies with CHP functionality  Interface Between Hybrid AC / DC / Gas / Hydrogen Networks

10 10 Distributed and Renewable Power n Dutch Government and Utilities promote use of renewables with subsidies and customer programs. n Dutch generation  > 35% distributed CHP  Wind (10%) n Some whole suburbs are installed with roof-mounted PV arrays n Nieuwland  500 homes in total 12 000 m² PV.  1 GWh Renewable Energy n 6 GW off-shore wind power is currently planned for 2020. Amersfoortse suburb Nieuwland

11 11 Distributed Power Trends 2010

12 12 Interconnection Issues with DP n Power Quality considerations on system level  Background system distortion; All indices; Network Resonances  Require integrated mitigation solutions n Protective Relaying Considerations  Feedback Power  Islanding n Voltage and Angular Stability  Distribution Networks behave like Transmission Networks  Require innovative solutions – FACTS; Storage; Hybrid Networks n Interconnection Standards and Guidelines  Crucial to do updates:  IEEE 1547, IEC 61400-21, EN 50160

13 13 Case A: Interconnection of Large-scale PV

14 14 Interconnection Issues with DP inverters n 200-500 Homes with PV panels  1-3 kW PV inverters, connected at 220 Volts feeder  1GWh is generated annually n By Measurements at the site… n Voltage regulation and Flicker:  Exceeding voltage limits and inverters trip  Voltage fluctuations due to power fluctuations n Harmonics:  Inverters individually satisfy IEC 61000-3-2 specification  EN 50160 can temporarily be exceeded.  Inverters trip unexpectedly

15 15 Interconnection Issues with DP inverters n Attention Points on Standards  Effect of background supply distortion  Increased distortion due to a resonance phenomenon  Islanding may be a good alternative

16 16 Case B: Interconnection of Wind Energy

17 17 Network Interconnection of 6 GW Wind n Feasibility of 6 GW Wind Power in 2020 n Total cost 10.000 M€ n Stability Issues and Reactive Power Compensation n Required 350 M€ - 650 M€ network upgrades n Conventional solution requires 100 M€ expenditure

18 18 Energy Storage for 6 GW Wind Farm n Possible savings of 250 M€ - 550 M€ network upgrades if storage is included n Requires 2,5 GW and 62 GWh storage for 6 GW wind farm

19 19 Storage Options for 6 GW Wind Farm n Based on Flow-battery technology  6,000 M€, 30 years NPV, 1x1 km size n Not feasible by factor 10 as a single solution VSC Interface

20 20 Integrated Storage Approach n Primary Application:  Wind Power Stabilization. n Secondary Applications:  Interface of Constant Speed Offshore Wind Turbines  Power Balance and Reserve Power Management  Power Quality and Reactive Power management  Spinning Reserve Management  Black-start Availability  Stop-start Reduction of generating units  Network security - UPS operation

21 21 Conclusions n Hydrogen economy  Will be gradual process with DP playing a key role  An excellent opportunity for power electronics – Mobile & Stationary applications n Distributed Power  Preferred option to integrate renewables at high network reliability, stability and security levels  Power electronics are key for better DP interconnections

22 22 Conclusions--Cont n Interconnection Issues  Large-scale wind energy interface provide major network interconnection challenges – Hydrogen hybrids  Design and control of DP converters for system integration needs attention n Futuristic View…  Cost effective H 2 and electricity storage together with Power Electronics.

23 23 Hybrid Wind Network Options

24 24 Distributed Power: Mobile HYPERCAR NECAR

25 25 Energy Storage for Renewable and Distributed Power CHP

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