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Addressing Hydrogen Embrittlement in the SAE J2579 Fuel Cell Vehicle Tank Standard Brian Somerday Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, CA, USA Christine.

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Presentation on theme: "Addressing Hydrogen Embrittlement in the SAE J2579 Fuel Cell Vehicle Tank Standard Brian Somerday Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, CA, USA Christine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Addressing Hydrogen Embrittlement in the SAE J2579 Fuel Cell Vehicle Tank Standard Brian Somerday Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, CA, USA Christine Sloane SloaneSolutions, LLC Kewadin, MI, USA International Conference on Hydrogen Safety ICHS 2011 San Francisco, CA, USA September 14, 2011 Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000

2 SAE J2579 focuses on safety qualification of vessel in Compressed Hydrogen Storage System of FCVs Compressed Hydrogen Storage System (CHSS) boundary defined by interfaces that isolate stored high pressure H 2 All containment vessel designs include metal components (e.g., composite vessels have boss and liner)

3 Barthélémy, 1st ESSHS, 2006 a Number of pressure cycles, N crack in H 2 crack in N 2 Safety qualification of vessel must consider hydrogen embrittlement of metal components Hydrogen embrittlement accelerates fatigue cracking N f = N initiation + N growth H2H2 H2H2 H2H2 H2H2 pp a H2H2 H2H2 H2H2

4 Vessel safety qualification typically conducted by either engineering analysis or performance testing Design qualification in SAE standards based on performance testing pp RiRi RoRo a t stress analysis:  K =  p[f(a, t,R o, R i )] crack growth law: da/dN = C(  K) m engineering analysis pressure pp Number of pressure cycles, N performance testing NfNf

5 Vessel safety qualification in SAE J2579 is based on performance testing These performance tests do not evaluate “durability” under H 2 gas pressure cycling, i.e., hydrogen embrittlement Pneumatic test (H 2 )Hydraulic test Durability Performance Verification Test

6 Logic flow for addressing hydrogen embrittlement through performance testing in SAE J2579 Recent activity focused on Appendix C.14 and Appendix C.15 Metals in vessel are 6061 Al or high-nickel 316 stainless steel? (SAE J2579 Appendix B.2.3) Metals in vessel meet acceptance criteria from materials testing in H 2 ? (SAE J2579 Appendix C.15) Vessel qualified using existing expected- service (pneumatic) and durability (hydraulic) performance tests (SAE J2579 Section 5.2.2) YES NO Vessel qualified using existing performance tests (SAE J2579 Section 5.2.2) AND new (more extreme) H 2 gas cycling test (SAE J2579 Appendix C.14) NO YES

7 Logic flow for addressing hydrogen embrittlement through performance testing in SAE J2579 Tests in Appendix C.15 determine whether material has unrestricted (i.e., not design specific) hydrogen compatibility Metals in vessel are 6061 Al or high-nickel 316 stainless steel? (SAE J2579 Appendix B.2.3) Metals in vessel meet acceptance criteria from materials testing in H 2 ? (SAE J2579 Appendix C.15) Vessel qualified using existing expected- service (pneumatic) and durability (hydraulic) performance tests (SAE J2579 Section 5.2.2) YES NO Vessel qualified using existing performance tests (SAE J2579 Section 5.2.2) AND new (more extreme) H 2 gas cycling test (SAE J2579 Appendix C.14) NO YES

8 Appendix C.15 materials test: slow strain rate tensile test H H H H H H H2H2 H2H2 H2H2 H2H2 H2H2 H2H2 OR Issues addressed: –Acceptance criterion established as RA H2 /RA air > 0.7 –Test conducted in H 2 gas or with “precharged” H –Test temperature(s) RA

9 Appendix C.15 materials test: fatigue crack initiation test stress (S) cycles to failure (N f ~ N initiation ) Issues addressed: –R ratio, i.e., ratio of S min to S max –Stress-cycle frequency (f) –Test temperature(s) –Acceptance criterion, e.g., N f(H2) /N f(air) ~ 1 air H2H2

10 Appendix C.15 materials test: “long crack” growth test da/dN KK air H2H2 Issues addressed: –Load-cycle frequency –Test temperature(s) –Acceptance criterion?

11 Load-cycle frequency must be specified for fatigue tests conducted in H 2 gas Magnitude of accelerated fatigue cracking in H 2 gas depends on load-cycle frequency A.H. Priest, British Steel, 1983

12 Logic flow for addressing hydrogen embrittlement through performance testing in SAE J2579 Performance test in Appendix C.14 evaluates design-specific hydrogen compatibility Metals in vessel are 6061 Al or high-nickel 316 stainless steel? (SAE J2579 Appendix B.2.3) Metals in vessel meet acceptance criteria from materials testing in H 2 ? (SAE J2579 Appendix C.15) Vessel qualified using existing expected- service (pneumatic) and durability (hydraulic) performance tests (SAE J2579 Section 5.2.2) YES NO Vessel qualified using existing performance tests (SAE J2579 Section 5.2.2) AND new (more extreme) H 2 gas cycling test (SAE J2579 Appendix C.14) NO YES

13 Performance test in Appendix C.14 intended to account for H 2 -accelerated fatigue cracking Issues addressed: –Pressure-cycle profile –Test temperature –Number of cycles H 2 pressure Number of pressure cycles, N 125% NWP rise time > 5 minhold time > 2 min pp H2H2 H2H2 H2H2 H2H2 H2H2 H2H2 H2H2 filler material a 2 MPa

14 SAE working group on hydrogen embrittlement represents international effort SAE J2579 Appendix B.2.3 SAE J2579 Appendix C.15 SAE J2579 Appendix C.14 Japan JARI AIST/HYDROGENIUS Europe Adam Opel BMW Robert Bosch Linde USA GM Sandia National Laboratories

15 Summary Vehicle tank standard SAE J2579 describes safety qualification for Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Safety qualification based on performance testing –Hydraulic long-term durability test does not account for hydrogen embrittlement New tests developed for SAE J2579 to evaluate hydrogen compatibility of vessel designs –Material-level testing determines whether material has unrestricted (i.e., not design specific) hydrogen compatibility –Component-level testing evaluates design-specific hydrogen compatibility


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