Presentation on theme: "Implementing Inter-VLAN Routing"— Presentation transcript:
1 Implementing Inter-VLAN Routing Describing Routing Between VLANsImplementing Inter-VLAN Routing
2 Inter-VLAN Routing Using an External Router Provide a single trunk link from switch to router.Router physical interface is divided into logical subinterfaces.Each router subinterface acts as gateway for one VLAN.
3 Router on a Stick Traffic from PC1 enters switch on VLAN 10. Crosses trunk to router, arriving on subinterface FA0/0.10 (VLAN 10).Router determines that route to PC2 is through subinterface FA0/0.20.Crosses trunk to switch, arriving on VLAN 20.Switched to PC2.
5 External Router: Advantages and Disadvantages Works with any switch, since Layer 3 services are not required on the switch.Implementation is simple.The router provides communication between VLANs.Disadvantages:The router is a single point of failure.Single traffic path may become congested.Latency may be introduced as frames leave and reenter the switch chassis multiple times, and the router makes software-based routing decisions.
6 Routed vs. Switched Campus Architecture When switching was fast and routing was slow, campus networks were switched.Today routing is almost as fast as switching; routing solves Layer 2 loops issues and helps isolated VLANs.Switches require IP addresses.
7 Switch Virtual Interfaces Routers use interfaces or subinterfaces to interconnect multiple VLANs.Multilayer switches use SVIs for routing between VLANs.
8 Configuration of Inter-VLAN Routing on a Multilayer Switch Basic tasks:Identify which VLANs require a Layer 3 gateway.Create a VLAN on multilayer switch if it does not already exist.Create an SVI interface for each VLAN.Configure the SVI interface with an IP address.Enable the SVI interface.Enable IP routing on the multilayer switch.Determine whether a dynamic routing protocol is needed.Configure a dynamic routing protocol if needed.Identify any switch ports that require autostate exclude.Configure autostate exclude on identified switch ports.
9 SVI Configuration Enable IP routing. Configure an SVI for each VLAN. Configure an IP address.Enable the SVI.Configure the routing protocol.switch(config)# ip routingswitch(config)# interface vlan10switch(config-if)# ip addressswitch(config-if)# no shutdownswitch(config)# interface vlan20switch(config-if)# ip address
10 SVI autostate exclude Command The line state of an SVI is in the up state when:The VLAN exists and is active in the VLAN database on the switchThe VLAN interface exists and is not administratively downAt least one Layer 2 (access or trunk) port exists, has a link in the up state on this VLAN, and is in the spanning-tree forwarding state on the VLANSVI autostate exclude can be used to remove a port from line-state up-and-down calculation.switch(config)# interface fastethernet 0/24switch(config-if)# switchport auto-state exclude
11 Routed Ports on a Multilayer Switch Physical switch port with Layer 3 capabilityNot associated with any VLANRequires removal of Layer 2 port functionalityConfigured like a router interface but does not support VLAN subinterfacesUsed when a switch has one port per VLAN or subnet onlyUseful for point-to-point Layer 3 switch links
12 Configuration of a Routed Interface Enable IP routing.Disable Layer 2 processing on interface.Configure IP address.
13 Layer 2 EtherChannel vs. Layer 3 EtherChannel Layer 2 EtherChannel bundles access or trunk ports between switches or other devices (e.g., servers).Layer 3 EtherChannel bundles routed ports between switches.
14 Configuration of Layer 3 EtherChannel The no switchport command is applied both on the physical ports and on the EtherChannel interface.
15 Verification of SVIs and Routed Interfaces switch# show ip interface fastethernet0/24FastEthernet0/24 is up, line protocol is upInternet address is /24Broadcast address isAddress determined by setup commandMTU is 1500 bytesHelper address is not setDirected broadcast forwarding is disabledMulticast reserved groups joined:Outgoing access list is not setInbound access list is not setProxy ARP is enabledLocal Proxy ARP is disabledSecurity level is defaultSplit horizon is enabledICMP redirects are always sentICMP unreachables are always sentICMP mask replies are never sentIP fast switching is enabledIP CEF switching is enabled
16 Routing Protocol Configuration Enable IP routing.Configure routing process.Disable auto-summary.Configure routed networks.Configure active interfaces.Configure summarization.
17 Verification of Routing Protocol switch# show ip routeCodes: C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGPD - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF,IA - OSPF inter areaN1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1,N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1,L2 - IS-IS level-2ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default,U - per-user static routeo - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static routeGateway of last resort is not set/8 is variably subnetted, 13 subnets, 2 masksD /24 [90/28416] via , 08:09:49, Vlan10D /24 [90/28416] via , 08:09:49, Vlan10C /24 is directly connected, Vlan10
18 DHCP ServiceClients in access VLANs need DHCP service. DHCP service can be provided by the distribution switches, acting as gateways, or external DHCP server elsewhere in the network.
20 DHCP ConfigurationConfigure DHCP pool with network, mask, and other parameters.Configure excluded addresses.Pool is selected when DHCP request is received from matching subnet.
21 DHCP with the ip helper Command Used if the DHCP server is not in the same broadcast domain as the client.Configure ip helper command on the incoming interface to forward DHCP requests via unicast to DHCP server.
22 Verification of the DHCP Operation switch# show ip dhcp bindingBindings from all pools not associated with VRF:IP address Client-ID/ Lease expiration TypeHardware address/User namebd5.132a.d2 Jun :09 AM Automatica46a.90 Jun :40 AM Automaticaa Jun :28 AM Automaticswitch# debug ip dhcp server packetDHCPD: DHCPDISCOVER received from client bd5.132a.d2 on interface Vlan6.DHCPD: Sending DHCPOFFER to client bd5.132a.d2 ( ).DHCPD: broadcasting BOOTREPLY to client 001b.d513.2ad2.DHCPD: DHCPREQUEST received from client bd5.132a.d2.DHCPD: Sending DHCPACK to client bd5.132a.d2 ( ).
23 SummaryInter-VLAN communication requires a Layer 3 device; an external router can perform this function.SVI is a virtual interface providing Layer 3 processing for a particular VLAN, similar to what a router interface does.To be active, the SVI number must match an existing VLAN on the local switch.A routed interface has Layer 3 functionality.SVIs and routed interfaces are verified using the same commands.On multilayer switches, you can aggregate Layer 3 links using Layer 3 EtherChannels.Once you have configured a Layer 3 interface, you can enable routing.DHCP functions can be configured with Cisco IOS Software.